DB long-distance transport

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DB Fernverkehr AG

legal form Corporation
founding January 1, 1999
Seat Frankfurt am Main , Germany
  • Stefanie Berk (Marketing)
  • Philipp Nagl (production)
  • Heinz Siegmund (Personnel)
Number of employees 16,295 ( full-time equivalents , 2018)
sales EUR 4.702 billion (2018)
Branch railroad
Website DB Fernverkehr AG

Headquarters of DB Fernverkehr in Frankfurt am Main

The DB Fernverkehr AG is a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn for the rail passenger transport . The headquarters of the railway company is located in the office building of the former headquarters of Deutsche Bahn AG in Frankfurt am Main .


DB Fernverkehr AG provides national and Europe-wide long-distance transport services.

Train types operated by DB Fernverkehr are:

The company operates around 1,300 trains per day (as of 2010).

A number of long-distance bus lines are also operated in Europe under the brand name IC Bus , starting from the cities of Berlin , Mannheim , Munich , Leipzig , Düsseldorf , Frankfurt and Hamburg .

Organization and economic situation

The DB Fernverkehr AG is a wholly owned subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn AG , operates in contrast to its sister company DB Regio but without financial assistance .

The board of directors of DB Fernverkehr consists of Michael Peterson (chairman), Stefanie Berk (marketing and sales), Philipp Nagl (director of production) and Heinz Siegmund (human resources) and Evelyn Palla (finances).

As the successor to Birgit Bohle , who switched to Telekom at the end of 2018 , Michael Peterson was elected as the new CEO by the Supervisory Board at the beginning of July . He took office on August 1, 2019. At the beginning of February 2020, Stefanie Berk, previously on the board of Thomas Cook Germany , took over the board department Marketing and Sales.

Key figures

According to the 2018 annual report, the company achieved a profit ( net income / EAT ) of 393 million there . Euros . Compared to the previous year 2017 (366 million euros), profits increased by 27 million euros (7.4%). In 2017, DB Fernverkehr generated 94 percent of its sales with revenues from passenger transport .

The transport performance (rail, in passenger kilometers ) increased since 2014 (36,1 billion . Pkm ) steadily and in 2018 at around 42.6 billion . Pkm .

The company has 16,295 employees (as of 2018) and plans to hire additional staff in the coming years.



Velaro D et RGV 2N
ICE and TGV in Paris' Gare de l'Est

Alleo GmbH , founded in 2012, is a joint venture between Deutsche Bahn AG and the French state railway SNCF . The company takes on the marketing of the international ICE and TGV trains that run on the Frankfurt– Paris and Frankfurt– Marseille routes . In addition, the Franco-German train and service teams are coordinated by Alleo and trained for use on board the international connections.

"Alleo" is managed by Frank Hoffmann (DB) and Emmanuel Mroz (SNCF).

DB AutoZug

The subsidiary DB AutoZug GmbH , based in Dortmund, was founded in 1999 to operate car and night trains . On 1 October 2013, DB Autozug, however, was with DB Fernverkehr AG merged .

Ameropa logo

Ameropa Reisen (until early 2020)

The tour operator Ameropa-Reisen , founded in 1951, was a wholly-owned subsidiary of DB Fernverkehr AG until February 3, 2020. She has mainly distributed short trips and city trips within Germany as well as to neighboring countries.

Vehicle fleet

DB Fernverkehr has an extensive fleet of rolling stock . In addition to 1,442 passenger cars , of which 969 completely or partially wheelchair accessible (re) built (as of 2017), the following vehicle - series are available:

List of locomotives from DB Fernverkehr

Electric locomotives
model series designation number Remarks image
BR 101 145
DB 101 105-5 Koblenz Hbf
DB BR 101 in Koblenz
BR 120.1 65 decommissioned on July 5, 2020.
DB 120 148-2 Hanover
DB BR 120 in Hanover
BR 146.5 TRAXX 27
DB 146 553 Nienburg
BR 146 with Intercity 2 in Nienburg (Weser)
BR 147.5 TRAXX k. A.
BR 181 k. A.
  • decommissioned
PAI Strasbourg 2006 - BR 181
BR 181
k. A. ECx 23 sets ordered
  • Train composition: multi-system locomotive and 17 passenger coaches
  • is to be used in long-distance traffic between Berlin and Amsterdam from 2023
  • From 2024, the train will gradually be used on tourist routes between Westerland and Cologne, Karlsruhe and Berlin
Electric multiple units
model series designation number Comments / special features image
BR 401 ICE 1 58
  • in operation since 1991; Redesign: 2005; Seats 703
  • some multiple units suitable for traffic in Switzerland → u. a. through a second pantograph for the SBB electricity system
BR 402 ICE 2 44
  • Further development of the ICE 1
  • in operation since 1996; Redesign: 2011; Seats 381 (after the redesign)
  • detachable half trains can be full trains connected to
DB BR 402 030-1 ICE2
ICE 2 near Möhren-Gundelsheim
BR 403 ICE 3 50
  • in operation since 2000/2004; Redesign: 2017–2020; Seats 419–450
DB 403 01 Dortmund
ICE 3 in Dortmund Hbf
BR 406 ICE 3M 16
ICE 3M 4610 - Liège-Guillemins
ICE 3M in Liège station
BR 407 Velaro D 17th
ICE Velaro D Cologne
ICE Velaro D at the exit from Cologne Central Station
still unknown Velaro 30th
  • Further development of the 407 series
  • Use from 2022 between North Rhine-Westphalia and Munich via the KRM
  • The order is worth one billion euros and 30 trains are to be delivered initially.
According to Siemens Vice President Roland Busch, the design of the newly ordered train should remain the same. A new exterior design would take too much time.
BR 411 ICE T7 59
  • in operation since 1999 and 2004
  • Zug is equipped with optional tilting technology
DB ICE T 411
ICE T7 in Nuremberg
BR 415 ICE T5 11
  • five-part variant of the ICE T7, i. d. R. to reinforce this
  • Zug is equipped with optional tilting technology
DBAG class 415
ICE T5 passing through Bubenreuth
BR 412 ICE 4 25th
  • Delivery by Siemens will run until at least 2025 → up to 300 trains are to be delivered
  • in operation since 2017/2018; Seats 830
412 002 Cologne-Kalk-Nord
ICE 4 in Cologne-Kalk-Nord
BR 4110 Stadler KISS 17th
Stadler KISS in Berlin Hbf
Diesel locomotives
model series designation number comment image
BR 218 k. A.
2 DB class 218 diesel locomotives
BR 218 with EuroCity from Zurich
BR 245 TRAXX 8th
DB 245 022 in Westerland
BR 245 in Westerland (Sylt)
BR 335 Köf III
BR 335 / Köf 3
Diesel railcars
model series designation number comment image
BR 605 ICE TD 20th
ICE TD near Flensburg
ICE TD near Flensburg on the way to Aarhus (2013)
BR 628.4 k. A.
  • Use only with the Sylt Shuttle Plus
628 495
BR 628 on the Sylt Shuttle Plus

In addition, DB Regio class 218 locomotives were and are used to haul IC or EC trains.

In addition, the entire ICE fleet is to be equipped with the European Train Control System (ETCS) in the medium term . The retrofitting of the ICE T fleet as part of the ICE T redesign and of 40 ICE 1 multiple units (road numbers 401 101 to 171, from 2017) by Alstom for a total of around 23 million euros began. These trains can then operate on the new high-speed lines between Erfurt / Halle - Leipzig and between Berlin and Munich, among other things .

In April 2019 it was announced that DB intends to buy a total of 17 used Stadler KISS multiple units from the Austrian private railway company Westbahn . It will add 7,000 new seats to the current long-distance transport offer. To date, there is no information about the purchase price. However, it is estimated that the purchase price will be around 200 million euros. According to a press release, these will run on a new IC line between Dresden , Berlin , Oranienburg and Rostock from spring 2020 .


IC bus

IC bus in Nuremberg
IC bus in Nuremberg

DB Fernverkehr AG has been operating long-distance bus routes under the IC Bus brand name since 2013 . There are now a total of 45 of these long-distance bus connections through 11 European countries (as of 2017).

According to ex-CEO Ulrich Homburg, the IC bus offer is not primarily about price competition with other competitors, such as FlixBus , but rather about supplementing the existing intercity network of the railway. Thus, according to Homburg, the prices should not be based primarily on those of the competitors. DB Fernverkehr plans to gradually expand the IC bus network and generate new connections.

DB Schifffahrt and Inselbahn Wangerooge

The ferry traffic to and from the North Sea island of Wangerooge , as well as the island railway Wangerooge is operated by the brand "Schifffahrt und Inselbahn Wangerooge" (SIW), which forms an organizational unit within DB Fernverkehr. SIW employs around 55 people and is based in Harlesiel .

DB on-board catering

Most of the DB Fernverkehr AG trains have a gastronomic offer in the form of a board restaurant or board bistro . These system restaurants are coordinated by the DB On-Board Gastronomy organizational unit. DB Fernverkehr also trains its own specialists in system catering who can later prepare and serve meals as stewards on board the trains.

On some IC connections, however, the on-board catering options have been and are being continually reduced or even completely rationalized . The Lufthansa catering subsidiary LSG now operates a so-called IC Café on the routes on which Intercity 2 has taken over the traffic . However, the offer includes a much smaller bandwidth than the previously usual restaurants and bistros.


Flixtrain in Hamburg-Altona station

DB Fernverkehr operates almost all long-distance rail passenger transport in Germany and is considered a quasi-monopoly. The share of competitors in long-distance passenger rail transport was just over one percent in 2018. The reason for the low level of competition is the high level of investment required in vehicles and infrastructure access, since long-distance transport is operated independently. Furthermore, long-distance passenger rail transport bears the highest train path prices in the DB Netz AG network. This means that long-distance traffic is deficient on certain routes, or even that long-distance traffic cannot be offered at all on connections with low demand.

According to the Federal Network Agency, there were 34 other companies in Germany in addition to DB Fernverkehr in 2018 that operate their own long-distance passenger rail transport, but the majority of them in occasional and special transport.

In addition, the following companies compete with DB Fernverkehr: BTE (partly marketed as Flixtrain ), the Georg Verkehrsorganisation , Leo Express Deutschland (marketed as Flixtrain), RDC Germany , Thalys and Train4you (as UrlaubsExpress - UEX ). In addition, ÖBB operates several Nightjet routes through Germany, some in cooperation with Deutsche Bahn.

Customer structure

Business travelers make around 10.7 million trips with DB Long-Distance every year. Their share of total sales is around 20 percent. According to the company, sales with business travelers increased by ten percent in 2007.

In 2000, Jesko Perrey investigated which customer groups should be targeted in long-distance rail marketing . 51% of long-distance customers are price-sensitive, 31% are travel time minimizers and 18% are comfort-oriented. The railway is less satisfied with its customers than any other branch. This is the result of the Customer Monitor Germany study presented in 2006 . The Verkehrsclub Deutschland also sees many weaknesses. In a study, however, he shows that the railway is better than its reputation. Transport scientist and rail enthusiast Heiner Monheim also agrees , particularly praising the time that can be actively used on the train.


The company emerged as DB Reise & Touristik AG on January 1, 1999 as part of the second stage of the rail reform from the long-distance transport division of Deutsche Bahn AG. It operated under this name until 2003.

In traffic to the Expo 2000 , instead of the expected five, only 2.2 million travelers used the long-distance trains. Instead of the expected 400 million DM, only 125 million DM were earned. In 2001 it was decided to adapt the exterior of all long-distance passenger coaches to the color scheme of the ICE trains (light gray with red stripes). According to an insider report, the repainting cost around 300 million DM.

In mid-January 2001 the company announced that it wanted to create a uniform comfort and quality standard at ICE level with investments of two billion DM. To this end, 28 additional ICE T (around DM 800 million) and 13 more ICE 3 (around DM 500 million) were procured and the modernization of 117 locomotive-hauled IC sets (DM 500 million) was in prospect.

From 2009 to 2012 the company reduced its seating capacity by 4 percent. In mid-2012, the average load factor on the trains was 48.1 percent, three percentage points above the previous year's figure. The number of travelers increased in the first half of 2012 year-on-year by more than 5 percent to 63.3 million.

In 2012, the company transported 131.3 million travelers and achieved a transport performance of 37.357 billion passenger- kilometers with an operating performance of 145.1 million train-path kilometers . The capacity utilization of the trains was 50.3 percent. According to its own statements, the company obtained 75 percent of its energy requirements from renewable energies in mid-2013.

During the floods in 2013 , many routes, including the high-speed route between Hanover and Berlin, were not or only partially accessible for weeks. The company recorded heavy losses and also lost a lot in the punctuality statistics.

With half a million travelers in one day, the company set a new passenger record on December 23, 2016.

Between January and April 2017, a new record was set with around 45 million travelers. For the year as a whole, 143 million passengers are expected and a record profit of 400 million euros is expected. The occupancy rate is 55 percent (as of 2017).

In the spring of 2018, an operational attempt begun in 2017 failed, during which train drivers were instructed to drive as quickly as possible. The driving style, which sometimes led to arrivals ahead of schedule, had no positive effect on punctuality.

Renewal of the vehicle fleet

After the ICE 1 had already undergone an extensive redesign between 2005 and 2008 , all ICE 2 units were also modernized from 2011 to 2013 . The ICE T is also expected to receive a redesign from 2015 .

DB has ordered a total of 16 new ICE 3 trains to expand the vehicle fleet. These trains, known as the 407 series , were originally intended to be delivered to DB between 2012 and 2013. This has been delayed due to delivery problems at the manufacturer. 135 double-decker cars were also ordered for intercity traffic. These form 27 trains with 5 cars each at a maximum speed of 160 km / h. New class 146.2 locomotives were also ordered for these trains . This order has a total value of around 360 million euros. Use was scheduled from December 2013.

With the conclusion of the contract to build the ICE 4 , DB has awarded one of the largest contracts in its history. The contract between Siemens and DB was signed on May 9, 2011. DB ordered 220 trains for around 6.3 billion euros, which will initially gradually replace the locomotive-hauled IC trains and later the ICE 1 and 2 trains from 2016.

In order to bridge the time until delivery of the ICE 4, around 770 Intercity cars were redesigned. Between 2012 and the end of 2014, the cars in the Neumünster, Kassel and Nuremberg plants were comprehensively modernized for around 250 million euros . The cars are expected to be in use until 2023.

Since 2020, used Stadler KISS vehicles have been rolling on the IC line between Dresden , Berlin and Rostock . In this regard, DB had reached a contractual agreement with the Austrian Westbahn and was able to put the mostly new vehicles into operation on time.

In mid-July 2020, Deutsche Bahn and Siemens Mobility announced at a joint press conference that 30 new high-speed trains based on the 407 series that are already in use in long-distance transport will be ordered by DB. Deliveries are scheduled to begin in 2022. According to both companies, the order will have a volume of around one billion euros. According to the company, a capacity of 220 thousand long-distance seats will be available by 2026.

Outlook and developments

In March 2015, Deutsche Bahn announced that it would expand long-distance transport by 25 percent by 2030. Five million residents are to be connected to the long-distance network and 50 million additional travelers are to be gained every year. Among other things, the ICE fleet is to be expanded to 360 trains and 120 double-decker intercity trains are to be put into service.

According to the company's own information from March 2015, an operating performance of around 162 million train kilometers is to be achieved in 2030 , 120 million of which will be with ICE. The number of travelers is expected to increase from 130 to 180 million and the transport performance from 36 to 49 billion passenger-kilometers. The aim is to offer the largest long-distance network in day-to-day traffic since 1996. The average age of the fleet is to be reduced from 23 to 15 years. By 2030, twelve billion euros are to be invested in new and revised trains and 1,500 new employees are to be offered jobs.

At the end of 2018, DB moved into the public eye due to poor punctuality values ​​(including only around 70.4% in November 2018) in long-distance transport and deficiencies in the maintenance of trains. As a result, several voices were heard calling for another German rail reform and a merger of the passenger transport divisions , DB Regio and DB Fernverkehr. DB boss Richard Lutz and infrastructure director Ronald Pofalla presented an "Agenda for a better railway" at a meeting with Federal Transport Minister Andreas Scheuer, which was initially approved by the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure and the Group Supervisory Board . This does not provide for any changes to the corporate structure.

In March 2019, the company announced that it would immediately record and publish passenger punctuality in long-distance transport . This type of measurement takes into account not only individual trains, but also connection losses and the resulting delays in the arrival of travelers at their destination. The company is striving for a 15-minute travel chain punctuality of "significantly greater than 90%" in order to become "the most reliable means of travel on medium and long-haul routes". By 2030, with over 50 million additional passengers, most travelers of all market participants should be gained. The self-imposed goal of an operational five-minute punctuality rate of 80 percent for 2016 was only just missed. In total, around 79 percent of all ICE and IC trains arrived on time in 2016 - and thus more than since 2012.

Deutsche Bahn expects 150 million long-distance passengers for 2019.

After the VAT cut on long-distance tickets from 19 to 7 percent on January 1, 2020 , the company recorded 10.7 percent more travelers in January 2020 than in the same month of the previous year.


DB Fernverkehr AG also owns the DB lounges in the larger train stations.

DB Lounge in Berlin

See also

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Deutsche Bahn AG (Ed.): Annual Report DB Long Distance 2018 . Frankfurt am Main June 2019 ( deutschebahn.com [PDF]).
  2. a b company profile DB Fernverkehr AG. Retrieved May 18, 2017 .
  3. Deutsche Bahn, DB Mobility Logistics, Facts & Figures 2010. (PDF; 519 kB) Deutsche Bahn AG, archived from the original on March 11, 2014 ; Retrieved February 29, 2012 .
  4. a b Editor: Michael Peterson becomes the new CEO of DB Fernverkehr AG. In: bahnblogstelle.net. July 19, 2019, accessed on July 22, 2019 (German).
  5. Marketing long-distance traffic: Stefanie Berk goes to the train. Retrieved February 5, 2020 .
  6. Profit and Loss Account . In: DB Fernverkehr AG (Ed.): Annual Report 2018 . 2019, p. 36 .
  7. Developments in the 2018 financial year . In: DB Fernverkehr AG (Ed.): Annual Report 2018 . June 2019, p. 2 .
  8. DB / SNCF - "alleo" (Ed.): Service & Product Quality : Comprehensive services for international guests . 2012, p. 8 .
  9. IC passenger coaches (single coach basis) as of December 31. In: DB Fernverkehr AG (Ed.): Annual Report 2017 . S. 14 .
  10. a b c d e DB World . In: mobile . No. 7 , July 2019, ISSN  0949-586X , ZDB -ID 1221702-5 , p. 100 .
  11. Joint press conference of Deutsche Bahn and Siemens Mobility on July 15, 2020 in Berlin
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  13. Deutsche Bahn expands its intercity fleet | Deutsche Bahn AG. Retrieved February 7, 2020 .
  14. DSB to withdraw ICE-TDs as DB terminates lease. In: IRJ. Retrieved November 25, 2018 .
  15. Deutsche Bahn starts modernizing its ICE-T trains . In: DB Mobility Logistics AG (Ed.): Press release from December 6, 2013 . 2013.
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  18. a b More trains: DB expands its intercity fleet at short notice by 17 new double-decker trains | Deutsche Bahn AG. Retrieved July 22, 2019 .
  19. a b All bus connections from IC Bus (DB) at a glance. In: fernbusse.de. Retrieved November 26, 2018 .
  20. ^ Christian Schlesiger: Deutsche Bahn is expanding long-distance bus routes. In: WirtschaftsWoche. Retrieved November 26, 2018 .
  21. Shipping and Inselbahn Wangerooge. In: siw-wangerooge.de. Retrieved June 18, 2017 .
  22. Intercity 2: Our double-decker. In: www.bahn.de. DB Vertrieb GmbH, accessed on November 26, 2018 .
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  28. ^ Announcement Second stage of the rail reform. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 1/2, 1998, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 2.
  29. Report of the EXPO balance sheet. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International. Issue 12/2000, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 530.
  30. Innovation - water-based paints 1986–2011. 2001. West German paint company Brüche & Co. GmbH & Co. KG, archived from the original on June 16, 2012 ; Retrieved on April 11, 2012 (This source only proves that there was a project "Repainting of long-distance traffic in ICE design" in 2001, but not that this was also decided in that year.).
  31. ^ Transnet trade union GdED (ed.): Inform . No. 4 , April 2001, p. 10 .
  32. ^ Announcement of the investment offensive for long-distance transport. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International. Issue 3/2001, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 98.
  33. ^ Christian Schlesinger: Passenger record in sight. In: Wirtschaftswoche . No. 47, November 19, 2012, p. 14.
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  36. High flood damage: Where you can expect train delays. In: SPIEGEL online. June 11, 2013, accessed November 26, 2018 .
  37. Passenger record in long-distance traffic: DB brought more than half a million people to Christmas yesterday. In: deutschebahn.com. Deutsche Bahn AG, December 24, 2016, archived from the original on December 24, 2016 ; accessed on December 24, 2016 .
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  43. Stadler KISS Trains to Operate DB IC2 Services. February 5, 2020, accessed July 16, 2020 .
  44. manager magazin: Deutsche Bahn awards billions in contracts to Siemens - manager magazin - company. Retrieved July 16, 2020 .
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  47. Before crisis meetings: Why the train is so often late. Retrieved March 16, 2019 .
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