|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania|
|Height :||44 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||130.52 km 2|
|Residents:||95,653 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||733 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||19053, 19055, 19057, 19059, 19061, 19062, 19063|
|Area code :||0385|
|License plate :||SN|
|Community key :||13 0 04 000|
|LOCODE :||DE SWR|
|City structure:||17 districts|
City administration address :
|Am Packhof 2-6
|Lord Mayor :||Rico Badenschier ( SPD )|
|Location of Schwerin in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania|
Schwerin ([ ʃvɛˈʁiːn ] or [ ʃvəˈʁiːn ], Mecklenburg Swerin ) is the state capital of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . The independent medium- sized town is the smallest of all regional capitals in Germany. Schwerin is the second largest city after Rostock and one of the four regional centers in the state.
Schwerin was first mentioned as Wendenburg in 1018 and received German city rights from Heinrich the Lion in 1164 . This makes it the oldest city in what is now Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In the course of time, the city expanded on the west and south banks of the Schwerin Inner Lake , with a total of twelve lakes within the city area. The starting point of the urban development was the place with today's landmark of the city, the Schwerin Castle ; it is located on an island between Schweriner See and Burgsee with the castle church from 1560. Until 1918 the castle was a main residence of the Mecklenburg dukes and grand dukes and the power center of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin , which in 1919 became a democratic free state . The castle has been the seat of the state parliament since 1990 . With its surrounding gardens, it was the main venue for the Federal Horticultural Show 2009 and, as a historically unique ensemble with the other residential buildings, is a candidate for UNESCO World Heritage . In addition, Schwerin is characterized by its old town - unusually well preserved for a German city of this size - the adjacent shelf city , the spa district of Zippendorf and other historic districts with many architectural monuments .
Economically, technology companies , authorities, Deutsche Bahn , mechanical engineering and material processing, consumer production, healthcare and clinics , service companies , and increasingly tourism and the cultural and creative industries dominate . In addition, Schwerin is a university location with around 600 students, including the private medium- sized technical college , the college of the Federal Employment Agency and the Vitruvius Design College. In terms of sport, Schwerin has been known as a boxing town since Fritz Sdunek and as a volleyball town thanks to the twelve-time German champion Schweriner SC .
Schwerin is located in the west of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania on the southwestern shore of Lake Schwerin in a wooded lake landscape. Other lakes in the urban area are the Burgsee , the Faule See , the Grimkesee , the Heidensee , the Große Karausche , the Lankower See , the Medeweger See , the Neumühler See , the Ostorfer See , the Pfaffenteich and the Ziegelsee . Running waters are the Aubach , whose water feeds Lake Schwerin through the connection of several lakes, and the Stör , the natural runoff of the fourth largest German lake, which has been converted into a waterway.
The residents like to refer to Schwerin as the “city of seven lakes and forests”. This name goes back to a time when Schwerin did not yet have its current geographical extent and was actually surrounded by only seven lakes. The extensive forests gradually had to give way to urban development; numerous remains of the forest have been preserved, especially on the banks of the lakes. Of the 130.46 km² city area, 28.9 percent are covered with water and 18.5 percent with forest. The height of the city above sea level is 38 meters on the shores of Lake Schwerin and 86.1 meters on the vineyard in the Neumühle district.
The next larger cities are Lübeck approx. 54 kilometers northwest, the Regiopole Rostock approx 69 kilometers northeast and Hamburg approx 94 kilometers west. In terms of spatial planning , the Schwerin regional center belongs to the West Mecklenburg region (with Wismar as an important center on the Baltic coast); it became part of the Hamburg metropolitan region in 2016 .
- in the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim : Leezen , Raben Steinfeld and Plate ( Amt Crivitz ), Lübesse ( Amt Ludwigslust-Land ), Holthusen , Pampow , Klein Rogahn and Wittenförden (all Amt Stralendorf )
- in the district of Northwest Mecklenburg : Brüsewitz , Pingelshagen , Klein Trebbow , Seehof and Lübstorf ( Amt Lützow-Lübstorf )
According to Section 11 (2) of the main statute, the city of Schwerin is currently divided into 17 districts, each with a local advisory council . The districts consist of one or more districts. The local advisory councils have between 5 and 15 members, depending on the number of inhabitants. They are determined by the city council after each local election for the duration of the city council's electoral period. The local councils are to be heard on important matters relating to the district and have the right of initiative. The final decisions, however, are made by the city council.
The 17 current districts with their associated districts:
- District 1: Schelfstadt , Werdervorstadt , Schelfwerder
- District 2: Old Town , Feldstadt , Paulsstadt , Lewenberg
- District 3: Großer Dreesch (formerly Dreesch I)
- District 4: Neu Zippendorf (formerly Dreesch II)
- District 5: Mueßer Holz (formerly Dreesch III)
- District 6: Gartenstadt , Ostorf (formerly Haselholz, Ostorf)
- District 7: Lankow
- District 8: Weststadt
- District 9: Krebsförden
- District 10: Wüstmark , Göhrener Tannen
- District 11: Görries
- District 12: Friedrichsthal
- District 13: Neumühle , Sacktannen
- District 14: Warnitz
- District 15: Wickendorf , Medewege
- District 16: Zippendorf
- District 17: Mueß
Schwerin lies to the north of the edge of the Vistula Ice Age . The relief was shaped by different phases and seasons of the Brandenburg stage of the Vistula glaciation. There are hilly ground and terminal moraines in the western part and a sand area in the south and east of the city. The heights of the terminal moraine in the west reach at Neumühle .
The Schweriner See lies in a pre-Pleistocene depression that extends from Wismar to Lewitz . The body of water was shaped as a tongue basin during the Frankfurt phase of the Vistula Ice Age. The glacier gate with meltwater runoff in the direction of the Elbe glacial valley existed in the Mueß area . Later glacial phases left moraine material in the lake, such as at the level of the Paulsdamm , which separates the inner and outer lake, as well as to the lakes that are adjacent today, such as the Ziegelsee .
Schwerin has a moderate climate . The annual mean temperature from 1961 to 1990 was 8.4 ° C. The difference between the mean temperature of the warmest and coldest month was 17.2 degrees. On average, 621 millimeters of precipitation fell per year and square meter. Compared to north-west Germany, spring is cooler due to harsh north-east winds. The summer heat is softened by the proximity to the Baltic Sea, this body of water has a warming effect in autumn.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Schwerin
The city was first mentioned as Zuarina by Thietmar von Merseburg around 1012/18 . Helmold von Bosau called it in 1160 Zuerin, Zwerin . The Pöhlder annals name the place 1160 Zuarin (-ensis) and the Steterburger 1174 Zvarin . Since the 15th century the place was called Swerin (still common in the Mecklenburg dialect today ), and since the 16th century Suerin or officially Schwerin .
Indirect first mention could have been earlier: In a travel report of the chronicler Ibn Jacub / Ibrahim Ibn Yaqub, envoy of the Caliph of Cordoba (Spain), a Slavic castle was mentioned around 973, which could be identical with Schwerin.
The name is said to be related to the Polish zvěŕ for wild animal or zvěŕin for game enclosure, zoo or horse stud . Speculations about the origin of the place name from the Slavic god Svarog (Swarzyn, place of Svarog) cannot be proven.
Deviating from this, it was derived from the old Germanic swaran (defend, stem related to swear ), which could only have been reinterpreted later by immigrating Slavs in the sense of zvěŕ .
The Latin name Suerina or Suerinum was and is used for Schwerin.
The main statute of the city of Schwerin determines the designation "state capital" as an addition to the name of the city.
Settlement, City Foundation and County
The present urban area was settled early on. During excavations on the Marienplatz in Schwerin , tools were found dating back to around 1000 to 600 BC. Were dated. A subsequent Germanic settlement is documented by the discovery of a well from the 1st century AD.
After 700 AD, Slavs settled in what is now Schwerin. The Jewish-born Spanish-Moorish traveling salesman Ibrāhīm ibn Yaʿqūb reported in 965 about a castle in a freshwater lake, which historians suspect on the site of today's Schwerin. Excavation finds on the castle island at least confirm the existence of a Slavic rampart during this period. It could be dendrochronologically dated to 941/942. In 1018 the Christian Abodrite prince Mistislaw saved himself from an attack by the Lutizen in Schwerin Castle, which he then had to give up.
In 1160 the Abodrite prince Niklot burned down the castle on the castle island in order not to let it fall into the hands of an advancing Saxon army under the leadership of Henry the Lion . After the victory over Niklot, the Duke of Saxony had the castle rebuilt as a Saxon outpost in the Abodritenland. 1160 is therefore traditionally seen as the “German” year Schwerin was founded, although the city charter was probably only granted in 1164. After Niklot's death, Heinrich the Lion made Gunzelin I the governor of the land of the Abodrites, and thus also of Schwerin. Heinrich later divided the land, gave part back to Pribislaw , Niklots' son, and founded the other part into the county of Schwerin with Gunzelin as the first count of Schwerin. In 1167 Schwerin became the seat of the County of Schwerin . In 1167 the Cistercian monk Berno moved his bishopric to Schwerin . After the consecration of the first cathedral donated by Heinrich around 1171, Schwerin developed into the starting point for the Christianization of the later Mecklenburg. The city had about 500 inhabitants at the time, one fifth of whom were clergy.
A city council, consisting of six councilors and the mayor, was first mentioned in 1228. The power disputes between the count and the bishop were a hindrance to the development of the city. Until 1284, the bishop's successors were able to take possession of the entire shelf (today: Shelfstadt), but this was not included in the city fortifications, so that the cathedral chapter could not increase its property. In 1270 the construction of a second cathedral began. The money for this came from the income of pilgrims who visited a sacred drop of blood enclosed in jasper , which Count Heinrich von Schwerin had brought back from a pilgrimage in 1222 and donated to the canons. One third of the revenue from this relic of the widow of the Count, Countess Audacia, the new building was an instigation Franciscans - convention funded, which was mentioned in documents already in 1236; it is the oldest settlement of a begging order in Mecklenburg (repealed in 1552). The replacement of the wooden city fortifications with a massive city wall was completed in 1340. The town hall was first mentioned in 1351, burned down three times and rebuilt again and again in the same place. The medieval archway of the town hall passage has been preserved. The city wall passed its first practical test when Duke Albrecht II , a descendant of Niklot, besieged the city for months in 1358.
Mills in Schwerin
The first bishop's mill was mentioned in 1178. They were among the oldest mills in Mecklenburg. But after that there were various other mills on the Aubach that also bore this name.
In 1284, the Spieltordamm was built, which dammed the Aubach in the Mühlenteich, today's Pfaffenteich , and is a prerequisite for the operation of a water-powered Count's inland mill in Schwerin .
Numerous mills have been mentioned in documents for Schwerin since the 12th century. The mill in Mühlenstraße from 1711 was relocated to the Schwerin outskirts of Wismarer Chaussee in 1749 due to the unfavorable wind conditions and demolished in 1893. With the adoption of the trade regulations of the North German Confederation of 1868/69, the number of mills in the city rose by leaps and bounds in the second half of the 19th century, because the old compulsory meal rights no longer existed and the introduction of the freedom of trade favored this process. Between 1890 and 1895 there was a water mill, five wind and three steam mills in Schwerin. Then the decline began; some mills had to be demolished due to disrepair, others burned down. Towards the end of the First World War , only the Bischofsmühle still existed as a water mill.
In the Duchy of Mecklenburg until the 18th century
After the Gunzelin family died out, the county of Schwerin passed to the Duchy of Mecklenburg in 1358 . Albrecht II bought the city for 20,000 silver marks (which he did not pay in full) and made it his residence and thus the cultural and political center of Mecklenburg. Schwerin also became a state town in Mecklenburg and was represented on state parliaments until 1918 as part of the towns of the Mecklenburg district .
From an economic point of view, the cities of Rostock and Wismar , which are more conveniently located in terms of transport, developed better. Under Duke Heinrich IV , border disputes, robbery and murder were the order of the day, and the coffers were empty. The plague was also rampant .
It was not until Magnus II. From 1478 that the tide was turned by reorganizing the administration, particularly the financial administration. He had plans to connect the Elbe, Elde, Schweriner See and Wismar by canals. Under him the oldest surviving building in the city was erected, the Great New House . A princely school was opened in 1553 opposite the castle, to which the Fridericianum Schwerin is attributed. In 1561, a government library was established under Tilemann Stella . The fires of 1531 and 1558 destroyed large parts of the city. Due to an order from the building authorities, stone houses had to be built to reduce the risk of fire. But another fire in 1651 again reduced large parts of Schwerin to rubble and ashes. The reconstruction of the town hall was completed in 1654. In the Thirty Years' War the city suffered relatively fewer losses than the duchy.
Between 1560 and 1700 , around 4,000 people were charged with witchcraft in Protestant Mecklenburg , a core zone of witch hunts, of which around half were executed. In Schwerin, too, witch trials took place again and again during this time , with the intensity of the persecution increased significantly after the Thirty Years' War . The interrogations took place in the town hall on the market, in the castle and in the executioner's house on Burgstrasse. Between 1564 and 1770 there are reports of 103 witch trials, 45 of which were probably executed. One woman died under torture. It is possible that seven expulsions from the country were issued, and two defendants managed to escape.
Between 1665 and 1669 alone, 19 alleged witches were arrested in the city. Almost all of them were executed and cremated after brief but extremely brutal interrogations and forced confessions. Since the tormented women gave the court the names of other witches , chain trials developed. In 1604, several women from Schwerin were accused of being witches and accused of having caused the death of the young Duke Johann VII through witchcraft in 1592 , including Catharina Wankelmod (Katharina Wankelmut), who was later burned at the stake, and Margarethe Schultze, who after a The five-year trial was acquitted in 1609. Children were also among the victims in Schwerin. In 1642, eight-year-old Hans Donken (Hans Douke) was flogged for sorcery . Asmut Veith was even beheaded at the age of fourteen.
A relief plaque by the sculptor Anni Jung on the ceramic column set up on the Great Moor has been a reminder of this dark side of the city's history since 1986 . On April 18, 2016, the city council decided to rehabilitate the victims of the witch hunt in Schwerin and to install a memorial plaque near the town hall.
According to a ducal order of 1705, today's Schelfstadt was expanded. In 1717 the few Jews who were allowed to reside again after 1679 set up a cemetery there. In 1740 the town hall of Schwerin Neustadt was initially built as a residential building and in 1776 it was converted into the administrative center. The attempt to settle commercial and commercial enterprises and to revive the city failed because of the backward economy due to the predominance of the nobility and knighthood.
In 1752 200 lanterns were already lighting the streets of Schwerin. The development of the suburb continued. Duke Friedrich moved the residence from Schwerin to Ludwigslust from 1756 to 1765 , which remained there until 1837. In 1759 Prussian troops occupied the country and also besieged Schwerin. In 1764 there were 3,288 inhabitants in the old and suburbs of Schwerin. The synagogue was inaugurated in 1773, and houses for the regional rabbi and cantor were built in the vicinity.
Between 1783 and 1785, the new building was built as a market hall on the market according to plans by Johann Joachim Busch . It replaced open market stalls with poor hygienic conditions in the open space between four old, irregular properties. During his visits to Schwerin, Duke Friedrich found the stench of the market and the screeching of the market women repugnant.
19th century to the Weimar Republic
The cityscape was changed in the 19th century by extensive construction work. Schwerin lost its medieval character and expanded further. City fortifications that were no longer needed disappeared, stone and half-timbered buildings gradually replaced wooden huts. Building on the Great Moor turned out to be a difficult undertaking in the swampy subsoil. At Marienplatz and in Rostocker Straße (today: Goethestraße ) new buildings were built, from 1824 to 1834 Friedrich Franz I built a new seat of government in Schloßstraße (Schwerin) and other buildings. By 1836 the town hall was transformed into a representative building by the court building officer Georg Adolf Demmler , the theater at the Alter Garten and the Marstall on the Marstall peninsula were built. In the north of Schwerin, North Germany's first scientifically managed insane remedial and nursing home was built on Sachsenberg .
After the ducal residence was relocated from Ludwigslust to Schwerin under Grand Duke Paul Friedrich in 1837 , it was decided to completely rebuild the Schwerin Palace due to the poor structural condition . Demmler's designs, in which he was based on French Renaissance castles, met with approval from the sovereign, who died in 1842, whereupon the new Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II stopped the new building. The old palace was completely renovated from 1845 to 1857 and partially rebuilt, from 1851 under the direction of the Berlin architect Friedrich August Stüler and with the participation of Hermann Willebrand after Demmler came into conflict with the court officials.
The arsenal at Pfaffenteich was built between 1840 and 1844 according to a design by Demmler under the supervision of Hermann Willebrand and Gottlieb Ruge on the southwest bank of the Schwerin Pfaffenteich . It was initially used as an armory and after the First World War as a police barracks. In 1842 the Paulsdamm was built through Lake Schwerin. The Jewish community grew to 300 members who renovated the synagogue from scratch in 1825 and expanded it several times.
In 1847 the city was connected by a rail link to Hagenow on the Berlin – Hamburg line that ran far south of the city . In 1852 the first steamship sailed from Zippendorf to the island of Rabbitwerder .
In April 1882, the theater originally built by Demmler burned down during a performance. The new house was designed by court architect Georg Daniel and completed between 1883 and 1886. On the day of the opening on October 3, 1886, the new building was one of the most advanced theater buildings in the world at the time. Between 1889 and 1890, the station building was built in the Wilhelminian style in place of several previous buildings, which has remained largely unchanged except for renovations in the 1920s . In 1904 the power station was built on the north bank of the Pfaffenteich. An electric tram operated from 1908.
The first German sightseeing flight in 1911, during which the royal seat was a stage, gave the impetus for the construction of the Schwerin-Görries airfield . In November 1912 the "Mecklenburgische Flugplatz-Gesellschaft Görries-Schwerin mbH" was founded. By Easter 1913, the airfield company had the selected tournament field in Görries leveled and fenced and the Berlin architect Richard Thiede built a grandstand, a restaurant and an aircraft hangar. The aircraft manufacturer Anton Herman Gerard Fokker relocated his company Fokker Aeroplanbau from Berlin-Johannisthal to Schwerin in 1913 and built his factory halls a. a. in Bornhövedstrasse. The Fokker Dr.I was also built there. As a result of the Versailles Treaty , aircraft production had to be stopped in 1919.
Also in 1913, a fire destroyed the Golden Hall of Schwerin Palace.
As a result of the First World War , there were social and political tensions. Hunger and hardship drove young people and women to break into slaughterhouses and bakeries to get food. In 1918 many workers went on strike. In 1918 Grand Duke Friedrich Franz IV abdicated and the social democracy was able to establish itself more strongly in the capital of the new Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin .
As a result of the provisions of the Versailles Treaty , the aircraft manufacturer Fokker left its headquarters in Schwerin in 1919.
From 1919 to 1933, the State Theater served as the first democratic parliament and state parliament of the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin . In 1920 15 workers were killed near the arsenal in bloody clashes with Kapp putschists .
Period of National Socialism 1933–1945
In 1932 the NSDAP achieved a narrow absolute majority in the state elections in Mecklenburg-Schwerin and from then on provided the state government. In 1933, SPD and KPD officials were persecuted and arrested, and the mayor and the heads of public institutions were dismissed. Friedrich Hildebrandt was appointed Reich Governor of Mecklenburg. In the same year there were book burnings in the city. In 1934 Schwerin became the capital of Gaus Mecklenburg, which had emerged from the merger of the Free States of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz . In 1934 the youth were consecrated in the arsenal , 6000 young people marched on the market and on the first State Youth Day there was a demonstration of 1600 members of the young people . In 1935 a Gauführerschule was built in today's Schloßgartenallee , in the north of the city area a new festival hall was completed in 1934, which could hold several thousand people (used by various companies after 1945 and until today by a mechanical engineering company). In 1935 Schwerin became the seat of the newly created district of Schwerin . A huge grove of honor was built to honor the heroes of the National Socialist Wilhelm Gustloff , who was born in Schwerin and shot in Switzerland in 1936 . The rulers carried out further new construction and renovation measures in the city with the aim of adapting the cityscape to the ideals of a district capital at the time and turning Schwerin into a logistical and transport center. The city was to be defined by monumental buildings , a popular festival site for around 20,000 people was to be built on Lambrechtsgrund, barracks, apartments, infrastructure and the Schwerin-Görries airfield were to be expanded. Plans envisaged a 30-meter-wide aisle in the area of today's Wismarschen Strasse to the city center for marches and parades. However, many of the plans were abandoned at the start of the war due to a lack of funds. However, the number of new apartments built was above the average of previous years. In Lankow and Neumühle, the construction of homes typical of that time began.
The Jewish community in Schwerins (see below) still had 49 members in April 1938. During the Reichspogromnacht from November 9-10, 1938, Jewish shops and the synagogue on the Schlachtermarkt were destroyed by the National Socialists. The Schwerin people's reactions to the National Socialist ideology and dictatorship ranged from enthusiasm to tacit reluctance. As everywhere, there was hardly any open resistance. In July and November 1942, and most recently even in November 1944 Jews from Schwerin deported .
At the beginning of the Second World War , in October 1939, the main camp II E was established , from which prisoners of war from several countries were used in the armaments industry and in agriculture and forestry. The prisoners were housed in several barracks, the largest in Stern Buchholz . The Soviet prisoners in particular suffered from malnutrition and were used for dangerous work on the Görries airfield and on the Wehrmacht campus in Stern Buchholz. You had to z. Some work under inhuman conditions, which resulted in numerous deaths.
During the war Schwerin experienced four bomb attacks; the first British aircraft destroyed houses in and around Severinstrasse on the night of July 20-21, 1940, killing six people. The target of an American bomber association was the airfield in Görries on August 4th and 25th, causing damage to 81 houses in the neighboring village center. The last and heaviest attack by several squadrons of American bombers on April 7, 1945 particularly hit Wilhelminian-style apartment buildings in Feldstadt. 217 people died, according to another source more than 250 people; 40 houses and the slaughterhouse were completely destroyed and 29 partially destroyed. A school and the cemetery were also hit. Among other things, the local transport depot in Wallstrasse and the cars parked there were hit, which led to the temporary suspension of passenger transport. In contrast to other larger cities in northern Germany, Schwerin emerged from the war relatively lightly, also because there was hardly any war-related industry located there. Overall, Schwerin was destroyed to 3%.
A death march of prisoners from the Sachsenhausen concentration camp ended near Schwerin, around 18,000 prisoners survived. American troops occupied the city on May 2, 1945 without a fight and surrendered the occupying power to the British for one month on June 1 . According to the agreements of the allies Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the USA of September 12 and November 14, 1944, respectively, on the division of Germany, the city was then occupied by the Red Army .
Soviet occupation zone and GDR period
After the Second World War , the city became the seat of government of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, which was renamed Mecklenburg in 1947 on Soviet orders . From 1945 to 1949 Schwerin was under the military administration of the Soviet power. The Schwerin Border Treaty was signed here on September 21, 1945 . The population rose from about 64,000 to 88,200 between 1939 and 1946 because of the admission of refugees, which led to a shortage of housing. The situation worsened when the Russian military had the Schlossgartenviertel between Cecilienallee and Faulem See evacuated on July 12, 1945, and additional living space was occupied by state authorities. Makeshift shelters in barracks, basement apartments and living quarters were part of the cityscape. When residents fled to West Germany , the situation eased somewhat after 1948, but the creation of new living space was still one of the most urgent tasks. In 1949, construction of new apartments began with the construction of three apartment blocks on the Schwälkenberg. The municipal housing company was initially the main sponsor of housing construction after 1950.
The office of the Soviet secret police NKVD was located on Demmlerplatz . Numerous, often innocent, people from all over Mecklenburg were arrested there and arbitrarily sentenced to harsh sentences by Soviet military tribunals . In 1954 the Stasi district office took over the complex and continued to use it as a place of detention.
Against the SED -Herrschaft and dictatorship in the in the DDR early showed opposition . Four students from the Goethe High School were expelled from school as members of the Young Community in 1953, against which there was widespread protest. On June 17, 1953 , there were protest meetings of workers in the Bau-Union, the Abus works and the cigarette factory, but strikes were not enforced.
With the administrative reform of 1952, the states were dissolved and replaced by districts . Schwerin, with 96,625 inhabitants at the time, became the capital of the Schwerin district and the seat of the district administration of the Schwerin-Land district . The city itself did not belong to this district, but formed its own urban district. The former Görries military airfield became an industrial site between 1954 and 1970. VEB Brewery Schwerin set up a company holiday camp in the Forsthof .
The Schwerin housing cooperative was founded in 1957. From 1955 to 1974 the Weststadt was expanded as a prefabricated housing estate, and from 1962 to 1972 prefabricated buildings were built in Lankow. The settlement of industry in Schwerin-Süd from 1972 onwards led to a need for workers and thus to an increase in the population. In 1971 construction began on the Großer Dreesch in the south of the city, which later became the most populous district of Schwerin.
The building stock of the old town, however, visibly deteriorated. Since 1978, new residential buildings have been built on the Great Moor in the city center, after old, neglected buildings there had been demolished and piled up on the Burgsee . The design of the inner-city prefabricated buildings was loosened up by retaining the historical street layouts, partially clinker facing the facades and the beveling of the roofs.
At the end of the 1960s, the plan was to demolish all of Schwerin's inner city, with the exception of a few particularly historically significant buildings, and to replace them with prefabricated buildings. However, these plans failed due to lack of money. With the exception of a few reconstructions, concepts and plans for the redesign of the historic districts were not implemented due to high development costs. The goal set in the 1980s to bring every apartment into a warm, dry and structurally safe condition by 1990 was unattainable given that 17,000 of the 44,000 residential units were in urgent need of repair. A citizens' initiative, architects, preservationists and photographers as well as the fact that at the end of the 1980s there was no money for a large-scale demolition saved the architecturally valuable Schelfstadt . It wasn't until the 1980s that some half-timbered buildings were also renovated.
In 1953–1956 the stadium on Lambrechtsgrund and 1956 the pet park in Zippendorf (from 1974 zoological garden ), 1959–1962 the sports and congress hall , until 1964 the television tower with tower café and 1970 the district museum and the open-air museum Schwerin-Mueß were built in publicly accessible facilities .
In 1986 a passenger plane crashed on the way from Minsk shortly before landing in Berlin-Schönefeld. 72 people died, including 20 schoolchildren from a 10th grade at the Ernst Schneller School in Schwerin.
On October 23, 1989 the first Monday demonstration took place in Schwerin, for which 40,000 people gathered at the cathedral and in the old garden. A subsequent march with thousands of candles in the hands of the silent 40,000 demonstrators led through Werderstrasse , across the Schelfmarkt to the Pfaffenteich and ended in front of the Arsenal. A glass memorial plaque on the arsenal still bears witness to the Schwerin’s first major protest march.
Since the reunification
After reunification, Schwerin became the state capital of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania on October 27, 1990. The decision was preceded by a competition with the Hanseatic city of Rostock , in which Schwerin made the race. The criteria were the historical role of Schwerin as the seat of the dukes and the state parliament from 1948 to 1952 and existing buildings that could be used for offices, ministries and the government. In addition, Rostock saw the potential to become a science and economic center even without the status of a state capital. Private individuals also campaigned for Schwerin as the capital; the flower woman Bertha Klingberg collected 17,000 signatures for it.
In 1993 the last Russian occupation troops left the city. During a district reform in 1994, Schwerin remained independent and the Schwerin-Land district was dissolved. Even during the district reform of 2011 , Schwerin retained its status as a district-free city after plans that would have led to the integration of Schwerin in a district of West Mecklenburg failed as a result of a ruling by the state constitutional court .
From 1991 the castle and the historical areas of the old town, Schelfstadt and Feldstadt were thoroughly renovated as part of urban development funding. From the end of the 1990s the Werdervorstadt and since 2004 the Paulsstadt were also designated as redevelopment areas. The improvements to the residential environment in the large prefabricated building areas of Großer Dreesch, Neu Zippendorf and Mueßer Holz began in 1993. In 1994, the Friedrichsthal district saw the development of the first new residential area, which was intended to slow down the movement of residents into the surrounding area. Schwerin received the gold plaque in the nationwide competition for the preservation of historical urban space in the new federal states from 1992–1994 .
In addition to trade, it was above all culture that developed. The Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Film Festival has been organized since 1991 ; In 1993 the new open-air theater was inaugurated.
The € 2 commemorative coin with the Schwerin Castle motif was issued in 2007 on the occasion of the Federal Council Presidency of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In 2009 Schwerin hosted the Federal Horticultural Show , which attracted 1.86 million visitors. The extensive preparatory work, for example in the palace garden and at the castle lake, began in 2006.
Schwerin was a garrison town for various units of the Mecklenburg military : Grand Ducal Mecklenburg Grenadier Regiment No. 89 , Grand Ducal Mecklenburg Field Artillery Regiment No. 60 and Grand Ducal Mecklenburg Jäger Battalion No. 14 (with the restructuring of the army in the North German Confederation in 1867 and the German Empire the troops became part of the Prussian army ), later the Reichswehr , the Wehrmacht , the NVA as well as the Soviet / Russian troops and finally the Bundeswehr . The new and old artillery barracks on Ostorfer Berg, Johannes-Stelling-Straße , today the Schwerin tax office and the Werder barracks (today the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania regional command of the Bundeswehr) date from the time of the monarchy . In the era of National Socialism were in the armament of the Wehrmacht barracks new buildings erected at the Johannes-Stelling-Straße ( Fritsch-Kaserne - the old artillery barracks south) (north of Werder barracks) on the Ziegelsee- / gulls Castle Road, in Görries an airbase of Luftwaffe , as well as three areas in the south of the city on Ludwigsluster Chaussee (today New Garden City - just south of the Großer Dreesch - between Großem Dreesch and Stern Buchholz ). In addition, an area in Stern Buchholz , until 2007 Blücher barracks with the army's 403 tank battalion .
The Werder barracks ( Kurt Bürger barracks , command of the 8th motorized rifle division ), the old artillery barracks and the area in Stern Buchholz were used by the armed forces of the GDR . All remaining areas were occupied by the Soviet / Russian troops ( 94th Guards Mot. Rifle Division ), which withdrew by April 1993 .
Schwerin originally only consisted of the old town. From 1282, some surrounding villages were added (such as Zippendorf, Göhren or Ostorf), which later became independent communities again. From 1705, a decree of the Duke of Mecklenburg resulted in the expansion of the so-called shelves , which developed into a separate town (Neustadt) with the St. Nikolai Church, the Schelfkirche , and the Schelfmarkt . In 1832 it was united with the old town of Schwerin. The city continued to expand in the 19th century. From about 1840 onwards, the Paulsstadt towards the west and the Feldstadt towards the south in the second half of the 19th century . Thereafter, the urban territory began to grow as the population increased, and in addition to incorporations, formerly grand-ducal areas were transferred to the administrative sovereignty of the city.
In detail, the following locations have been incorporated:
|1832||Union of the old town with the shelf city|
|1888||Acquisition of the Neue Mühle (today: Neumühle) from the village of Wittenförden|
|1908||Upper court kitchen garden|
|1912||Ostorf villa colony with Ostorfer Hals, Tannenhof and Kalkwerder|
|March 19, 1920||Combing estate Zippendorf|
|March 26, 1920||Combing property Göhren|
|January 20, 1921||Part of the Ostorf municipality|
|January 1, 1928||Rural communities Ostorf and Lankow|
|October 1, 1928||Village and Feldmark Schelfwerder (previously Wickendorf municipality)|
|October 1, 1936||Municipalities Wickendorf-Seehof-Carlshöhe-Paulsdamm, Groß Medewege,
Klein Medewege, Warnitz (without Pingelshagen), Friedrichsthal,
Krebsförden (with hazel wood), Mueß (with ferry, Ziegelwerder and Rabbitwerder)
|January 1, 1970||Wüstmark community|
|1994||Partial areas of Consrade and partial areas of Seehof|
The city's population exceeded 100,000 in 1972, making Schwerin a major city. In 1988 the population reached its historical high of over 130,000. Since the fall of the Wall in the GDR, the city has lost around 34,000 inhabitants by 2005 due to high unemployment, the decline in the birth rate and emigration to the surrounding area. The prefabricated building areas were particularly affected by the loss of inhabitants. As a result of the strong residential and private home construction in the Schwerin area, the population there grew by around 20,000. In contrast to other comparable cities in Eastern Germany (e.g. Cottbus , Gera , Jena and Zwickau ), Schwerin's population loss could not be alleviated by incorporation. In 2012 the population had fallen to almost 92,000. It has risen slightly since 2013, passed the 96,000 mark in 2015, and then fell slightly again. On December 31, 2016, just under 96,000 people had their main residence in Schwerin, according to an update by the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Statistical Office .
In order to counteract the urban exodus, the municipality has been promoting new building areas within the city limits for years. The Federal Office for Education and Research is already recognizing the first successes and a trend reversal. There are moves to more attractive residential areas and new building areas, while the population figures in the prefabricated building areas of Großer Dreesch, Neu Zippendorf and Mueßer Holz are falling at an above-average rate. The population decline could not be stopped, but slowed down. In addition to Wilhelmshaven , Schwerin was selected in 2007 as a model municipality for a federal research project commissioned by the Technical University of Dortmund , in which migration movements between the city and the surrounding area are examined in more detail.
Since the 13th century, the city had been headed by a council with mostly twelve councilors . The mayor (s) presided , at times there were two or three mayors. After the unification of the old and new towns, a new city constitution was issued for the entire city on January 28, 1832, according to which the city was governed by a magistrate's college with the participation of a citizens' committee. The magistrate's college consisted of two mayors and 7 councilors, two of whom only had an advisory vote. There were five legal scholars among the executive members (the two mayors and five councilors). These legal members were elected by the citizens' committee from three candidates proposed by the magistrate, the reverse was true for the non-lawyers. The magistrate elected the mayors. The citizens' committee had 50 members who were elected by public election for a period of five years. From 1919 onwards, one mayor was elected instead of two mayors . The Lord Mayor has been directly elected since 2002.
The representation of the citizens is the city council . The members of the city council are elected by the citizens of the city who are entitled to vote for a period of five years. The city president is the chairman of the city council . This additional representative office was introduced in 1990 in addition to the office of Lord Mayor through the “Law on the Self-Administration of Municipalities and Districts in the GDR” by the then People's Chamber of the GDR. It was initially taken full-time. Since the municipal constitution was changed in 1994, it has only been carried out on a voluntary basis. The mayor leads the meetings, prepares them and represents the city council externally. Together with the Lord Mayor, he represents the city.
In the municipal elections on May 26, 2019, 45 members were elected to the city council of Schwerin . The strongest party is the SPD. The largest parliamentary group , however, is the CDU / FDP parliamentary group with 10 seats.
|Parties and constituencies||percent
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||17.21||8th||19.5||9||22.0||10|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||17.18||8th||24.8||11||22.0||10|
|THE LEFT.||THE LEFT.||15.5||7th||24.6||11||25.7||12|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||15.1||7th||5.9||3||-||-|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||12.1||5||7.8||4th||9.3||4th|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||4.0||2||3.0||1||6.4||3|
|THE PARTY||Party for work, the rule of law, animal welfare, elite support and grassroots initiative||3.0||1||-||-||-||-|
|ASK||Action group - city and culture protection||1.5||1||1.7||1||-||-|
|NPD||National Democratic Party of Germany||-||-||-||-||2.8||1|
|Turnout in percent||58.0||44.8||40.8|
- Individual applicants: 2019: Daniel Finkenstein (0.1%), Peter Kuhlmann (0.1%), Andreas Schulz (0.1%); 2014: Jan Szymik (0.7%), Friedemann Fründt (0.2%), Brigitte Ahlgrim (0.2%), Benno Falk (0.1%), Peter Kuhlmann (0.1%) and Peter Herz ( 0.1%); 2009: Peter Kuhlmann (0.4%), Wilfried Wandschneider (0.2%) and Stephan Giehl (0.2%).
The city consists of 93 electoral districts with 78,449 eligible voters (as of 2019). Each voter has 3 votes.
Following the local elections in 2019, the following parliamentary groups formed in the city council: CDU / FDP (10 members), SPD (8 members), DIE PARTTEI.DIE LINKE (8 members), AfD (7 members), UB (6 members) and Greens (5 members). The city council member of the ASK is non-attached.
More information on the electoral process and legal provisions: District Council (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
In the city council there are the following parliamentary groups: CDU (incl. FDP, 11 members), DIE LINKE. (11 members), SPD (9 members), UB (5 members), GRÜNE (4 members). There are 4 non-attached members: AfD (3 members), ASK (1 member).
In November 2010, the previous group leader resigned from the Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen party, but retained his mandate in the city council. The faction dissolved as a result; Parts of it formed a common faction with the SPD.
In the election for the state parliament of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania on September 4, 2016 , the individual parties in the urban area achieved the following results in the second votes:
|Political party||voter turnout||SPD||AfD||CDU||left||Green||FDP||NPD|
|Result Schwerin I||68.4%||34.6%||14.7%||18.8%||13.7%||7.8%||3.3%||1.7%|
|Result Schwerin II||60.3%||36.1%||18.2%||15.3%||15.3%||3.9%||2.8%||3.3%|
With a turnout of 68.1%, the following shares of second votes in the city area were given to the individual parties in the federal election on September 22, 2013:
In the European elections on May 26, 2019 , the individual parties achieved the following results with a turnout of 59% in the city area:
None of the other parties achieved more than 2.4%.
Mayor and Lord Mayor
Until 1919 there were two mayors, so that the terms of office at that time overlap. After 1919 there was only one head of the city who has held the title of mayor ever since. There has also been a city president since 1990. The last mayoral election took place in September 2016. Rico Badenschier (SPD) took office on November 1, 2016, replacing Angelika Gramkow (Die Linke).
coat of arms
The changed coat of arms was approved by the Ministry of the Interior on February 11, 1991 and registered under number 26 of the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
Blazon : "The golden equestrian portrait of Duke Henry the Lion in blue: a knight with a helmet on a bridled, striding horse, in his right hand holding a three-lipped flag and in his left a triangular shield with a leoparded lion."
The coat of arms was redrawn in 1990 and the design of the equestrian portrait changed.
The coat of arms of Schwerin can already be traced on a seal from 1255. In the current form, which was decided on February 11, 1991, it was already the official coat of arms from April 10, 1858 to September 30, 1939. From 1939 to 1991, an only slightly changed coat of arms in the colors of the Guelphs , the Heinrichs des family Löwen , which also featured a non-leopard lion. The gonfanon of the knight was also shown a lot larger.
The city flag has triple longitudinal stripes. The outer stripes show the color yellow and each take up two sevenths of the height. The middle stripe shows the color blue. It occupies three-seventh of the height and is covered with the yellow heraldic figure, which is slightly shifted towards the leech. The relation of the height of the flag cloth to the length is like 7: 9.
The city seal of Schwerin shows the image of the city's founder, Duke Heinrich the Lion of Saxony in full figure on horseback with the lion's shield on his arm. The official seal contains the figure of the city arms and the inscription LANDESHAUPTSTADT SCHWERIN.
Since April 1, 2005, the city logo has consisted of the white, right-aligned lettering "Landeshauptstadt Schwerin" on the lower edge in capital letters on a blue background. The word “Schwerin” is highlighted in a larger font and in bold. In addition, above the lettering on the right edge there are two offset squares in the colors yellow over blue. Everything is underlined by a kind of watermark in the form of the historical seal.
Within the European Union, Schwerin has had town twinning with Vaasa in Finland since 1965, Reggio nell'Emilia in Italy since 1966, Wuppertal in North Rhine-Westphalia since 1987, Tallinn in Estonia since 1993 (contacts since 1970), Odense in Denmark since 1995, Schneidemühl / Piła in Poland since 1996 and Växjö in Sweden since 1999 (contact since 1996). Outside the EU, it had been twinned with Milwaukee , Wisconsin in the US since 1997 . The latter is out of date because Milwaukee is missing from the city's website.
Culture and sights
→ See also the list of architectural monuments in Schwerin
The Mecklenburg State Theater Schwerin gives performances in the fields of drama, Low German drama, puppet shows, music theater, ballet and concerts. The annual highlight is the open-air palace festival in the Old Garden. The 2001 Verdi opera Nabucco was attended by more than 60,000 viewers over the season. In addition to the main venue, the Great House and the Old Garden, the former E-Werk am Pfaffenteich, ships of the White Fleet, the Dominnenhof, the Schwerin open-air stage and the foyer café are further performance spaces .
Since 2004, in the theater project “Absolute Beginner”, interested parties of all generations from the age of 15 have been given the opportunity to act and gain a deeper insight into everyday life and the working methods of the Mecklenburg State Theater. There is also the theater group of the Goethe-Gymnasium Schwerin "TaGGS" as well as the dance theater Lysistrate from the same gymnasium that successfully represented Germany at the 2007 School Theater World Congress in Hong Kong .
Museums and exhibitions
The State Museum Schwerin includes the museum building in the Old Garden, the castle museums in Güstrow , Ludwigslust and Schwerin, as well as a copperplate and coin cabinet in Werderstrasse . In the main building there are art collections by Flemish and Dutch painters from the 16th to 18th centuries and contemporary art, as well as collections of porcelain and clay vessels and medieval art collections from local churches, such as B. the Neustädter Altar . There are regularly changing exhibitions, events and lectures.
The Technical State Museum is located in the Marstall . Its exhibition shows the history of technology in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania with a focus on the history of transport. The city history museum fell victim to austerity measures by the city and was closed in 2005. The City History and Museum Association Schwerin e. V. has been operating the grinding mill on Faulen See since 1996 , a reconstructed water mill that has been expanded into a museum for natural stone, precious stone and mineral processing. From its opening in 1985 until the end of 1995, the house was part of the City History Museum. The Schwerin-Mueß open-air museum is located in the Mueß district and provides information about the lifestyle of the Mecklenburg rural population from the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Other privately owned museums are Dat oll 'Hus and the Petermännchen Museum , which mainly dealt with the history of the Schwerin castle spirit, the Petermännchen . The weever museum has been permanently closed since 2011.
The International Fire Brigade Museum opened in April 2009 in the hall at the television tower in Neu Zippendorf . It shows the history of fire fighting and fire brigades, the technical and political development as well as the social history of fire fighters.
The Schleswig-Holstein-Haus on Puschkinstrasse is the city's exhibition center. In 2006 a world-wide acclaimed “ Arno Breker ” exhibition and in 2007 the exhibition “Covered over - posters from the GDR” were shown.
The Mecklenburg Foundation, which has been based in Schwerin since 2009 , also shows exhibitions on the history of Mecklenburg and the city of Schwerin. She also uses the exhibition rooms of the Schleswig-Holstein-Haus, which is owned by the city. Since 2016 there has been a permanent exhibition on the history of Schwerin in the Schweriner Höfe on Marienplatz.
In addition to the state library for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania with its headquarters in Schwerin, there is also the city library .
The Schwerin city library used the Perzina house from 1984 to 2013 . Since 2010, the city libraries of Schwerin and Wismar have offered the first intercommunal cooperation of this kind in Germany with the joint offering of a digital library.
- The Capitol on Wismarschen Strasse was expanded into a cinema in the 1990s with five halls and 1,688 seats today. It is also the venue for other cultural events, the highlight of which is the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Film Festival , which is always attended by prominent guests. The Capitol was inaugurated as a movie theater in 1936 and was already designed for theater, concert and variety performances with a stage. In its place there was previously a sound hall, which served as a restaurant, dining room and later as a ballroom and burned down in 1920.
- The multiplex cinema Mega Movies was built on the Bleicherufer in the 1990s and offers six cinema halls with a total of 1072 seats.
- Since 2014 there has been an art house again , the one under the roof with 80 seats and almost 3000 visitors a year, which shows selected films every week, often with accompanying and special events, often in cooperation with other cultural and educational institutions. Das Kino unterm Dach is an active member of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Film Communication Association . The forerunner was the forum cinema , arthouse cinema in the auditorium of the adult education center in the Schelfstadt.
The city's landmark and tourist magnet is the Schwerin Castle , which was built in its current form from 1843 to 1857 under Grand Duke Friedrich Franz II and is located on an island between Lake Schwerin and Lake Burgsee, which crosses the castle bridge and the swing bridge to the castle garden connected to the city. In the past it was the residence of the dukes of Mecklenburg and is now the seat of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania parliament. The old garden is in front of the castle , a representative square that has developed in history from a swampy square to a kitchen garden, a pleasure garden with fountain, a riding arena, a parade ground and a rally site and is now mainly used for cultural events. In the vicinity of the palace are, among other things, the palace garden and many buildings such as the State Museum , the Mecklenburg State Theater , the 32-meter-high Victory Column , which commemorates the fallen in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, the Old Palace , the Marstall and the State Chancellery in the classicism style is worth seeing. The entire cityscape of today was shaped by the work of Georg Adolf Demmler .
The old town hall on the market was first mentioned in 1338 and burned down three times in its history. In front of the original building Demmler put a new facade in Tudor style in 1835 . The city founder Heinrich the Lion is depicted as a golden rider on the central pinnacle . Also in the old town at the corner of Buschstraße / 3. Narrow street, one of the oldest surviving houses in Schwerin from 1698 is located. In the half-timbered building there was a wine shop until 1857, since then a family has been operating an art turning shop here for several generations. A half-timbered building in the cathedral courtyard is of even earlier origin. A bar inscription shows the year of origin 1574. It was used as a hotel until 1916 and then as an administration building. Today it houses the State Office for Monument Preservation Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Since the restoration of the half-timbered house at Puschkinstraße 36, corner of Domhof, there have been signs that the oldest secular building in Schwerin could be located here. Bars were found that point to the year 1573.
Church buildings in the city include the Schwerin Cathedral , Paulskirche , Schelfkirche and the Provost Church of St. Anna , the first Catholic church to be built in Mecklenburg after the Reformation .
The arsenal at Pfaffenteich , which was painted an orange tone after the fall of the Wall, according to a restoration finding, is the oldest building on this body of water and today the seat of the state's interior ministry. The Ministry of Finance's building in Schlossstrasse was originally built in 1911 as a hotel for what was then the Nordischer Hof and in 1920 became state property.
The main post office was built from 1892 to 1897 in the neo-renaissance style based on a design by E. Hake. A plaque commemorates that in this House of the December 24, 1945 Oberpostdirektion the national transmitter Schwerin opened his regional radio program.
In the Neumühle district , a water tower was built on the highest point in Schwerin in 1887 , which has been preserved to this day and was part of the city's first waterworks. In 1907 the artificial castle ruins of Reppiner Burg were built in the district of Mueß on the south bank of the Schweriner See on what was presumably a former Slavic castle wall . Other attractions of the city are the Schwerin TV tower , the Neustadt Palace , the former Neustadt town hall in the Schelfstadt, the Schleswig-Holstein House , the station building , the artillery barracks and the officers' mess south of the palace garden, the listed former granary in the port area at the Ziegelsee (today converted to a hotel) and some markets with fountains and sculptures.
Monuments, fountains and sculptures
Three artistically valuable monuments have been preserved from Schwerin's time as the residence of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin: the bronze statue of Grand Duke Paul Friedrich (1849 von Rauch ) in the Old Garden in front of the museum stairs, the equestrian monument to Friedrich Franz II (1893 by Brunow ) in the palace garden and the marble statue of Grand Duchess Alexandrine (1907 von Berwald ) in the Grünhausgarten. There are also some remarkable monuments and memorial stones in the city, among others. a. for Friedrich Wilhelm Kücken (1885), Heinrich Schliemann (1895), Heinrich von Stephan (1898), Grand Duchess Auguste (1905). The westernmost surviving Lenin statue in Europe (1985 by Jaak Soans ) in the Mueßer Holz district dates from the GDR era .
The numerous Schwerin monuments associated with the regiments stationed in the city and their fallen soldiers were almost without exception destroyed after 1945. Only the Victory Column for the Fallen from 1870/71 in the Old Garden (1874 by Willebrand and Willgohs ) and the mourning soldier on the burial ground from 1914/18 in the Old Cemetery (1936/37 by Wilhelm Wandschneider ) remained artistically valuable . In contrast, there are a number of memorials for the victims of the Second World War.
In the 18th and especially in the middle of the 19th century a large number of sculptures were erected in the vicinity of the castle, some of which have been lost but have been reconstructed in recent years. Other sculptures and fountains were created during the GDR era, mainly in the 1970s. Even after 1990 some new works of art were put on public display.
The Mecklenburg straw pictures produced in the vicinity of Schwerin are simple, folkloric picture compositions in a realistic style.
- The eleven lakes in the urban area with their parks close to the banks as well as the nature experience areas Seenatour , the landing stage of the White Fleet near the castle, which brings passengers to the island of Rabbitwerder in Lake Schwerin, are attractions.
- Schwerin Zoo .
- House of Culture , Arsenalstrasse 8 at the corner of Mecklenburgstrasse 2
- The Paulshöhe in Ostorfer Hals is one of the oldest soccer fields in Northern Germany.
Beach in Schwerin-Zippendorf
Harbor at the Ziegelsee , with a former warehouse and an old crane
The White Fleet dock at the castle
Many regular events take place in Schwerin. Schwerin is one of the venues for the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Festival . The Schwerin Culture and Garden Summer is a series of events that takes place annually from spring to autumn. Gardens, historical buildings and the old town are used as event locations, for example for concerts, markets, shows, cabaret festivals, exhibitions and theater performances.
In May, the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Film Festival , the Fleet Parade of the White Fleet and the Schwerin Night Run take place, in June and July there is the pottery market , the castle festival (open-air opera, organized by the Mecklenburg State Theater), and in July the largest national sports event takes place in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, the Five Lakes Run takes place. It is one of the ten most popular runs in Germany and always takes place on the 1st Saturday in July with runs of 10, 15 and 30 kilometers. The Schwerin Christopher Street Day (CSD) also takes place on the 1st Saturday in July . In August there is the annual writing competition of the city of Schwerin and the Urgent publishing house with publication in the Schwerin literary magazine "Reflexe". In September (1st Saturday) there is another major sporting event - the pink paddle . As the largest paddling event on Lake Schwerin (length approx. 17 km, 60–80 participants), it has been organized by the SV Theater since 1979. The dragon boat festival and the old town festival are still taking place. In September there is a sporting event such as the decathlon for everyone and the wine festival . In October there are the intercultural weeks and in November the Lübeck Martensmann comes to the Martensmarkt in Schwerin. The event year ends with the traditional Christmas market Der Stern im Norden .
Annual Castle Festival Schwerin , Aida (1999)
The festival of the city's foundation coincided with the church consecration festival of the cathedral on 9 September 1171 until 1846. The name of the festival was Die Kirchmeß and was held annually as a fair. The working in Schwerin archives to 1914 historian, William Jesse , put on his findings, the founding date of the city in the year 1160. The Itinerarforschung he wrote in his two-volume book The history of the city of Schwerin down. For ninety years the work was considered the monograph on Schwerin. The founding date of Schwerin was brought forward eleven years to 1160.
- 1911 - 750 anniversary of the capital and residence city of Schwerin
- 1935 - 775 years, the NSDAP held several propaganda celebrations, the city anniversary was not celebrated
- 1960 - 800 anniversary from June 4th to 19th
- 1985 - 825th anniversary from June 22nd to 23rd
- 2010 - 850 anniversary from June 4th to 6th
Orchestras and music groups
To institutions and bodies or public corporations have the Chamber of Crafts Schwerin, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mecklenburg , the Chamber of Commerce to Schwerin, the regional court , the Administrative Court Schwerin , the social court in which the Landessozialgericht Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , based in Neustrelitz is subordinate, and the Schwerin Labor Court , which is subordinate to the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Regional Labor Court with its seat in Rostock, has its seat in Schwerin. In addition, there are branch offices of the Federal Office for Goods Transport , the Federal Railway Authority , a branch of the Federal Agency for Real Estate , several state ministries and local authorities.
Schwerin offers a wide range of general education schools: four grammar schools (each with an evening, sports, music and language grammar school), a comprehensive school, three regional schools, elementary schools, various special schools with different funding goals, vocational schools for the various professions and the adult education center Ehm withered . The old-language grammar school Fridericianum Schwerin , founded in 1553, can look back on centuries of humanistic tradition. It is the only school in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania where the Graecum can be acquired through school lessons. The Goethe grammar school has the status of a music grammar school , the sports grammar school is an elite school of sport . In addition, several independent schools complement the educational offer - including the Niels-Stensen School, which was opened in 1735 and is one of the oldest schools in Schwerin, sponsored by the Bernostiftung .
Schwerin is also a university town in the 21st century . A total of around 600 students were enrolled at the city's universities in 2014. The Baltic College , founded in 2001, was the first state-recognized private university in Schwerin. In February 2013 it was integrated into the Fachhochschule des Mittelstands (FHM), which also has a campus in Rostock . In 2014, the Schwerin location the Bachelor -Studiengänge in the subjects of hotel and tourism management , international business management , health economics , industrial engineering , as well as the Master -Studiengänge advertising management in tourism and international management offered. In addition, the German-Chinese SME Institute (DCMI) at the FHM Schwerin is a training facility for highly qualified, German-speaking junior managers from China who are employed by companies in China and Germany.
Since September 2006, the University of the Federal Employment Agency with its headquarters in Mannheim has had a location in Schwerin-Groß Medewege. The private higher vocational school DesignSchule Schwerin offers training and bachelor's degrees in the areas of game , graphic and fashion design .
There are efforts to locate further private universities in Schwerin. For this purpose u. a. In 2003, the non-profit association for sponsors of universities was founded in Schwerin . Further university locations or even a private university are conceivable in Schwerin, according to the assessment of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture .
In 2002 the Hydrogen Institute of Applied Technologies (HIAT) was founded as a non-profit research organization. A main focus of the institute is on the research and development of fuel cells . The facility is located in the Schwerin Hydrogen Center in the technology and trade center (TGZ) of the state capital.
The Schwerin Planetarium , founded in 1962 as a school observatory, has been subordinate to the adult education center since 1992 and offers popular science lectures as well as guided tours, concerts, youth projects and astronomy lessons.
There are numerous sports facilities and sports clubs in Schwerin, the most important of which are:
- the Schweriner SC , with many successes of the women's team in volleyball in the first Bundesliga (12 championship titles, most recently in 2018) as well as in the Champions League, in the European Cup, Play-off and DVV Cup; as well as the football department of the SSC, which has been represented in the national league since 2009/10; the predecessor club SC Traktor Schwerin laid the foundation for numerous successes in boxing (including with trainer Fritz Sdunek , † 2014),
- of SV Mecklenburg Schwerin played since 2012 in the third handball league , its home ground is the Sport and Congress Hall Schwerin (which existed until 2012 predecessor SV Post Schwerin played within the Handball Bundesliga and 2. Handball-Bundesliga )
- the SV Grün-Weiß Schwerin , whose Handball Women in since 2011 third division play,
- of FC Mecklenburg Schwerin played since 2018 in the Verbandsliga Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , home to the stadium Lambrechtsgrund (association created in 2013 by merging the FC Eintracht Schwerin with the development association FCM Schwerin )
- the BSC Schwerin was in boxes represented several times in the Bundesliga,
- the ESV Schwerin in fistball is represented in the 1st Bundesliga (women) and 2nd Bundesliga (men),
- the SG Dynamo Schwerin , (football, athletics, weight training),
- the Neumühler SV ,
- the FSV 02 Schwerin ,
- the canoe racing community Schwerin e. V. , u. a. at the Faulen-See canoeing
- the TriSport Schwerin e. V. a triathlon club; represented a women's team in the 2nd Bundesliga since 1995; some athletes started at the Ironman Hawaii
- the Tanzsportcentrum (TSC) Schwerin in the Mueßer Holz sports hall with the wheelchair dance department ,
- the dance sport club (TSV) Blau Gelb Schwerin e. V.
Albert Richter arena
After the Second World War , the Red Army built a horse racing track on the east bank of the Burgsee . The track was later renamed Albert-Richter- Kampfbahn, after the Cologne cyclist who was allegedly murdered by the Gestapo in 1940 . On July 15, 1950, the cinder track now located there was opened with excessive courses, and in 1951 an Albert Richter memorial race was held in front of several thousand visitors. In the same year the national boxing championships were held on the field. Football and boules were later played in the arena . The sports facility was renovated several times, in 2005 it had to give way to the Federal Garden Show . A sports facility with the same name existed in Halle until the 1980s .
The cycling was a sporting event that thousands of people moved to 1945 in its spell. As early as 1947, cycling enthusiasts from Schwerin, with the help of Mayor Christoph Seitz, launched the cycling race around the Pfaffenteich. It should develop into a traditional race in Mecklenburg, at least until the sixties. The winner of the first race on June 1, 1947 was Rolf Haberecht and was the local hero at the time and the owner of the first bicycle shop in Schwerin. In the following years, well-known cyclists also entered the list of winners: Dieter Lüder from Berlin (1955), the well-known winner of the International Peace Tour of 1960, Erich Hagen from Leipzig (1960), and Manfred Brüning from Berlin (1962 ), who later died in an accident ), the peace race winner from 1963 Klaus Ampler (1963) and finally also Tour de France winner Jan Ullrich won 1997 at Pfaffenteich. The course was also a stage destination of the GDR tour several times .
The city of Schwerin belonged to the introduction of the Reformation to the Bishopric of Schwerin and was the seat of its own archdeaconry . For Domstift were next to the provost and the dean of ten and later twelve canons.
Evangelical Lutheran Church
After several evangelical sermons, the city was largely Protestant from 1538. Until 2012, the city was the seat of the church leadership of the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Mecklenburg . Since Pentecost 2012, Schwerin has been home to one of two (transitional) Sprengelbishop's seats of the newly founded Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany . Protestantism in the Evangelical-Lutheran form is the historically predominant religion in Schwerin. The number of members decreased drastically in the GDR. In the new federal states, including Schwerin, only about a third of the population are members of a religious community, most of them in Schwerin Protestant-Lutheran.
Administratively, the parishes of the city belonged to the Schwerin-Stadt provost until Pentecost 2012 within the Wismar parish of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Mecklenburg. With the merger of the North Elbian, Mecklenburg and Pomeranian Protestant regional churches to form the so-called " North Church ", the administrative structure has changed. The municipalities belong to the parish of Mecklenburg, in turn, of the diocese belongs Mecklenburg and Pomerania.
The regional church community in Schwerin works as a free agency within the Evangelical Church . It belongs to the Mecklenburg Community Association within the Evangelical Gnadauer Community Association e. V. The community work began around 1905. In 1910 the community rooms at Ziegenmarkt 4 were acquired. The headquarters of LKG Schwerin is in the Schelfstadt Schwerins.
Roman Catholic Church
Some supporters gathered around Duke Christian Ludwig I , who converted to Catholicism for political reasons in 1663 , and in 1709 the Jesuits founded a mission parish in Schwerin. The official recognition of Catholic worship after the Reformation took place in 1732. It was not until 1795 that the congregation received its own church, today's (since 1967) provost church of St. Anna . At the beginning of the 19th century there were almost 500 Catholics in all of Mecklenburg. The equality with the Protestant church took place in 1903. The St. Martin and St. Andrew parishes emerged from the St. Anne's parish in the 1970s. The Catholic parishes of the city of Schwerin belong to the dean's office Schwerin of the Archbishopric Schwerin within the Archdiocese of Hamburg .
The Catholic cemetery on Wismarschen Strasse was consecrated in 1861.
The beginnings of the Schwerin Baptist Congregation go back to the year 1855, regular meetings have existed since 1901. In 1950 there were 1,100 members. Today the Evangelical Free Church Community Schwerin (Baptists) has around 180 members. In 2010, a newly built community center was inaugurated in the Neumühle district. The congregation belongs to the Evangelical Free Church State Association of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania / Baptists .
There are two Pentecostal churches in Schwerin , the church of God's Christian Center Schwerin , located in Paulsstadt since 1993, as well as the Christian church in Arche Schwerin and a free evangelical church .
New Apostolic Church
The congregation of the New Apostolic Church was founded on December 28, 1924 by District Apostle Edmund Blöcker from Hamburg. The district leader Paul Karkhof became the first community leader. In 1929 the number of members grew to over 50, which is why services could no longer be held in the members' apartments. By the end of the Second World War there were 180 members and 740 due to the influx of refugees. Therefore the community was divided into Schwerin I and Schwerin II in 1953. In 1973, both communities were reunited after numerous members had moved within the GDR and the Federal Republic. Since 1956, the municipality and the administration for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania have been in Schwerin Paulsstadt. In 1994 the then church president Richard Fehr visited the congregation for a festive service, retired the District Apostle for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Willy Adam, and introduced the new Bishop of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Ekkehard Möller. In addition, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was handed over to District Apostle Wilhelm Leber , the current Church President, in Hamburg.
In the Middle Ages, Schwerin, which was then economically weak, was unattractive for Jewish immigrants; the history of the Jewish community began in 1671 with the ducal letter of protection for the tobacco dealer Levin Saalman. A cemetery was set up on Pfaffenteich as early as 1694, which was moved to the Schelffeld in 1717. The tobacco dealer Michael Hinrichsen had a monopoly for a long time. His son served as court factor for the financially weak Duke Carl Leopold . In 1773 the construction of a synagogue was approved; in 1794 284 Jews lived in Schwerin. Anti-Semitic abuses happened to the community during the Hep-Hep riots in 1819. In the 20th century, the number of members decreased from an initial 300 to 151 in 1932. In 1933 there were 1003 inhabitants of Jewish faith in all of Mecklenburg.
The Schwerin synagogue was destroyed during the Reichskristallnacht . At the end of the Holocaust and after the Second World War, 98 Jews were still living in Mecklenburg in 1947, 18 of them in Schwerin. In 1946 the Jewish state community was revived on the initiative of the engineer Hugo Mehler. The following year the community got the building back on Schlachterstrasse . People's Education Minister Gottfried Grünberg was against recognition as a public corporation , since he saw the members of the community only as recipients of American support services. However, in 1948 he gave in after interventions by Franz Dahlem , Kurt Bürger and Wilhelm Höcker . In the same year, the state community received its assets and the destroyed Schwerin cemetery back on the orders of the SMAD . A memorial stone had stood there since 1946, and the grave sites were restored in 1951. The destroyed synagogue was not rebuilt, instead a prayer room was set up in the renovated buildings on Schlachterstrasse and a memorial stone was placed on the site of the former church in 1951. After the war, the community was mainly financed by donations; later the GDR government gave money that was mainly used to maintain Jewish facilities. Over the years, the church services in the congregation, which was shrinking due to the high average age, were limited to important holidays and commemorative events on the occasion of the anniversaries of the pogrom night or the liberation of Auschwitz . In order to be able to regularly attend church services, members traveled to Berlin at community expense.
From 1948 to 1956, Dr. Franz Unikower , who fled to West Berlin in the course of a trial against him. Thereafter Hugo Mehler held this office until 1962 and from 1962 Alfred Scheidemann, who saw his main task in supporting sick and lonely community members as well as the organization of holiday camps for Jewish children in the GDR and whose death in 1972 actually led to the dissolution of the state community. Although Udo Abrahamson took over the office for a short time and then Heinrich Smiatkiewicz until 1975, there was no new director until 1980, so that the state community was co-administered from Dresden . In 1980 and 1989, Friedrich Broido and Thomas Barthel were appointed new chairmen.
The number of members of the Jewish community in Schwerin grew after the political change in 1989 to around 900 (as of November 2005), almost exclusively of immigrants from the states of the former Soviet Union. It is one of the largest communities in East Germany and was looked after by the state rabbi , William Wolff , until March 2015 . Yuriy Kadnykov has been his successor since then . In December 2007, it was decided to build a new synagogue at a historic location, in Hof Schlachterstrasse 3 and 5, where the old synagogue stood for 165 years until 1938. The state's ministry of culture made 600,000 euros available for this, and the city, community and a support association continue to contribute to the costs. The inauguration took place on December 3, 2008. The new 15 by 12 meter building offers space for around one hundred people. The new regional rabbi Juri Kadnikow, a native of Ukraine, has been taking care of the community in the state capital and in Rostock since April 2015 as the successor to the Schwerin honorary citizen William Wolff.
The Sunni community is represented by the Islamic Federation in Schwerin e. V. represented. The center of the community, which was founded in 1992, is the As-Salām mosque, which can accommodate over 50 people, in rented premises on the Großer Dreesch .
In April 2019, the Islamic Bund received the authorization from the Schwerin city council to convert a former department store in the Schwerin district of Mueßer Holz into a mosque. One the other hand, initiated public petition with more than 4,000 valid signatures was rejected by the Municipal Corporation for technical reasons. The AFD then announced that it would take legal action against the inadmissibility of its citizens' petition and the long-term lease before the administrative court. At the beginning of April, the party also started collecting signatures for a so-called “collecting citizens' petition”. With this, the party wants to achieve that the decision of the city council to conclude a long-term lease agreement with the Islamic Federation is subsequently revoked.
The Shiite community organized itself in the Islamic Center Schwerin eV, founded in 2006 . V. Your Ahl al-Bayt mosque, which can accommodate up to 30 people, is located in rented premises on Grunthalplatz near the main train station .
Economy and Transport
General economic data
Industries in the manufacturing industry include: brewing , food industry, cable production, plastics processing and mechanical engineering. In addition, the service industry, such as B. Call centers, the health industry, medical technology, numerous retail companies and the craft employment. The largest proportion of employees work in public administration (including social security, education and defense). The city has 5,148 IHK- affiliated companies as well as 1,095 craft businesses registered in the HWK (as of December 31, 2016). In 2016, 634 business registrations, 614 business deregistrations and 447 business registrations were recorded.
At the place of work in Schwerin there were 47,527 employees subject to social security contributions on September 30, 2010, of which 20,413 were men and 27,114 women. As of December 31, 2016, the total number of employees subject to social security contributions based in Schwerin was 50,450. In June 2017 there were 4,334 unemployed in Schwerin, which corresponds to an unemployment rate of 8.9% of the corresponds to the civilian labor force. 25,679 people commuted to work in the city, 10,456 Schwerin residents worked outside of it (as of June 30, 2016). Inbound commuters live predominantly in the neighboring districts of Ludwigslust-Parchim and Northwest Mecklenburg . A large number of out- commuters work in these counties. Outside Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, most of the out-commuters are employed in Hamburg (1,388 people) and Schleswig-Holstein (852 people). The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 8.5% and thus above the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania average of 7.6%.
With an average of 14,911 euros, the people of Schwerin had the highest net annual income in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2005. The statistics also include social benefits and pensions. The average disposable income in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was 13,953 euros, the national average was 17,702 euros. Ten years later, in 2015, the purchasing power per capita averaged 17,986 euros and the GDP per inhabitant was 37,694 euros.
In 2016 Schwerin achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 3.553 billion within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 36,917 (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: € 25,454, Germany € 38,180). The GDP per labor force is € 54,256. In 2016, the city's GDP grew nominally by 2.8%, compared to 2.1% in the previous year. In 2016, around 65,500 people were employed in the city.
- The Deutsche Bahn AG is in Schwerin u. a. represented by DB Netz , DB Dialog and DB Schenker .
- The German Post AG operates in the district Pampow one of its 82 mail centers in Germany.
- The Helios Kliniken Schwerin employs over 2000 people.
- The Mubea Flame International GmbH , in the commercial area Göhrener Tannen , produced since 2006, with 270 employees supply parts for Airbus .
- The Linda Waschmittel GmbH & Co. KG , among others Linda Neutral manufactures.
- The KGW Schwerin mechanical and plant engineering GmbH and KGW Marine GmbH produce towers for wind turbines, marine accessories and environmental technology.
- The Maplan Schwerin GmbH manufactures machine components for the plastics processing .
- The cable factory of Prysmian Cable and Systems , previously at Siemens and Pirelli , produces medium-voltage and installation cables.
- The Schoeller Allibert and the United caps are active in plastics processing.
- Energieversorgung Schwerin , which has been outsourced from Stadtwerke Schwerin , and WEMAG are regional energy suppliers.
- The buw Holding GmbH , a communications service provider, has about 670 employees in Schwerin.
- Nestlé has invested 220 million euros in a new plant for the production of Dolce Gusto coffee capsules in the Göhrener Tannen industrial park . 250 workers currently work here.
- The WGS Schwerin , with around 10,000 apartments, the largest housing company in Schwerin.
- Invest in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is a business development company with headquarters in Schwerin.
- ZIM Flugsitz GmbH produces aircraft seats for the aviation industry.
- The Ypsomed Produktion GmbH has built a new plant for the production of medical technology.
Motorways and federal highways
The federal motorway 24 runs south of Schwerin from Hamburg to Berlin. From here, the northern section of the A 14 branches off at the Schwerin motorway junction, heading north towards Wismar. The extension to the already completed section near Wismar, in which the A 20 will cross, was completed after years of delays at the end of 2009 and the section was opened to traffic on December 21, 2009. In addition to the existing Schwerin-Ost and Schwerin-Nord connections, there are plans to set up a Schwerin-Süd connection. An expansion of the A 14 to Magdeburg , where the southern section of the motorway towards Dresden begins, is also planned.
The federal highway 104 runs through the urban area in an east-west direction, the B 106 in a north-south direction and the B 321 in a south-west-south-east direction. The latter two are mostly four lanes in the urban area. The route of the B 106 was changed with the construction of a bypass road in the west of Schwerin, which after reunification helped to relieve the city center and cope with the increased volume of traffic. Another construction section of the bypass road from Schwerin-Lankow towards Kirch Stück was opened to traffic on September 26, 2007. In addition to the B 106, the B 104 has also run over this section since then. It is planned to continue the bypass in the north of Schwerin from Kirch Stück to Paulsdamm . The B 106 has ended in Schwerin since January 2016 , because the southern section was downgraded due to the parallel federal motorway.
The city is on the German-Dutch holiday route Oranier Route .
With Mecklenburg's oldest own railway line, the Hagenow Land – Schwerin railway, which opened in 1847, Schwerin received a connection to the line to Berlin and Hamburg . Today railway lines lead from Schwerin in all directions. The most important connections include Hamburg – Rostock – Stralsund and Wismar – Ludwigslust– Berlin . Long-distance trains that travel through Schwerin, the ICE and IC of the DB distance traffic on the route Stralsund - Rostock -Schwerin- Hamburg -Ruhrgebiet. From 1918 to 1994, rail traffic was managed and organized from the building of the Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin, called the Red House.
former Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin
Schwerin is connected to some regional and national bike trails, including a. to the long-distance cycle route Hamburg – Rügen , which is around 520 kilometers long from the Hanseatic city of Hamburg to the largest island in Germany, to Rügen .
The most important squares and shopping streets in the center are: Marienplatz , Marktplatz , Arsenalstrasse , Goethestrasse , Mecklenburgstrasse , Münzstrasse , Puschkinstrasse , Schlachterstrasse , Schmiedestrasse , Schloßstrasse (Schwerin) , Schusterstrasse , Friedrichstrasse , Buschstrasse , Wismarsche Strasse .
Significant access roads are: On Crivitzer Chaussee , Gadebuscher Straße, Graf-Schack-Allee , Grevesmühlener Straße, Güstrower Straße, Hagenower Straße, Lübecker Straße , Ludwigsluster Chaussee , Neumühler Straße, Obotritenring , Rogahner Straße , Vor dem Wittenburger Tor, Werderstraße , Wismarsche Straße , Wittenburger Strasse.
The northern and western Obotritenring, the southern Ostorfer Ufer street, the southwestern Graf-Schack-Allee, the western Werderstraße and to the north the Knaudtstraße (B 104) run around the core of the city (Altstadt, Feldstadt, Paulsstadt, Schelfstadt ).
Air traffic and waterways
Schwerin-Parchim Airport , from which charter and cargo flights are operated, is located about 37 kilometers to the southeast . Schwerin-Pinnow airfield, ten kilometers to the east, is mainly used by sports aviation.
The Schweriner See and the Ziegelsee are among the federal inland waterways . From these there are navigable connections via the Stör , Stör Canal and Elde in the directions of Müritz , Elbe and North Sea .
In Schwerin, the Schweriner People's Newspaper , which has its headquarters here, is published daily from Monday to Saturday . In addition, weekly advertising newspapers with regional coverage, such as the Schweriner Kurier, the Blitz and the Schweriner Express (every six months) are published.
The Landesfunkhaus des Norddeutscher Rundfunks (NDR) is located in Schloßgartenallee and produces, in addition to national reports , the Nordmagazin , the regional program of NDR television for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and the program of the radio station NDR 1 Radio MV . The private local broadcaster TV Schwerin and the publicly financed open channel called FiSCH-TV broadcast their programs in the Schwerin cable network. In addition, the privately operated, nationwide TV channel MV1 has been receivable since 2012 . Broadcasting facilities for radio and television are located in the Neu Zippendorf district in the form of the 136 meter high Schwerin television tower for directional radio and a 273 meter high transmission mast for VHF , DAB and DVB-T .
The private radio station Antenne MV broadcasted from Plate, a few kilometers southeast of Schwerin, from 1993 to 2016 , and from Rostock since 2016. The second large private radio in the country - Ostseewelle - can also be received from Rostock .
Five high-coverage news magazines complement the media offering online: StadtLandOnline , Schwerin Lokal , Die Schweriner , SN Aktuell and Schwerin News .
Schwerin symbols on coins, stamps, etc. a.
Honorary citizen (selection)
- 1853: Friedrich Carl Wex , director of the Fridericianum
- 1876: Lewis Marcus , advocate and spokesman for liberal Reform Judaism
- 1896: Heinrich von Stephan , founder of the Universal Postal Union
- 1958: Clemens Meyer , musician, musicologist, violist
- 1989: Carl Hinrichs , painter
- 2000: Ludwig Bölkow , industrialist
- 2002: Bertha Klingberg , flower woman
- 2014: William Wolff , state rabbi
- 2017: Brigitte Feldtmann, patron and foundation of the non-profit GmbH "Feldtmann Kulturell"
sons and daughters of the town
People connected to the city
- Albert Lüders, alias Albertus Luderus (around 1627–1675), priest, he lived in Schwerin and ended up at the stake there after a death sentence
- Nicolaus Steno (1638–1686), Catholic priest, doctor, geologist, spent the last year of his life as a pastor in Schwerin and died there
- Johann Peter Schmidt (1708–1790), Minister
- Adolf Karl Kunzen (1720–1781), composer
- Carl Heinrich Wünsch (1779–1855), architect and builder, died in Schwerin
- Georg Adolf Demmler (1804–1886), architect, died in Schwerin
- Samuel Holdheim , (1806–1860), Mecklenburg-Schwerin regional rabbi, representative of Reform Judaism
- Friedrich Wilhelm Kücken (1810–1882), composer, died in Schwerin
- Carl Georg Gustav Wüstney (1810–1883), natural scientist, 1845 "Directory of the phanerogamic plants growing in the wild around Schwerin"
- Friedrich von Flotow (1812–1883), composer
- Alfred von Rauch (1824–1900), Major General and Commander of the Grand Ducal Mecklenburg 17th Cavalry Brigade in Schwerin (like his son Friedrich ) from 1870 to 1875, later General of the Cavalry and Adjutant General of the German Emperors
- Friedrich Wilhelm von Rauch (1827–1907), lived as a retired Lieutenant General in Schwerin, previously commander of the 14th Cavalry Brigade in Düsseldorf
- Carl Wüstnei (1843–1902), ornithologist and graphic artist, author of the book The Birds of the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg
- August Reckling (1843–1922), military musician and composer, music director of the Grand Ducal Mecklenburg
- Guido von Usedom (1854–1925), Admiral of the Imperial German Navy and Chief Shipyard Director of the Imperial Shipyard in Kiel, spent his twilight years in Schwerin and died here
- Friedrich von Rauch (1855–1935), major general and commander of the 17th Grand Ducal Mecklenburg cavalry brigade in Schwerin (like his father Alfred ) from 1903 to 1906, later general of the cavalry and chief of the 1st cavalry inspection in Königsberg / Pr.
- Axel Wilhelmi (1857–1928), physician, district physician and non-fiction author
- Hans Oster (1887–1945), major general and resistance fighter from July 20, 1944 , 1927–1929 staff officer in the 2nd (Prussian) artillery regiment in Schwerin
- Richard Spethmann (1891–1960), theater actor, Low German writer, director of the Fritz Reuter stage
- Marianne Grunthal (1896–1945), teacher and Nazi victim, murdered by the National Socialists in Schwerin
- Gerhard Wagner (1898–1987), naval officer, rear admiral of the Bundeswehr, born in Schwerin
- Werner de Boor (1899–1976), Evangelical Lutheran theologian
- Heinrich Handorf (* 1925), architect, designed the first high-rise in Schwerin, among other things
- Kurt Masur (1927–2015), from 1958 to 1960 chief conductor of the Mecklenburgische Staatskapelle Schwerin
- Lore Tappe (1934–2014), actress, from 1966 to 1999 member of the ensemble of the Mecklenburg State Theater in Schwerin
- Heiko Lietz (* 1943), politician and human rights activist (Neues Forum, Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, Aktion Stadt und Kulturschutz)
- Alfons Rissberger (* 1948), entrepreneur, author and founder of the D21 initiative
- Sabine Bock (* 1954), architectural historian, monument conservator and university professor
- Till Lindemann (* 1963) front singer and lyricist for the rock band Rammstein
- Ute Steppin (* 1965), Volleyball -Nationalspielerin
- Richard Kruspe (* 1967) lead guitarist in the rock band Rammstein
- Benjamin Piel (* 1984), journalist and winner of the Theodor Wolff Prize , volunteered at the Schweriner Volkszeitung
by year of publication, in ascending order
- Friedrich Schlie : The city of Schwerin. In: The district court districts of Wismar, Grevesmühlen, Rehna, Gadebusch and Schwerin (= The art and historical monuments of the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Volume 2). Bärensprung'sche Hofbuchdruckerei, Schwerin 1896, pp. 521–630. ( Digital version in the Internet Archive , accessed on August 11, 2018, also as a reprint, Verlag Stock und Stein, Schwerin 1992, ISBN 3-910179-06-1 ).
- Wilhelm Jesse : History of the city of Schwerin. From the first beginnings to the present. Bärensprung'sche Hofbuchdruckerei, Schwerin 1913/1920; Reprints of the two editions as volume 1 and volume 2, Verlag Stock und Stein, Schwerin 1995, ISBN 3-910179-38-X .
- Walter Ohle and Horst Ende : Schwerin. 3rd, revised edition. Verlag Seemann, Leipzig 1994, ISBN 978-3-363-00367-3 (art guide).
- Sabine Bock : Schwerin. The old town. Urban planning and housing stock in the 20th century. Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin 1996, ISBN 978-3-931185-08-4 .
- Bernd Kasten and Jens-Uwe Rost: Schwerin. History of the city. Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin 2005, ISBN 3-935749-38-4 .
- Antje Sander, Bernd Kasten, Daniel Stracke: Schwerin. (= German Historical City Atlas . No. 2. Edited by Wilfried Ehbrecht, Peter Johanek and Jürgen Lafrenz). Ardey-Verlag, Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-87023-273-3 (folder with reprints of historical maps).
- Jörg-Peter Findeisen : Small history of the city of Schwerin. Pustet, Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7917-2225-2 .
- Horst Ende / Ingrid Möller : Schwerin. The capitalcity. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2015, ISBN 978-3-86108-403-7 .
- Udo Brinker: Chronicle of the city of Schwerin. tinus production office, 2011, ISBN 978-3-9814380-2-4 .
- Dieter Greve: Schwerin street names. Their origin and meaning. Published by the state capital Schwerin, land registry and surveying office, Schwerin 2014, ISBN 3-9805165-5-5 .
- Fred Ruchhöft: Zvarin - Schwerin. From the island castle to the residence. Published by the State Archeology Department in the State Office for Culture and Monument Preservation Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania by Detlef Jantzen, Schwerin 2017, ISBN 978-3-935770-52-1 .
- Literature about Schwerin in the state bibliography MV
- Official website of the state capital
- History and photos of the city, districts, historical buildings and squares
- Link catalog on Schwerin at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Literature on Schwerin in the catalog of the German National Library
- Statistisches Amt MV - population status of the districts, offices and municipalities 2019 (XLS file) (official population figures in the update of the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Geographical information on www.schwerin.de
- Schwerin becomes part of the Hamburg metropolitan region , Hamburger Abendblatt , May 20, 2016
- Landscape plan of the state capital Schwerin (PDF; 107 kB)
- wetterkontor.de wetterkontor.de
- Ernst Eichler : City name book of the GDR. Leipzig 1988, p. 252
- H.-D. Kahl: Schwerin, Svarinshaug and the Sclauorum ciuitas of Prudentius of Troyes. In: Contribution to the urban and regional history of Eastern and Northern Europe. Wiesbaden 1971, pp. 49-125
- Main articles of association on Schwerin.de
- 3000 years of city history on the large construction site. In: Schweriner People's Newspaper. May 9, 2009
- With the ladder to the Teutons. In: Schweriner People's Newspaper. Local website Schwerin, April 25, 2009
- Sensational find. Schwerin older than expected. In: Schweriner People's Newspaper. Local website Schwerin, October 7, 2014.
- Marlies Konze, Detlef Jantzen: The Slavonic Castle Schwerin. In: Archeology in Germany 6 (2015) 72 f., Here: p. 71.
- Thietmar von Merseburg: Chronicle Book VIII, chap. 5.
- bei der Wieden, Helge / Schmidt, Roderich (ed.): Handbook of the historical sites of Germany. Volume 12: Mecklenburg / Pomerania. Kröner, Stuttgart 1996, p. 114f.
- Very contentious in detail. Overview of the state of opinion up to 1999 with Hans-Otto Gaethke: Duke Heinrich the Lion and the Slavs northeast of the lower Elbe (= Kiel work pieces. Series A: Contributions to Schleswig-Holstein and Scandinavian history. Volume 24). Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1999, ISBN 3-631-34652-2 , pp. 201-215, 460.
- Jordan, Karl: Gunzelin I . in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 7 (1966), p. 325 f. Online version
- State capital Schwerin (Hrsg.): Stadtchronik. ( Memento from July 15, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Ingo Ulpts: The mendicant orders in Mecklenburg. A contribution to the history of the Franciscans, Poor Clares, Dominicans and Augustinian Hermits in the Middle Ages. Werl 1995 (Saxonia Franciscana 6), pp. 23-34; 391-393; 395-397; 417
- Katrin Moeller: Witch persecutions Mecklenburg, Duchy . In: Lexicon on the history of witch persecution , historicum.net
- Katrin Moeller: That arbitrariness goes over right. Hunting of witches in Mecklenburg in the 16th and 17th centuries , 2007, pp. 85-107, 111-134
- Peter Schneider: Hexenwahn. Witches and witch trials in Schwerin , Schwerin 1996, pp. 27-36. (PDF; 102 kB)
- Names of the victims of the Schwerin witch trials including recent literature (PDF; 102 kB)
- Martina Schwabe: Statement by the administration on the application for printed matter no. 00581/2016 for the meeting on January 21, 2016 by member of the city council Ralph Martini (ASK)
- The also burning in Mecklenburg and Schwerin ( Memento from January 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- There were witch trials here
- City council of Schwerin rehabilitates witches , April 18, 2016, memorial plaque near the town hall
- Bernd Kasten: Schwerin's synagogue. In: Mecklenburgmagazin of the Schweriner Volkszeitung. September 19, 2008
- Udo Brinker: Chronology in numbers. Dreesch is used by the military for the first time , Schweriner Volkszeitung, October 9, 2010
- Bernd Kasten: Persecution and deportation of the Jews in Mecklenburg 1938-1945 . State Center for Civic Education Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Ed.), Schwerin 2008, p. 66, ISBN 978-3-940207-16-6
- alles-mv.de: Stumbling blocks give victims of the Progrom Night their names back / What happened 75 years ago? , November 9, 2013
- Bombs on Schwerin at ndr.de
- Frank Pergande: The trace of the bombs . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, June 4, 2013
- Bernd Kasten and Jens-Uwe Rost: Schwerin. History of the city. Schwerin 2005, pp. 198-199; Bernd Kasten: April 7, 1943. Bombs on Schwerin . Schwerin 2013
- German Association of Cities: Statistical Yearbook of German Communities , p. 369. Braunschweig 1952
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