České dráhy

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České dráhy, as

legal form Corporation
founding 1993,
January 1, 2003 (stock corporation)
Seat Prague , Czech RepublicCzech RepublicCzech Republic 
management Václav Nebeský (General Director)
Number of employees 23,947
sales 33.1 billion CZK (1.3 billion euros )
Branch Transport / logistics
Website www.cd.cz

The České dráhy [ ˈtʃɛskɛː ˈdraːɦɪ ] (German Czech Railways ), abbreviated as ČD , are the state railway company in the Czech Republic . It was created in the course of the division of Czechoslovakia on January 1, 1993 from part of the Czechoslovak State Railways (ČSD).


The headquarters of ČD in Prague

The state railway company was created in the course of the partition of Czechoslovakia in 1993 from part of the Czechoslovak State Railways.

In 1997, the South Bohemian narrow-gauge railways Jindřichův Hradec – Nová Bystřice and Jindřichův Hradec – Obrataň were transferred to the private railway company Jindřichohradecké místní dráhy (JHMD). The Třemešná ve Slezsku – Osoblaha line in Silesia remained the only narrow-gauge railway in the ČD network, as there was no private operator here and the closure was politically unenforceable.

On January 1, 2003, the state-owned company was transformed into a public limited company.

Since January 1, 2003, the entire route network has been owned by the state infrastructure operator Správa železniční dopravní cesty (SŽDC). Since then, ČD has only been a railway company .

The freight transport division was spun off on December 1, 2007 into the newly founded subsidiary ČD Cargo .

In the 2008 financial year, ČD made a loss of CZK 3.7 billion.

In September 2009 a contract was signed with the Czech Ministry of Transport, which provides for the safeguarding of regional express train traffic at the previous level for the next ten years. For this, the Czech Railways receive the equivalent of 105 million euros from state funds every year.

In the 2009 financial year, ČD achieved a profit of CZK 1.1 billion for the first time, which was mainly due to state subsidies of CZK 4.8 billion. The operation of regional trains is particularly deficit. The state paid CZK 3.2 billion for their operation in 2009. In 2009, ČD carried a total of 163 million passengers, six percent more than in the previous year. The modernization program for regional transport vehicles continued in 2009, with Kč 4.2 billion invested in new trains.

organization structure

Corporate management

General directors (generální ředitelé):

  • Emanuel Šíp (January 1, 1993 to June 13, 1995)
  • Josef Bazala (June 30, 1995 to September 28, 1995)
  • Rudolf Mládek (September 1, 1995 to March 5, 1997)
  • Vladimír Sosna (March 10, 1997 to August 4, 1998)
  • Dalibor Zelený (August 6, 1998 to March 3, 2003)
  • Petr Kousal (March 3, 2003 to May 10, 2005)
  • Josef Bazala (May 9, 2005 to January 31, 2008)
  • Petr Žaluda (January 1, 2008 to July 30, 2013)
  • Dalibor Zelený (July 30, 2013 to February 20, 2014)
  • Daniel Kurucz (February 21, 2014 to November 10, 2014)
  • Pavel Krtek (November 10, 2014 to September 11, 2018)
  • Miroslav Kupec (September 11, 2018 to June 10, 2019)
  • Václav Nebeský (since September 25, 2019)

Chairman of the Board of Management (předsedové představenstva):

  • Dalibor Zelený (January 2, 2003 to February 28, 2003)
  • Petr Kousal (February 28, 2003 to May 9, 2005)
  • Josef Bazala (May 9, 2005 to January 31, 2008)
  • Petr Žaluda (January 1, 2008 to July 30, 2013)
  • Dalibor Zelený (July 30, 2013 to February 20, 2014)
  • Daniel Kurucz (February 21, 2014 to November 10, 2014)
  • Pavel Krtek (November 10, 2014 to September 11, 2018)
  • Miroslav Kupec (September 11, 2018 to June 10, 2019)
  • Václav Nebeský (since September 25, 2019)

Corporate structure

  • General Directorate (Generální ředitelství)
  • Branches
    • Železniční zdravotnictví (Railway Health Service)
  • Organizational units
    • Zásobovací centrum Česká Třebová (Logistic Center)
    • Odúčtovna přepravních tržeb (clearing house for transport revenues) in Olomouc
    • Vlakový doprovod osobní dopravy Praha (train escort Prague)
    • Regionální správy majetku (6 regional asset management companies)
    • Krajská centra osobní dopravy (13 regional passenger transport centers)
    • Regionální centra provozu (Regional Transport Centers): Brno, Hradec Králové, Ostrava, Plzeň, Praha, Ústí nad Labem


ČD Cargo

ČD Cargo is a rail freight transport company. The company was spun off from České dráhy on December 1, 2007 and took over about a third of the locomotives, all freight wagons and around 12,500 employees from the parent company.

Dopravní vzdělávací institut

The Dopravní vzdělávací institut as, DVI for short (German: Verkehrsbildungsinstitut AG ) was founded on October 1, 2005 as a subsidiary of ČD and is used for operational training in the field of rail transport. Specialized courses with a focus on rail transport, operations management and languages ​​are offered.

The company is based in Prague . Regional training centers are located in Plzeň , Ústí nad Labem , Hradec Králové , Brno and Ostrava . A specialized "Center for Technical Education" is located in Česká Třebová .

Other subsidiaries

Route network

The ČD route network

In 2003, a route length of 9501 km was traveled, of which about a third (2943 km) is electrified. Of this, in turn, around 60% are operated with 3 kV direct voltage (in the northeast) and the remaining 40% with 25 kV alternating voltage with a frequency of 50 Hz (in the south-west). In the medium term, the network operator plans to convert the DC voltage network to AC voltage as well. Preparatory work is in progress, the contact line systems will be insulated against 25 kV during renovations. The Tábor – Bechyně line is the last electrified line with direct voltage of only 1.5 kV, the Rybník – Lipno nad Vltavou line, originally also electrified with this voltage, was converted to 25 kV in 2005. Almost 2,000 km of the network are two-pronged. In 1995 the number of stations was given as 1063. In addition to the standard gauge railways, 20 kilometers of narrow-gauge lines are operated.

On Ještěd in Northern Bohemia, ČD operates a cabin cable car, the Ještěd cable car .

On April 10, 2002, the ČD network reached a speed of 200 km / h for the first time.

SŽDC is currently expanding the route network to include four so-called “transit corridors”, which include the country's most important railway lines and connect the largest towns with the capital Prague and with each other. In the final state, the corridors are to be driven continuously at a speed of 160 km / h, in some cases a further expansion to 230 km / h is sought.

The České dráhy use these corridors with their long-distance trains, although for some years they have had competition from the private operators RegioJet and Leo Express on the most important and busiest corridor Prague - Olomouc - Ostrava . According to the trade journal Eisenbahn-Revue International , there is a “ ruinous price war ” between the three railway companies. Tickets for the 356 km long Prague – Ostrava route were available in 2015 (from Leo Express) for CZK 99 (around EUR 3.60 , corresponding to 1 euro cent per person- kilometer ).

Train types

České dráhy operates the following types of trains:

Classification by ČD Traffic performance Abbr. Czech name German name concept
Lower quality trains Regional traffic Os Osobní vlak Passenger train Passenger trains usually stop at all intermediate stations and are the basic offer in regional traffic. The Czech S-Bahn ( Esko Prague and Ostrava ) are also categorized as Osobní vlak. Os correspond to the German regional train .
Sp Spěšný vlak Express train Express trains largely correspond to the Os, but do not stop at all stations.
Long-distance transport R. Rychlík Express train Express trains are long-distance trains, some of which correspond to the German regional express with many stops over medium to long distances.
Higher quality trains Rx Rychlík vyšší kvality Higher quality express train Rx are express trains with modernized, more comfortable ex-wagons, according to ČD with a share of at least 80%. The cars should be equipped with sockets for passengers and air conditioning. Introduced in 2014.
Ex Express Ex are used for faster, more comfortable trips over long distances with fewer stops. They also run on international train services. Corresponds to the former German Interregio .
The ICs largely correspond to the German InterCity in terms of their use and requirements . For marketing reasons, connections with the Pendolino are marked as SC.


The EuroCity largely correspond to the IC, but with international destinations. In 2014 the genus rj was introduced. Some of these are very comfortable express trains to Austria in joint service with ÖBB.
EN EuroNight EN are international night trains with destinations and requirements similar to EuroCitys.
Regional train on a branch line, here in Okříšky

The passenger trains (Os) correspond to the German and Austrian regional trains and stop at all train stations and stops, although they usually only carry the second class of car. The trains of the “Esko” S-Bahn systems in Prague and Ostrava are also listed as “Osobní vlak” in the timetables. Passenger trains usually run every one or two hours. Some of the trains in the Esko system in Prague also run every 30 minutes. The express trains (Sp) are passenger trains that do not stop at all stations in order to achieve a higher travel speed. They usually only lead the 2nd class.

The D-trains (R) represent the basic offer in long-distance traffic. They usually have frequent stops, the average speed is often low. The lines run are comparable to the German regional express, but some of the trains also have long routes, e.g. B. also numerous direct connections from more distant parts of the country to the capital Prague. Express trains usually run every two hours. Usually 1st and 2nd class cars, some with an on-board restaurant. The Rx or Rychlík vyšší kvality consist of new or modernized cars.

Express train in the typical ČD color scheme (until 2011, blue since 2011)

Expresse (Ex) are high-level express trains on long-distance connections. Characteristic are few stops and a high cruising speed. However, the vehicles used do not meet the Eurocity standards. The trains consist of 1st and 2nd class cars, and some express trains have an on-board restaurant.

The Czech InterCity trains are comparable to the German InterCity , they cover long distances and rarely stop, and there are also on-board restaurants. The EuroCity (EC) are international long-distance trains that are otherwise similar to the German and Czech InterCitys. EuroNight trains (EN) only run overnight and have sleeping or couchette cars and otherwise correspond to EuroCitys

ČD-RJ in use between Prague and Austria

ČD has also been offering the railjet (RJ) train type since December 2014. In 2014, 7 sets were purchased from Siemens , which are hauled by locomotives of the 1216 series rented by ÖBB . In the plan, they will, together with three sets of the ÖBB, from Praha hl.n. Used via Vienna Hbf to Graz Hbf . The sets have three classes: economy, first and business class. The restaurant is located between economy and first class. Free WiFi in the Czech Republic and Austria as well as several information screens on the train are intended to make the journey more pleasant for travelers.

The SuperCity (SC) are the most comfortable and fastest trains operated by ČD. They operate exclusively on the expanded route from Ostrava via Olomouc to Prague and twice a day beyond that in the direction of Pilsen and on to Františkovy Lázně . Only modern tilting technology trains are used as SuperCity . Trains on the Prague – Ostrava line run every two hours, some connections run beyond Ostrava to Bohumin . A pair of trains even continues to go to Košice (Slovakia). Connections to Vienna and Bratislava that were initially offered have now been discontinued in favor of a more condensed timetable on the main route.

All trains are free of charge (exception: sleeping or couchette surcharges in the EuroNight), but a seat must be reserved in SuperCitys (except in the Františkovy Lázně / Franzensbad – Plzeň / Pilsen section in 2nd class) and in the business compartments of the railjets.

Locomotives and wagons

The modern double-deck trains of ČD Class 471 are primarily in Prague tram transport used

The ČD vehicle fleet still largely consists of vehicles that were purchased by the Czechoslovak State Railways (ČSD) before 1993 . Financial problems as a result of the rapid decline in traffic in the 1990s prevented them from being phased out and renewed as planned.

In the 1990s, the ČD series 843 diesel multiple units were purchased.

Investments in new vehicles were initially made primarily for long-distance transport. In 2005, for example, seven tilting technology multiple units of the 680 series (“Pendolino”) were put into operation for high-quality international travel.

For the local transport, the existing vehicles are mostly modernized extensively. One example of this are the class 810 railcars , which were converted into the low-floor "Regionova" class 814 . For the city express services around Prague and Ostrava ("Esko"), 83 double-decker multiple units from the Czech manufacturer Škoda were put into service.

In autumn 2011, the takeover of a delivery option for 16 trainsets of the Railjet was announced by the ÖBB - the trains were to serve important Czech main routes to neighboring countries from 2013.

From around 2011 new railcars for regional traffic were also procured : In some regions the “RegioShark” from the Polish company PESA was procured, while other regions procured the somewhat smaller “RegioSpider” from the Stadler Rail company . Trains from the local company Škoda, marketed as “RegioPanter” , are increasingly being used on electrified routes . The new trains are gradually replacing the old rolling stock. Modernized diesel multiple units of the ČD series 810 have been operating as "RegioMouse" since 2018 .

Numerous diesel locomotives from the 60s, 70s and 80s have been equipped with new engines and repainted since the 1990s. The locomotive bodies remained largely unchanged.

Railway Museum Lužná u Rakovníka

Railway Museum Lužná u Rakovníka

On the site of the former depot in the Lužná u Rakovníka station, ČD has been operating the largest railway museum in the Czech Republic since 1997 . In addition to its own historic locomotives and wagons, vehicles from the National Technical Museum in Prague are also presented there. The vehicle collection is complemented by an exhibition with historical security technology.

See also


  • Železniční mapa České republiky a Evropy. České dráhy, 1995

Web links

Commons : ČD  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Představenstvo
  2. a b Annual Report 2015
  3. ^ Prager Zeitung, September 17, 2009
  4. Prager Zeitung, February 18, 2009 p. 6
  5. a b c d Dozorčí rada sesadila šéfa Českých drah Krtka. Nahradí ho Kupec. IDnes.cz , September 11, 2018, accessed October 29, 2019 .
  6. a b Kupce po devíti měsících odvolali z čela Českých drah, hledá se nástupce. IDnes.cz , June 10, 2019, accessed October 29, 2019 .
  7. a b Šéfem Českých drah se stal úředník Václav Nebeský. IDnes.cz , September 25, 2019, accessed October 29, 2019 .
  8. Výroční zpráva ČD, as 2003. České dráhy, June 25, 2014, accessed on October 29, 2019 .
  9. České dráhy as, organizační jednotky (PDF; 19 kB)
  10. Výkonné jednotky ČD http://www.ceskedrahy.cz/assets/skupina-cd/organizacni-slozky/vykonne-jednotky/vykonne_jednoky12112008.pdf
  11. Homepage of Dopravní vzdělávací institut
  12. For the first time 200 km / h with the ČD . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 6/2002, p. 292.
  13. ^ Price war in the Czech Republic. Eisenbahn-Revue International 4/2013, p. 186
  14. ^ "Top price" according to the Leo Express website, accessed on February 28, 2015
  15. Train categories. České dráhy, December 30, 2014, accessed on January 7, 2015 (German).
  16. derstandard.at - Czech State Railways orders 16 Railjets from Vienna , September 30, 2011