European Train Control System
The European Train Control System ( ETCS , German European Train Control System ) is an automatic train control system and fundamental part of the future single European Rail Traffic Management System ERTMS . In the long term, ETCS is to replace the more than 20 different train control systems in Europe.
This standardization enables a great simplification of the signaling equipment of the trains in the trans-European networks (TEN) as well as a uniform high security standard of the infrastructure. The track equipment remains under national supervision.
Practical trials of ETCS have been running since the late 1990s, and commercial projects were increasingly brought into operation in the 2000s. Since 2002, the implementation of ETCS has been required by EU law for new trans-European high - speed lines , and since 2006 also for upgraded lines .
The railway networks in Luxembourg and the Swiss standard gauge network since 2018 have been practically fully equipped with ETCS since 2017 . In Belgium , Denmark , Israel and the Netherlands it was decided to equip the existing network with ETCS. In most European countries and in some other countries, routes and vehicles with ETCS are in operation to varying degrees.
In Germany several lines have been equipped with ETCS so far . Since the timetable change in December 2015, the high-speed line between Erfurt and Halle / Leipzig, which was equipped as part of VDE 8 , was the only line actively used operationally. In December 2017, operations began on the new Ebensfeld – Erfurt line .
The ETCS infrastructure can also be used as the basis for automated driving operations (ATO).
ETCS is the result of the work of the European Railway Agency ( English ERA, European Union Agency for Railways since 2016 ) to improve economic integration in Western Europe and competitiveness compared to other modes of transport. The aim is to replace the previous various train control and guidance systems within Europe and so on
- the investment costs for international vehicles are reduced,
- Time saved on cross-border journeys and
- the approval of vehicles for international traffic will be simplified.
Compared to previous systems are also
- minimizes the costs for maintenance and operation of stationary systems (e.g. signals),
- made rail traffic safer,
- the line capacity and
- the line speed increased.
For the rail industry in the EU, the development of complex systems results in competitive advantages also in non-EU markets. For countries with previously less developed safety technology for the railway infrastructure, the use of ETCS means greater planning security for interoperable systems and a competitive situation for the providers.
Originally developed with a focus on the interoperability of the European high-speed rail networks in passenger traffic, the ETCS has been designed as a uniform train control system for all rail traffic in the EU since 2004.
In order to be able to guarantee safe train traffic even with high traffic density and higher speeds, train control systems are necessary. This allows moving trains to be controlled from the outside and, if necessary, also stopped.
The train control systems can be configured in line or point form to accompany the track. Unlike previous signaling systems, the new system should enable fully automatic signal transmission. In addition, signals should be able to be transmitted bidirectionally. This could not be achieved even with the advanced systems from the 1960s (e.g. line train control ). The more modern radio systems (e.g. GSM-R ) that existed at the beginning of the 1990s did not have sufficient signal availability for a sole application for reliable rail operations. The previous track-accompanying systems were material-intensive, not particularly robust against vandalism and also endangered by metal theft .
In Europe, 14 versions of incompatible train control and control systems have developed, some of which are used side by side and depending on the country. In cross-border traffic and sometimes also in domestic traffic, locomotives must therefore either be equipped with several train control systems or be exchanged at great expense. In some cases, the route infrastructure is also equipped with multiple equipment at the same time in order to ensure mixed operation of train control systems.
The changeover to the standards defined today in ETCS means an investment that will be effective for a long time to simplify the equipment of both the infrastructure operator and the locomotives. A defined high standard of road safety in rail operations is achieved across national borders.
The European ERTMS provision plan provides for the trans-European rail system to be gradually navigable with ERTMS. On the infrastructure side, it is mandatory to equip ERTMS / ETCS within the "trans-European rail network" and the "trans-European high-speed rail network" in accordance with Directive 2008/57 / EC and the underlying decision 1692/96 / EC:
- six defined freight corridors and their connections to certain important ports, shunting facilities, freight terminals and freight traffic areas. To this end, the member states must submit a schedule for the equipment to the European Commission. On corridor sections with more than one route, one route is sufficient. (The Federal Republic of Germany last presented such a plan at the end of 2017.)
- High-speed lines for new equipment and essential conversions of security technology.
- when a "train protection component of a ZZS subsystem" is newly installed.
- Rail infrastructure projects that are already in operation and that have received funding from the ERDF , the Cohesion Fund or the TEN-T budget , in the case of retrofitting of a CCS subsystem that is already in operation "which changes the functions or the performance of the subsystem".
Equipping Class B systems in addition to ERTMS is permitted.
Railway vehicles for which a commissioning authorization is issued for the first time must in principle be equipped with ETCS in the EU. Excluded from this are construction and maintenance vehicles, new shunting locomotives and new vehicles not intended for use on high-speed lines, insofar as they are
- exclusively in domestic traffic outside of the above Freight transport corridors and their connections to important facilities are used or
- in cross-border traffic outside the TEN to the first train station in the neighboring country, where there are connections to other destinations in the neighboring country.
Furthermore, Member States can exempt certain vehicles for domestic traffic from the equipment requirement, provided that their area of operation does not extend more than 150 km over route sections already equipped with ETCS or are to be equipped with ETCS within five years after the vehicles have been approved for commissioning. This exemption applies in Germany.
In addition, high-speed trains have to be equipped with ETCS as part of new equipment or retrofitting of the train control systems.
In addition, regulations apply when the area of use of vehicles is expanded in accordance with the Fourth Railway Package . The equipment obligation for routes in Germany is specified in the EIGV .
At the end of the 1980s, various European railways were in the process of improving existing national train control systems, specifying new ones or installing new ones. There was no cross-border coordination at that time. Efforts to shorten the length of stay at the border and to lower costs by creating a Europe-wide market for train control systems led to the development of the concept of a uniform train control system by the early 1990s. On December 4th and 5th, 1989, a working group met with the transport ministers of the EC countries and drafted a master plan for a trans-European high-speed network, which first mentioned the concept of a European train control system (ETCS). The Commission forwarded the draft to the Council, which welcomed the proposal on December 17, 1990 and, in Directive 91/440 / EEC of July 29, 1991, decided to draw up a catalog of requirements for interoperability in high-speed traffic. A Memorandum of Understanding was signed in Bern in June 1991 , in which railways and industry declared their intention to specify and develop ETCS as a new train control and train control system. In 1995 a development plan was drawn up which first mentioned the concept of a European rail control system ERTMS.
Market opening should be enforced through public procurement law , which stipulated, among other things, the use of European specifications for public contracts in certain areas, so-called TSIs ( Technical Specifications for Interoperability ). On this basis, in 1996 the EC Directive 96/48 / EC provided for the development of TSIs for subsystems whose interoperability is necessary for a trans-European high-speed rail system. The TSI for train control, train protection and signaling (TSI ZZS, English CCS) refers to the train control system ETCS and the mobile radio-based communication system GSM-R (Global System for Mobile communication - Railways) . The International Union of Railways ( UIC , Union internationale des chemins de fer ) had the first specifications for ETCS drawn up by the European Rail Research Institute (ERRI) in 1991 . These were developed further from 1996 onwards by the ERTMS Users Group , an interest group of now six European railways, and then by UNISIG , an association of European railway safety technology manufacturers.
ERA also set up a working group of national railway safety authorities to promote the development of common safety standards. In addition, was with NB Rail , a working group of notified bodies (Notified Bodies) was established to unify the regulatory process.
Switzerland has adopted the EU guidelines on interoperability.
Since 1999 ETCS has been tested by the Italian Railways (RFI), Deutsche Bahn AG (DB AG), Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) and Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB), among others . In the same year pilot projects were started: Sofia - Burgas (Bulgaria, ETCS Level 1) and Ludwigsfelde - Jüterbog - Halle / Leipzig (Germany, ETCS Level 2).
Several hundred million euros had been invested in ETCS and ERTMS by the beginning of 2000. On the night of April 27, 2002, the first commercial application of ETCS Level 2 went into operation in Switzerland .
In 2002, ETCS track and vehicle equipment was sold outside Europe for the first time.
On March 17, 2005, the Union of European Railway Industries (UNIFE), the Community of European Railways and Infrastructure Companies CER, EIM and UIC together with the EU Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the use of ERTMS / ETCS in the European network . Building on this, in March 2006 the ETCS equipment of six freight corridors (A to F) was examined more closely.
In 2006 more than 3000 vehicles were equipped with ETCS. More than 6000 kilometers of track were in operation with ETCS or their equipment was contractually agreed. By 2007, ETCS had generated sales of around two billion euros. 1,739 km and 852 vehicles were in commercial operation with ETCS, the equipment of a further 28,000 km had been commissioned or planned. The development of existing train control systems (legacy systems) was practically discontinued, with the exception of their connection to ETCS (Specific Transmission Modules - STMs - as an interface to the legacy system). In July 2008, another memorandum of understanding was signed by the EU Commission and various railway organizations in order to ensure closer cooperation and accelerate ETCS development.
According to a proposal by the EU, all border crossings are to be upgraded by 2020, Corridor A by 2022 and the other TEN corridors by 2030.
In September 2013 ETCS was in use or planned to be used in 34 countries around the world. Equipment contracts for around 68,000 km had been signed, half of which went to Europe and the rest of the world. This corresponds to a share of 4 percent of the global rail network of 1.6 million km.
By July 5, 2017, the member states had to submit national implementation plans to the EU Commission. Building on this, a database (TENtec) with the ETCS equipment status is to be created in the TEN network. The national implementation plans should run for at least 15 years and be updated every 5 years.
The introduction of ETCS is funded under various funding programs, for example the Connecting Europe Facility ( CEF ).
In particular, ETCS monitors the maximum permissible speed (taking into account ETCS braking curves ), but also, for example, the suitability of the train for the route and compliance with special operating regulations.
In order to be allowed to move a train with ETCS, an ETCS driving license ( Movement Authority , MA) is required. This is usually transmitted via Eurobalises laid in the track or by radio (mostly GSM-R), rarely also via Euroloop . The ETCS vehicle equipment (Engl. Onboard Unit , OBU) evaluates these data and bringing the train in case of danger by emergency braking automatically in front of a danger point for support. Usually the data is also shown to the driver on a display.
Using 35 national values that can be configured by the infrastructure operator , operational rules and principles can be mapped in ETCS. This results in a different behavior of the system from country to country.
The main components of ETCS are:
- The Eurobalises are punctiform data transmission devices in the track that are activated when the train passes over them and transmit data like a transponder . There are balises that always transmit the same fixed data (fixed data balises) and switchable balises for variable information (transparent data balises).
- The core of the ETCS in-vehicle equipment is the European Vital Computer (EVC). Based on information from the route, u. a. the cab display (Engl. Driver Machine Interface calculated DMI).
- The vehicle uses ETCS odometry to continuously determine its location using euro balises that serve as "milestones" and a combination of sensors (e.g. wheel pulse generator , Doppler radar ). The distance, speed and (braking) acceleration data obtained are processed further in a variety of ways.
- The optional ETCS center (RBC for Radio Block Center ) issues driving permits taking dynamic and static information into account. While the dynamic data (position and status reports from signals and points) are transmitted by the interlocking, the static route properties are configured in a route atlas. These include, for example, points, signals, balises , inclinations and speeds.
- The optional Euroloop is a cable-based, semi-continuous data transmission system that can transmit changes to the signal aspect to vehicles in ETCS L1 mode. For this, in the signal viewing area (often in combination with a balise), a cable line conductor is laid in a loop in the track, often several 100 m long. In contrast to the Eurobalise, the data can not only be transmitted when crossing a point, but along the entire length of the loop.
- If necessary, data is usually transmitted via one of mostly two GSM-R modems installed on the vehicle. With the standardized data encryption according to Euroradio , the ETCS vehicle computer and the ETCS control center can communicate with each other in a secure manner, i.e. protected from data corruption and data loss.
The ETCS antenna of a class 189 locomotive
ETCS on-board unit on a ČD class 471 multiple unit
Driver's cab with driver machine interface (center) of an ICE 1 with ETCS equipment
In order to meet the requirements of different routes, usage profiles and railway administrations, different ETCS levels (e.g. levels , levels ) of the interaction between the route and the vehicle have been defined, levels 0 to 3 . These determine which trackside equipment is used, how information is sent to the vehicle and which functions are carried out on the vehicle and trackside.
On the vehicle side, the levels are downward compatible , i.e. traction vehicles with Level 2 equipment must also be able to drive on routes that are equipped according to Level 1 - the operating license requires appropriate evidence. This does not apply to the track equipment, none of the levels replace one of the others. A line can support several ETCS levels and national train control systems.
Technical details of communication and basic operating procedures of ETCS are standardized. In contrast, there are a large number of country-specific solutions and special features, particularly when it comes to track-side equipment and operation by the dispatcher.
There are differences between the levels in terms of the signaling locations and the type of driving permission transfer. In addition, ETCS stop boards (at DB: Ne 14 ) can be used in Levels 2 and 3 instead of stationary (light) signals .
The ETCS level does not say anything about whether the infrastructure is operated with or without conventional light signals . For example, a route equipped with level 1 can be operated without light signals, whereas a route equipped with level 3 can also be operated with light signals.
ETCS level 0
If a locomotive with ETCS equipment is used on a route without train control by the ETCS system, this is referred to as level 0. The on-board ETCS equipment only monitors the train for its maximum speed. The driver drives along the route according to the conventional signals. The train journey can be monitored by a conventional national train control system.
If the route is equipped with a national train control system and its associated on-board unit is not connected to ETCS (i.e. not available as an STM), level 0 must be used. This applies in particular to systems that cannot be activated or deactivated while driving because they are e.g. B. trigger an emergency brake when starting or switching off.
ETCS level STM or NTC
So-called Specific Transmission Modules are required in order to be able to use a traction vehicle with ETCS equipment on a route with a conventional national train control system (“Class B system” such as LZB or ATB ) . In Baseline 2, this level is referred to as the STM ( Specific Transmission Module ) level.
In the Baseline 3 version, which is decisive for new installations, it was decided to use the designation Level NTC ( National Train Control ) . Thus, a more precise distinction is made between the signal sensors on the vehicle and the track (transmission modules) and the country-specific use of the transmittable content (codes). The driver must select the operating mode in any case.
On the track side, an STM is adapted to the existing signaling and control technology; a standardized interface is defined for the ETCS vehicle equipment . The STMs receive and process the information transmitted by the national route equipment. The OBU is in "STM National" (SN) mode , the monitoring function is carried out by the STM.
The development of an STM can be very expensive and time consuming depending on the complexity. In the case of retrofits, the aim is often to couple existing and approved independent systems with the least possible changes to an ETCS and to use the advantages of the ETCS with less approval effort. In the case of new vehicles or extensive modernizations, the customer strives to closely link the train control systems with the operating and diagnostic technology. The manufacturers therefore deliver modular STM solutions around a core system for ETCS. For the vehicle driver, there is a standardized operation through the DMI . The switch-over of the vehicle-side systems in the event of track-side level changes are automatically triggered and monitored by the ETCS system. Train control systems that cannot be switched while driving can only be operated together with ETCS Level 0.
ETCS level 1
ETCS Level 1 is characterized by discontinuous communication between the route and the vehicle. Depending on the version, optical signals can continue to be used or replaced by driver's cab signaling. The quasi-continuous transmission of ETCS information between the vehicle and the route infrastructure takes place via balises and / or Euroloop . In many installations, these transmission points are connected to the locations of pre- and main signals . Before baseline 3, there are no plans to transmit train control information via GSM-R, but the bidirectional exchange of information with balises.
The partial use of GSM-R ( radio infill ) is possible in level 1 for the first time from baseline 3 and should be tested for the first time in 2017 on a branch line in Italy. This allows for a smoother operational sequence if the train receives the signal “moving” before it reaches the main signal indicating a stop. He then no longer has to reach the signal balise with minimal travel and read the signal from the balise there.
The most important information transmitted by the balises are route gradients, maximum route speeds and the point at which the vehicle should stop again. Together with the mode, these form the Movement Authority . In this way, the on-board ETCS equipment can continuously monitor compliance with the permitted speed (and direction) and trigger emergency braking in good time, regardless of nationally defined route geometries and signal intervals.
ETCS level 2
ETCS Level 2 is characterized by constant communication between the vehicle and the ETCS headquarters via Euroradio .
Before the RBC can calculate the information required for an MA , it must know exactly where the train is and in which direction it is going. The vehicle computer is responsible for determining the position and direction, which regularly transmits these to the route via GSM-R. If the route is not also suitable for level 1, the balises are usually fixed-data balises, i.e. they send static messages.
As in ETCS Level 1, the information about free track sections is determined by the stationary track vacancy signal from the signal box and transferred to the ETCS control center: The route is divided into block sections - as with conventional safety technology - and the train may only enter the next block section if if this, including the adjoining protective section, is not occupied by another train but has been reported free.
Two Eurobalises on an ETCS stop board (instead of a main signal) on the Erfurt – Leipzig / Halle high-speed line (ETCS Level 2 without signals)
ETCS level 3
In contrast to ETCS Level 2, with ETCS Level 3 the track vacancy is no longer reported on the track side (e.g. via axle counters), but purely through the position report from the ETCS on-board equipment to the RBC ( Position Report ). When the position is reported, the train completeness must also be continuously ascertained and confirmed to the ETCS headquarters so that sections that have already been traveled can be cleared again. A secure system for train completeness control is required for this.
The division of the route into discrete blocks can be retained, the length of which, however, is substantially shortened by dispensing with track-side track vacancy detection and thus the performance is fundamentally increased. This classification can be omitted ( moving block ), whereby the RBC would ultimately take over the function of the interlocking. Moving block solutions are not yet in use; a combination of RBC and interlocking known as an ETCS interlocking is in the early stages of development in Switzerland.
As a transitional solution from level 2 to pure level 3, the introduction of virtual block sections (only cleared by ETCS) is proposed. One or more virtual sections could arise between conventional sections that are cleared by track vacancy detection devices, which trains with ETCS Level 2 vehicle equipment and train integrity checks could safely report clear. This combination of conventional track vacancy detection systems and additional virtual, i.e. H. Sections that are only cleared by the ETCS vehicle equipment are also referred to as ETCS Hybrid Level 3 or ETCS HD . Under the name ERTMS Regional , a level 3 system has also been developed for routes with little traffic.
ETCS operating modes
The ETCS operating mode of a traction vehicle describes the current operating status of the EVC and is shown in the driver's cab display. The operating modes and their functions have been standardized within the framework of the level. Deletion and addition are possible within the framework of other baselines. Not all operating modes are available in every level. For example, “UN” is only available in Level 0. “SN” and “SE” are only available in Level STM.
Not all modes of operation need to be implemented.
Overview of ETCS operating modes:
|Abbreviation and DMI symbol||(full name||Use
|Driving in regular operation|
||Full supervision ( full monitoring )||1, 2, 3||The train is fully monitored by the ETCS. A prerequisite for this mode is a valid driving permit (MA), which can be given at the earliest after crossing the first Eurobalise, as the ETCS headquarters may do this. A. The position of the vehicle must be known. In contrast to Mode LS, the ETCS knows the status of all signals in FS.|
||Limited supervision (DB: ETCS signal-controlled )||1, 2, 3||Zug is partially monitored by the ETCS. However, since the ETCS does not know the status of all signals on the route, as is the case with FS, the driver is still obliged to pay attention to the route-side signaling.
This mode is new in version SRS 3.0.0
||On sight||1, 2, 3||Train is monitored by the ETCS, but the driver drives on sight. This happens e.g. B. when driving into an occupied track, if the freedom of the own track section cannot be ensured.|
||Shunting (shunting program)||0, 1, 2, 3||Maneuvering mode; the temporary or permanent (by means of border balises) permitted maneuvering area can be specified by the ETCS; When changing to Level 2 / SH, up to 15 balise IDs, which can be passed without the train control intervening, are transmitted and the RBC connection is terminated; a shunting destination is not transmitted. A new balise list is generally available, but has not yet been implemented on the vehicle. In addition, switchable balises can transmit further information. 30 km / h is allowed in most countries.|
||Non Leading (not live)||0, NTC, 1, 2, 3||The vehicle with the ETCS is manned by a driver, but is not at the head of a train and therefore does not lead the train. This mode of operation is to motive power behind a header locomotive or sliding and closing locomotives used.|
|Sleeping||0, NTC, 1, 2, 3||The vehicle with ETCS is coupled to another vehicle that takes the lead. The lead vehicle does not necessarily have to have ETCS. The guided vehicle is not manned by a driver, his vehicle computer reads location information (Eurobalises).|
|Passive shunting||0, NTC, 1, 2, 3||Maneuvering mode; the vehicle in passive shunting is coupled to another vehicle, which takes the lead and is also used for maneuvering. The leading vehicle is in shunting mode.
This mode is new in version SRS 3.0.0
|Routes without ETCS equipment|
|STM European||STM||The information from a conventional, national security system installed on the track is read by an STM and passed on to the EVC via a standardized interface. The EVC takes over the evaluation of this data and thus the monitoring functions (can be compared to FS).
This mode was not implemented by any manufacturer and is no longer applicable with version SRS 3.1.0
||National System||NTC||The information from a conventional, national train control system installed on the track side is read by an STM and also processed by it. The STM therefore takes over the monitoring itself and uses at most a few functions made available by the ETCS via a standardized interface, such as B. brake output, control / display device (MMI), speed measurement or data registration.|
||Unfitted||0||Only one maximum speed is monitored by the ETCS. However, the ETCS receives information from possibly installed balises and thus carries out z. B. Switching to other levels.|
||Staff responsible||1, 2, 3||The driver himself is responsible for the route monitoring, in most countries 30 km / h is allowed, which is still monitored by the ETCS. This mode is used when no MA can be given from the line, e.g. B. in the event of faults in the track vacancy detection or when starting the ETCS onboard system.|
||Trip||NTC, 1, 2, 3||Emergency braking is active until the train stops and the driver has confirmed the trip.|
||Post trip||1, 2, 3||Mode after the driver has confirmed the trip; the brakes are released, but the train is not yet authorized to travel; if necessary, it may be set back a little to get in front of a signal that has been run over.|
||Reversing (resetting)||1, 2, 3||Train is allowed to travel a certain distance against the original direction of travel, e.g. B. to clear the route in the event of disruptions or danger; was used for the first time on the route through the Lötschberg base tunnel , which went into operation at the end of 2007 .|
|Disturbance and operating conditions|
||Stand By (readiness)||0, STM, 1, 2, 3||The ETCS vehicle equipment is in stand-by mode after switching on. In this mode, ETCS monitors the standstill of the vehicle. The mode is exited either by the driver selecting another mode or by the vehicle recognizing itself as being guided and therefore automatically changing to the SL mode.|
||System failure||0, NTC, 1, 2, 3||An internal error has occurred in the ETCS; an emergency brake (forced quick brake) is active.|
|isolation||0, STM, 1, 2, 3||The ETCS no longer has any external connection; the emergency brake output is bridged.|
|No power||0, NTC, 1, 2, 3||The ETCS is switched off.|
Class B systems
Certain national train control systems may continue to be used in addition to ETCS in the future. This serves to protect the continued existence of rail infrastructure operators who have invested large sums of money in these systems in the past. The class B systems include:
- ALSN (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Russia, Belarus)
- ASFA (Spain)
- ATB (Netherlands)
- ATP-VR / RHK (Finland)
- AWS (United Kingdom)
- BACC (Italy)
- CAWS and ATP (Ireland)
- Crocodile (France, Luxembourg, Belgium)
- EBICAB 700 (Bulgaria, Norway, Portugal, Sweden)
- EBICAB 900 (Spain)
- EVM (Hungary)
- GW ATP (United Kingdom)
- Indusi / PZB (Austria, Germany)
- KVB (France)
- LS (Czech Republic, Slovakia)
- LZB (Germany, Austria, Spain)
- MEMOR II + (Luxembourg)
- RETB (United Kingdom)
- RSDD / SCMT (Italy)
- SELCAB (Spain, United Kingdom)
- SHP (Poland)
- TBL (Belgium)
- TPWS (United Kingdom)
- TVM (Belgium, France, United Kingdom)
- ZUB 121 (Switzerland)
- ZUB 123 (Denmark)
Instead of fixed data balises, satellite positioning with differential GPS can also be used in the future in order to implement "virtual balises", as researched by the UIC (GADEROS / GEORAIL) and the ESA (RUNE / INTEGRAIL). The use here is linked to the operational capability of EGNOS- supported positioning with Galileo satellites . Experience in the LOCOPROL project shows that balises cannot be dispensed with in the station area for the time being. The successful use of satellite positioning in the GLONASS- based Russian ABTC-M block protection was integrated in the ITARUS ATC system with ETCS Level 2 RBC - the manufacturers Hitachi Rail STS and VNIIAS want the ETCS compatibility of the system to be recognized by the UIC. On the Russian Severo-Kawkasskaja schelesnaja doroga between Adler (near Sochi ) and Matsesta, train control is being tested in which satellite positioning is linked with movement authorizations transmitted via GSM-R . The system is based on ETCS Level 2. This link could result in proposals for an addition to the specification for ETCS Level 3 that is currently being developed.
In Italy, the pilot project called "ERSAT" is being tested on a 50 km section of Sardinia's north-south main line.
As part of the ERSAT project carried out by Asstra, Hitachi Rail STS, DB Netz, RFI and Trenitalia , the extent to which trains on regional routes can be located by satellite will be investigated within the framework of Horizon 2020 until January 2017.
The system definitions are summarized across all levels in versions that are referred to as SRS (System Requirements Specification). When the standards are updated, incompatible major changes are summarized as new main versions ( baseline ). The individual levels can be updated within a baseline without having to change other levels at the same time.
The ETCS specification can be understood as a large set of functionalities that grows with each new version. Currently, three development statuses of the ETCS specification are bindingly applicable: Version 2.3.0d (within Baseline 2) and 3.4.0 and 3.6.0 (within Baseline 3).
The term baseline comes from software development and is used to identify the main versions, i.e. H. the first version number. A software-technically clean versioning was only implemented during the definition of Baseline 3, which is why, in retrospect, there is a rather confusing variety of version designations.
The ETCS specification available from the European Railway Agency consists of numerous parts, so-called subsets , some of which are mandatory, some are "only" informative. For specific developments, sets of documents have been compiled that are as compatible as possible with one another. The document sets are named after the version status of the most important document, the system requirements specification (SRS, Subset-026).
The first version of the specification appeared on July 20, 1995 (number 01.00), the second version (number 02.01) on January 30, 1996. On February 27, 1996, the second version (number 02.02) was revised on July 19, 1996 finally the third version (number 03.00), which appeared on August 9, 1996 in a revised version (number 03.01).
Class P - (1999)
The first version of the specification SRS 5a, published in July 1998, was the starting point for practical standardization. With the revised Class P specification in April 1999, clarifications and improvements were mainly made by the European signaling industry (UNISIG).
Class 1 - 2.0.0 (2000)
The first specification, called Class 1 , was passed on April 25, 2000. The specification, in which UNISIG spent around 75 man-years of work, was classified as Baseline 2. Compared to the A200 work, various functions have been removed (e.g. emergency brake override and attention monitoring of the driver ), full supervision provided as the only operating mode for regular operation and the development of level 3 postponed. With this version, new functions were added at the request of the railways, including RBC handover and route parameters.
Class 1 - 2.2.2 (2002)
SRS 2.2.2, as an extension of SRS 2.0.0, was published in 2002. It is the first version that has been declared binding in the European Union as a TSI for new high-speed lines.
The release contained a number of bugs and unresolved issues, including cold movement detection . 41 of these points should primarily be resolved with version 3.0.
Version 2.2.2 was used commercially for the first time between Jüterbog and Halle or Leipzig.
In addition to version 2.2.2, versions 2.2.2+ and 2.2.2 Consolidated were created .
Class 1 - 2.2.2+ (2006)
The document Subset-108 contains a changing inventory of change proposals (CR, Change Requests ). Class 1 - 2.2.2 plus those CRs that are marked with "IN" (not "OUT" ) in version 1.0.0 of Subset-108 , informally called 2.2.2+, became mandatory in 2006 for conventional routes.
SRS 2.2.2+ was used in the Lötschberg base tunnel and the new Mattstetten – Rothrist line .
Class 1 - 2.3.0 (2007)
With the decision 2007/153 / EG on March 6, 2007 , the European Commission made version 2.3.0 of the specification binding in the TSI CCS.
SRS 2.3.0 was published in 2004 and took into account a number of experiences from various European ETCS projects. The version was considered technically unstable and buggy. The publication can be understood as a political attempt to accelerate the very slow coordination processes in the EU, to harmonize the practical implementation experience (SRS 2.2) with the newly developed requirements (SRS 2.3) and to organize the work already started on future versions (Baseline 3) to separate.
By autumn 2007, 55 change requests had been received.
Class 1 - 2.3.0d (July 2008)
This version was developed by ERA and eliminates ambiguities and errors in version 2.3.0. These changes were mainly summarized in subset 108. The "d" in "2.3.0d" stands for "debugged". In July 2008 this version became binding through a decision of the EU Commission. In order to increase planning security in view of numerous other CRs, this set of documents was fixed as so-called "Baseline 2" and version number 3 was determined for subsequent versions of the documents. The appearance of a baseline 3 was made binding by the end of 2012.
The inadequate braking model of this version has a capacity-reducing effect and led to a number of national adaptations (deviating from the TSI). This version may no longer be used for vehicles that are to receive a commissioning authorization for the first time from January 1, 2019.
With Baseline 3, a number of essential innovations were introduced into the ETCS specification. These included a better braking curve model , the new Limited Supervision operating mode , optimized radio infill and the detection of movements of parked vehicles (cold movement detection).
In 2006, the compilation of possible functional enhancements for Baseline 3 began. In March 2007, 47 suggestions for functional changes were made. Development was delayed due to a lack of resources, among other things. The first core of Baseline 3 was the Functional Requirements Specification (FRS) in version 5.05 and the SRS in version 3.0.0, which - after a long delay - were published as a draft by ERA on December 23, 2008.
At the end of 2012, in order to meet the deadline, a second set of documents was put together. Among them was the SRS in version 3.3.0, which was declared binding as an alternative to Baseline 2 from January 1, 2013 (2012/696 / EU), although not all of the above. Functions had been implemented and contained inconsistencies that were too gross for a baseline. At the same time, the stability of the requirements specifications of the first document set 2.3.0d was confirmed, but the test specification was corrected and supplemented. For the resolution of ambiguities in 2.3.0d, reference was made to the corresponding passages in Baseline 3. The requirements specification of the GSM-R part of ERTMS also remained unchanged with this decision (GSM-R baseline 0), but was classified more clearly. Like the previous resolutions, this is addressed to the member states for implementation in national law. Version 3.3.0 was withdrawn in 2015.
For vehicles used across borders with initial commissioning authorization from January 1, 2018, ETCS vehicle equipment according to Baseline 3 is mandatory. ETCS equipment according to Baseline 3 should be available from 2017 [obsolete] . The Swiss Federal Office of Transport hopes to be able to issue the first operating permits by the timetable change in December 2017 [out of date] .
With Baseline 3, another nomenclature was introduced for the identification of track and vehicle equipment, the system versions .
- The ETCS SRS 2.3.0d is referred to as system version 1.0 , the previous versions of Baseline 2 are not considered (e.g. SRS 2.2.2).
- The system version 1.1 features routes to baseline 3 that can be used by both vehicles with SRS 2.3.0d and SRS 3.4.0. Vehicles with Baseline 2 cannot use new functions.
- The system version 2.0 features tracks and cars to SRS 3.4.0. The routes can no longer be used by vehicles with system version 1 , but vehicles can use the routes of system version 1 .
- The system version 2.1 called tracks and cars to SRS 3.6.0. If the new functions are no longer available, vehicles with system version 2.0 can drive on these routes. The vehicles can drive on all routes of system version 2 , the routes of system version 2.0 with functional restrictions.
|System version range||System version vehicle|
Significant new features in Baseline 3 include: a .:
Limited supervision mode
The Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) and Deutsche Bahn AG (DB AG) advanced the development of a mode called Limited Supervision (LS), which allows all trains equipped with ETCS-L1 to be retrofitted at low cost with ETM (Eurobalise Transmission Module) Trains with certain Class B systems for train control can run on routes whose existing mechanical , relay or electronic interlockings cannot provide the train with all the information required by ETCS. The inclusion of the LS mode in the ETCS system specification (SRS) was applied for in 2002.
The information is transmitted from the signal boxes with balises to the train, where it is processed by the ETCS OBU or the Class B control unit, depending on the equipment of the train. The display of information and the monitoring functions correspond to those of the Class B system. The driver is still obliged to pay attention to the route signals and drives according to national rules. In contrast to the driver's cab signaling provided for ETCS Level 1, there is only a concealed background monitoring (not visible to the driver) against the emergency braking curve (Emergency Brake Intervention Curve). With ETCS Level 1 LS (L1LS), a previously missing mode for a journey in normal operation under partial monitoring is introduced into the ETCS system specification.
With ETCS L1LS, new vehicles should only have to be procured with a train control system and existing vehicles should not necessarily have to be retrofitted with ETCS. Track-side systems (e.g. signal boxes) should not be replaced prematurely, thereby enabling intelligent maintenance of the substance. In addition, capacity and security should initially be maintained at the security level of the old systems. For a long time, the alternative ETCS L2 FS was considered to be far more expensive in terms of the costs of the route infrastructure, since it was assumed that it would be double equipped with conventional signaling technology and relatively new interlocking technology would be expensive to replace. With the more recent developments from Eulynx , the shift of the previous double equipment strategy from the routes to the vehicles, the orientation towards ETCS L2oS and the accelerated vehicle equipment, the future use of L1LS could be reduced in Germany. An ETCS L1 FS was out of the question for heavily trafficked routes because the route capacity would be reduced too much due to complicated balise chains . The Limited Supervision mode is specified with almost the same functions in levels L1 to L3, but is only used with L1 for the reasons mentioned.
The Eurobalises used are connected to the signals with a signal switching unit (LEU) . In addition to signals, speed test sections can also be converted accordingly. In Germany or Switzerland, the PZB or Euro Signum equipment on the route will continue to be used.
With ETCS L1LS, a similar (or slightly higher) performance and performance behavior is to be achieved in Germany as under point-shaped train control. The linking of balises does not take place continuously, but can be requested to detect errors in certain situations.
ETCS L1LS is supported by the countries of ERTMS Corridor A (Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Italy). In Switzerland, the entire standard gauge network , unless ETCS L2 is available, was equipped with ETCS L1LS by the end of 2017 . The SBB have commissioned Siemens to do this for their routes . In addition, Belgium and various countries in the east of the EU are showing interest in ETCS L1LS.
Uniform models for braking curve calculation
The biggest single change to this version, which the ERTMS Users Group has been working on since 1997, concerns the braking curve calculation. The most important model is the so-called conversion model (also called the lambda model ), which makes it possible to calculate complete braking curves from braking percentages , braking position and train length. Alternatively, the gamma model can be used, in which braking curves are modeled from stored instantaneous decelerations, brake build-up times and safety surcharges for slippery rails and brake failure, which are staggered according to speed levels.
The limited consideration of the braking curve models in Baseline 2 had led to a number of special national solutions that differed from the TSI. Capacity-reducing effects of previous ETCS brake models should be reduced. The revised braking curves have been subjected to simulator tests with train drivers and have been further optimized in the process.
Signaling of level crossings
The driver receives information from the fact that he is approaching a level crossing, whether it is technically secured and, if not, how it is to be passed.
Cold movement detection
This enables a disarmed ETCS vehicle to recognize whether it has been moved. If the vehicle is upgraded again without being moved, some of the information previously transmitted by the route (position, national values, level, etc.) can continue to be used. This speeds up the operational process and can increase security in certain situations.
Baseline 3 - 3.4.0 (January 2015)
On May 12, 2014, ERA published the 2nd edition of Baseline 3 (Baseline 3 Maintenance Release 1), with GSM-R Baseline 0, as a recommendation for the meeting of the Railway Interoperability and Safety Committee planned for June 2014 . With the decision 2015/14 / EU of the Commission of January 5, 2015, Version 3.4.0 of Baseline 3 became binding. Documents were supplemented or exchanged. In addition, the resolution makes it clear that the ETCS specification (TSI CCS) is also mandatory for a number of different track gauges .
Baseline 3 - 3.6.0 (June 2016)
In December 2015, ERA submitted its proposals for SRS version 3.5.0 (Baseline 3 Release 2). It consists of around 60 change requests, mostly error corrections and a number of new functions such as packet-switched data transmission ( GPRS ). The Railway Interoperability & Safety Committee of the European Union voted unanimously on February 10, 2016 for the corresponding revision of the TSI CCS. In addition to the ETCS-SRS version 3.5, this also includes baseline 1 of the GSM-R specification and modified ETCS test and certification processes. Another element is a revised European Deployment Plan (EDP). The approval was given on condition that the pre-indication still contained in version 3.5.0 should be omitted.
With EU regulation 2016/919 of May 27, 2016, published on June 15, 2016, the SRS, now called version 3.6.0 - in addition to SRS 2.3.0 and 3.4.0, each in conjunction with GSM-R Baseline 1 - declared binding. The European Railway Agency (ERA) now considers the level of development achieved to be stable. In a "Technical Opinion" published in October 2017, ERA assessed the change requests that had accrued for version 3.6.0 and recommends that those that may have an adverse effect on operations be taken into account.
Discussions about the further development of the ERTMS / ETCS specification resulted in a further declaration of intent, which was signed between the European Railway Agency and representatives of various railway organizations. This is to ensure that trains of the latest ETCS version can be operated on all compatible lines. In addition, software updates are to be improved. Long-term developments and the fourth railway package should also be taken into account.
As part of the fourth railway package to be implemented by 2020 , the agency is to assess ETCS equipment to ensure its interoperability.
The European Railway Agency (ERA) started work on a new version of the ETCS specification in autumn 2019 with the aim of submitting its recommendation for the 2022 TSI to the EU Commission in mid-2021. This should include functions for automatic operation (ATO) and FRMCS .
In the course of the implementation of the previously realized ETCS projects, it turned out that the interoperability of vehicles and track equipment from different manufacturers was only given to a very limited extent. This is due on the one hand to the fact that all SRS versions up to and including 2.2.2 left considerable room for interpretation and freedom, and on the other hand to the fact that the onboard manufacturers initially only implemented the functions that were necessary for a specific order or a specific route for reasons of time, and not the full range of functions of the SRS.
With version 2.3.0d of the SRS, which is implemented by the manufacturers, technical interoperability is to be achieved. In order to be able to prove this regardless of the route, several certified test laboratories should be set up in Europe by 2010. At least until then, approvals of ETCS-capable vehicles will, as before, only be route-related and based on national guidelines. Since the beginning of 2012 there have been three independent laboratories in Europe that are used to test the conformity and interoperability of subsystems and components of the European Train Control System (ETCS).
Now that technical interoperability has largely been achieved (although not yet fully implemented by all manufacturers and not yet clearly verifiable), the different operating procedures of the railways are increasingly coming to the fore. Their standardization is the task of the TSI "Traffic Operation and Management" (2012/757 / EU). Since January 2020 there has been a harmonized manual for train drivers on the use of ETCS.
In order to achieve technical interoperability on the vehicle side more easily and to be able to install additions or corrections to the ETCS vehicle functionality faster and cheaper on all vehicles with ETCS equipment, Deutsche Bahn AG is promoting an open source approach for the under the keyword openETCS ETCS vehicle software.
At the end of 1996 a contract for an ETCS test installation was signed between Vienna and Budapest . Initially, a 40 km route across the Hungarian-Slovenian border and five locomotives were equipped. It was both the first ETCS test under real operating conditions and the first to include a border crossing. At the end of 2000 / beginning of 2001, the Hungarian State Railways awarded the contract to equip the 85 km long Zalaegerszeg - Zalalövö - Hodoš line with ETCS L1. The commissioning in autumn 2001 was the first commercial use of ETCS L1.
Various national forerunners were in use before this trial.
The following routes and sections were equipped with ETCS:
|2000||RFI||Florence Campo di Marte - Arezzo||Level 1||At the end of November 2000, FS and Alstom demonstrated a train ride under ETCS Level 2 here; meanwhile dismantled|
|SNCF||Marles-en-Brie - Tournan||Level 1|
|2001||BDZ||Sofia - Burgas||Level 1|
|2002||SBB||Zofingen - Sempach||Level 2||Europe-wide first commercial application for level 2; meanwhile dismantled|
|2003||ÖBB||Vienna – Nickelsdorf||Level 1||currently disabled|
New Mattstetten – Rothrist line ,
upgraded Solothurn – Wanzwil line
|Level 2||From July 2, 2006, nocturnal advance operation with up to 160 km / h, since the timetable change in 2007 in regular operation with up to 200 km / h|
|2005||DB||Halle (Saale) / Leipzig – Jüterbog – Berlin||Level 2||IC 2519/2518 as the first regular trains in the Deutsche Bahn network under ETCS Level 2 on December 6, 2005, meanwhile the RBC has been switched off and the entry balises have been removed (details see below).|
|RFI||High-speed line from Rome to Naples||Level 2||the route is only equipped with ETCS Level 2 and is driven at up to 300 km / h|
|2006||RENFE||Madrid – Lleida||Level 1||first commercial application for 300 km / h|
|RFI||Turin – Milan high-speed line (Novara – Turin section)|
|2007||BLS||Lötschberg baseline||Level 2||Regular operation|
|Infrabel||Liege - Walhorn||Level 2||Operation only from 2009 due to lack of vehicle equipment|
|ProRail||Betuweroute Port of Rotterdam – Zevenaar||Level 2||Regular operation|
|2009||TCDD||Ankara – İstanbul high-speed line||Level 1||in regular operation since March 13, 2009|
|ŽSR||Svätý Jur - Nové Mesto nad Váhom||Level 1||Regular operation from the 2010/2011 timetable change|
|ProRail||Schiphol – Antwerp high-speed line||Level 2||Cross-border operation at up to 300 km / h|
|2010||Trafikverket||Botniabanan (Nyland – Umeå, Sweden)||Level 2||Regular operation from the 2010/2011 timetable change|
|Trafikverket||Västerdalsbanan (Malung – Borlänge, Sweden)||Level 3||Test operation. Parallel operation with the old manual system with optical signals .|
|2011||ÖBB||Railway line Wels – Passau||Level 1||The existing Wels - Passau line was converted to ETCS Level 1 by the end of 2011 and has been in operation since September 2012.|
|2012||ÖBB||High-speed route Vienna – St. Pölten||Level 2||New line|
|ÖBB||Lower Inn Valley Railway , New Lower Inn Valley Railway , Innsbruck bypass||Level 2|
|Trafikverket||Västerdalsbanan (Malung – Borlänge, Sweden)||Level 3||Pilot route for ERTMS Regional , test operation from February, full operation since the end of April|
|2013||DB||Aachen – State border Germany / Belgium, German part of the HSL 3||TBL1 + with Eurobalises (ETCS compatible)||since December 15, 2013|
|2014||ÖBB||Nordbahn , Laaer Ostbahn ( Vienna Simmering - Bernhardsthal)||Level 2||since the end of October 2014|
|2015||SBB||Brunnen – Altdorf Rynächt||Level 2||since 15./16. August 2015|
|SBB||Pollegio Nord - Biasca (excl.) - Giustizia - Castione||Level 2||since 5./6. December 2015|
|DB||Erfurt – Leipzig / Halle||Level 2, Baseline 2.3.0d with additional changes||since December 13, 2015 in regular operation with ICE T up to 230 km / h, since December 10, 2017 up to 300 km / h|
|2016||PRASA||Test track for ETCS L2 -
Gauteng Region - Olifantsfontein / Irene
|Level 2||Test track for testing a prototype of Alstom vehicle devices|
|2016||SBB||Gotthard Base Tunnel||Level 2|
|2017||DB||Nuremberg – Erfurt||Level 2||since December 10, 2017|
|ÖBB||Freight train bypass St. Pölten||Level 2||since December 10, 2017|
|2018||DB||Eisenach – Erfurt||Level 2||Commissioning on August 8, 2018
|2019||DB||Basel / Hochrheinbahn junction||Level 1||First commissioning of L1 LS in the German network on August 8, 2019|
|2020||DB||Wünsdorf - Elsterwerda (ABS Berlin – Dresden)||Level 2|
|2021||DB||Digital S-Bahn Hamburg (pilot project)||Level 2||with ATO functions|
|2022||DB||Berlin – Rostock||Level 2|
|2014 [obsolete]||ŽSR||Žilina – Čadca||Level 1|
|2017 [obsolete]||Banedan mark||Roskilde – Køge – Næstved||Level 2|
|2019 [obsolete]||DB||ABS Dreigleisigkeit Stelle – Lüneburg||Level 2|
|2018 [obsolete]||SNCF||Thionville – Basel / Lyon (Corridor C), Perpignan – Lyon (Corridor D)||Level 1|
|2020 [obsolete]||SBB||Ceneri base tunnel||Level 2|
|2020 [obsolete]||DB||Leipzig – Berlin / Halle – Bitterfeld (VDE 8.3)||Level 2|
|2020 [obsolete]||DB||Dresden – Coswig (VDE 9)||Level 2|
|2021||DB||Saarbrücken – Ludwigshafen (POS North)||Level 2|
|2022||DB||Wendlingen – Ulm railway line||Level 2|
|2024||DB||Karlsruhe – Rastatt||Level 2|
|2025 to 2030||DB||Digital hub Stuttgart||Level 2, Hybrid Level 3|
|2025||ÖBB||Koralm tunnel , Pottendorfer line Vienna – Wampersdorf||Level 2|
|2025||ÖBB||NBS Linz – Wels||Level 2|
|2026||DB||Emmerich – Oberhausen (ABS 46)||Level 2, Level 1 LS|
|2026||ÖBB||Semmering base tunnel||Level 2|
ETCS in Belgium
In Belgium , the national railway company NGBE ( Dutch NMBS; French SNCB) has been pursuing activities to standardize train control and signaling systems since the beginning and represented the interests of the country. The interest arose from the commissioning of new high-speed lines for passenger traffic, the economic promotion of the ports on the North Sea through modern freight connections in European inland areas and the general technical age of the existing systems.
In 1999, the NGBE Board of Directors decided to equip HSL 2 , which was due to open in 2002, with the further developed national train control system TBL 2, and the other HSL 3 and HSL 4 routes with ETCS. In order to increase the security level in the conventional network and to strive for interoperability, the conventional network should be equipped with ETCS L1. Due to the high conversion costs of the vehicles, large parts of the vehicle fleet should be equipped with simple on-board devices that should be able to read the national packages (package 44) from Eurobalises. This system is referred to as TBL1 +. Due to the technical compatibility, this system can be supplemented with data packages for standardized ETCS train control. The procedure for migrating to ETCS based on national infrastructure is the same as that chosen by Italy ( SCMT ) or Switzerland ( Euro-Signum or Euro-ZUB ).
In 2003, the NGBE put out a tender to equip their high-speed lines with ETCS. The contract, which includes ETCS L2 with an additional ETCS L1 as a fallback level, was awarded to a consortium at the end of 2003.
Initially, it was planned to equip the entire network with ETCS Level 1 LS; an upgrade to Level 1 FS would then be easily possible. An order to equip 4000 signals with both TBL1 + and ETCS L1 (LEU) and their maintenance for 20 years was put out to tender in March 2001 and awarded to Siemens in June 2006 in a three-stage process.
After the privatization of the NGBE in 2005, the newly founded Infrabel was responsible for the infrastructure of the rail network and continued the activities. The activities relating to rolling stock remained with the NGBE. After a series of serious accidents (including the Halle railway accident ), the common goal was to improve the safety of railway operations. To do this, one works according to an ETCS master plan that has been in force since 2016.
The Brussels – Liège line was the first existing line to be equipped with ETCS and commissioned on March 1, 2012. This was the first time that ETCS L1 was used in Belgium. In December 2014, the Liefkenshoek rail link with ETCS L2 went into operation.
In the 2015 Infrabel budget, 332 million euros were earmarked for security technology including ETCS. In the summer of 2015, the company awarded a long-term contract worth 510 million euros to a consortium of Siemens Mobility and Cofely -Fabricom for the installation of ETCS L2 on more than 2200 kilometers of track. The order, which also includes equipping the entire network with electronic interlockings , runs until 2025. According to other information, the ETCS equipment for the entire network should cost 3.7 billion euros.
After around 940 km of the network operated by Infrabel had been equipped with ETCS by mid-2015, the entire 429 km long Belgian section of the north-south corridor (port of Antwerp - Mediterranean Sea) has been continuously navigable with ETCS L1 since December of that year . According to Infrabel, this is the longest existing line in Europe equipped with ETCS.
At the end of 2015, a total of 1,225 km of main lines, around a fifth of the network, were passable with ETCS (Level 1 or 2).
In 2016, an order was placed for 1,362 M7 double-decker cars with a delivery date between 2018 and 2021, which will be continuously received by ETCS. The vehicles are replacements for types that cannot be retrofitted with ETCS.
According to the national ETCS master plan, the entire Belgian network is to be equipped with ETCS by the end of 2022 . The ETCS equipment of the NMBS vehicles is to be completed by 2023.
ETCS in Bulgaria
In Bulgaria , work began in 1999 on the ETCS level 1 pilot line Sofia - Burgas . The work was completed in 2001. Since the continued use of the previous train control devices ( EBICAB 700) was an important criterion, the Thales company developed an ETCS Level 1 OBU with STM for EBICAB for the first time. A cost-benefit analysis for equipping important lines in the period from 2007 to 2013 was carried out. Practical contracts to equip the routes Sofia- Plovdiv and Svilengrad -Plowdiw were known, 2013. In 2014, a master plan for the rehabilitation of the railway for the period from 2014 to 2020 explicitly referred to the implementation of ETCS and GSM-R. However, the national legal basis for operation was not yet sufficiently developed and should be revised as a legal basis by the end of 2015.
The following operational information on the use of ETCS was announced for 2017:
- Lines Sofia – Plovdiv and Skutare - Stara Zagora – Plovdiv: EBICAB-700 (TSI CCS Annex B), ETCS Level 0
- Plovdiv railway junction, including Plovdiv-Patnicheska station, Plovdiv-Razpredelitelna station (east), Trakia, Filipowo and the Stara Zagora– Burgas line : ETCS Level 1 SRS 1.2.0 / 1999, ALTRACS BDZ
- Stretch septemvri -Plowdiw and Stara Zagora-Burgas: construction work currently out of service due
The following routes are under construction or equipped and can go into operation by announcement:
- Danube bridge 2 (Widin) - Widin passenger station: 16 km, ETCS Level 1, SRS 2.3.0d, line equipment installed but not in operation.
- Plovdiv - Svilengrad: 143 km, ETCS Level 1, SRS 2.3.0d, Katunitsa - Jabalkowo section Line equipment installed but not in operation. The other sections are under construction.
- Plovdiv - Septemwri: 54 km, ETCS Level 1, SRS 2.3.0d, route under construction.
ETCS in Denmark
After the end of the lifecycle of existing safety technology was foreseeable, the Danish rail network operator Banedanmark announced on December 10, 2008 that it would replace all signal systems in Denmark with ETCS Level 2. The project should start in the 1st quarter of 2009 and be completed in 2021. This should be accompanied by a completely new company set of rules. The project, valued at 3.3 billion euros (21 billion Danish kroner ), was to be awarded in four lots, two for equipping the network and one for equipping the vehicles. A fourth lot was planned for the Copenhagen S-Bahn , which is to be equipped with a CBTC ( Moving Block ) system due to the short train sequences . The corresponding financial resources were approved by the Danish Parliament in autumn 2008. All major signaling technology manufacturers took part in the tender, in all four lots.
The preferred bidders were announced on January 24, 2010: Siemens for the Copenhagen S-Bahn (CBTC), Alstom for on-board equipment and the eastern part of the ETCS route infrastructure and Thales / Balfour Beatty Rail for the western part of the ETCS infrastructure. For Alstom, which supplies all on-board equipment and half of the route infrastructure, it was the largest ETCS order in the company's history. The contracts for the implementation of Baseline 3 were concluded at fixed prices. Further contracts were concluded for GSM-R, operations centers and services, among others. The first sections of the route should go into operation between 2013 and 2017. Without a buffer, the costs were estimated at 2.4 billion euros. Of this, 34 percent was accounted for by trackside and vehicle-side security technology and 18 percent for other hardware such as GSM-R, transmission network, buildings and the dismantling of old systems. Around half of the budget is spent on services such as planning, development, testing, approval and training. In December 2010, Banedanmark commissioned Lloyd's Register Rail as a notified body .
In 2009, the introduction was planned for all state-operated routes between 2017 and 2021. Branch lines should be equipped with ERTMS Regional after 2021. A Strækningsoversigt ETCS has been provided by Banedanmark since the beginning of 2019 .
The costs of the vehicle equipment are funded by the infrastructure operator. In 2017, due to significant delays in vehicle equipment, the Danish government postponed the end of the ETCS transition from 2023 to 2030.
At the beginning of February 2019, an agreement was announced with which the continuation of the vehicle equipment by Alstom received a new contractual basis. In November 2019, the first six trains of the MF (IC3) series were converted and approved. 20 trains are to be equipped by the end of 2020.
With the timetable change in December 2019, the second pilot line with ETCS L2 BL3 went into operation. Between Roskilde and Køge , the entire functionality with level crossings and connection to the national control center was put into operation with a one-week total closure. The first regular commissioning of a line took place in April 2020 on the Thybanen from Thisted to Struer .
ETCS in Germany
In Germany, a specification sheet called the Operational Technical System Function (BTSF) was created for ETCS , in which the necessary project planning and parameterization to map the national operational rules with technical functions that have emerged over decades are made. In addition, project planning rules for placing the balises on the track were developed, as well as a new specification sheet for an integrated ETCS user interface for dispatchers and a test case catalog to test the interaction between vehicles and routes. All documents are subjected to an expert process, including a risk and hazard analysis.
In the Deutsche Bahn network, ETCS Level 1 should only be used in the form of Limited Supervision . ETCS Level 1 Full Supervision and Euroloops are not planned.
At the end of 2019, 320 km in the Deutsche Bahn network were equipped with ETCS.
On the high-speed line Cologne – Rhine / Main , which was under construction from 1995 , ETCS was initially to be used without stationary signals. When delays became apparent in the specification and implementation of ETCS, the final decision was made in 1998 to use a further developed line train control system ( LZB L72 CE-II ). At the end of the 1990s, the German version of ETCS, which was to be supplemented with special functions and interfaces while maintaining interoperability, was also known as radio train control .
At the beginning of October 1997, it was decided to equip the upgraded Halle / Leipzig – Berlin routes ( German Unity Transport Project No. 8 ) with ETCS. The level 2 pilot project started in 1999. First of all, a section between Bitterfeld and Lutherstadt Wittenberg was selected for testing. In 2002, a four-axle diesel test car developed by DB Systemtechnik and known as the Train Validation Testcar ran on the route . For the provisional system approval, the end of 2003 was calculated in mid-2002, for the network-wide system approval until the end of 2004.
Ultimately, 155 route kilometers between Ludwigsfelde and Leipzig were equipped with ETCS Level 2 (according to SRS 2.2.2) and around 1,100 balises were relocated and four ETCS centers were set up. In addition, from 2007 onwards , ETCS Level 1 was tested on a section of the southern Berlin outer ring , including two connecting arches to the route towards Bitterfeld. The section between Ludwigsfelde and Jüterbog (39 km) was co-financed as an ERTMS test route by the EU Commission, the remaining 120 kilometers were financed without EU participation in order to gain experience with ETCS Level 2.
On July 7, 2003, an ETCS-guided passenger train ran between Jüterbog and Bitterfeld - for the first time in Europe - at a speed of 200 km / h. In autumn 2005, the Federal Railway Authority approved ETCS high-speed drives up to 160 km / h on the 140 km long pilot route sections. From December 6, 2005, a pair of IC trains ran between Jüterbog and Leipzig with a maximum speed of 200 km / h under ETCS Level 2. At that time, it was the only use of ETCS Level 2 in commercial operation in Europe. The ETCS equipment was implemented by Alcatel SEL and Siemens.
ETCS Level 2 was tested on the routes until it met the approval requirements of the Federal Railway Authority. The required proof of the same safety as the existing train control systems was provided with great effort for this application. In order to enable parallel operation with the previous German train control system LZB, a new safe and highly available interface ( H3.SZS / Sahara ) between the signal box ( CIR-ELKE functionality) and the train control systems LZB and ETCS Level 2 was introduced. A newly developed LANCOP-2 computer was used between the ESTW and the LZB and ETCS centers (RBC) .
After a two-year test phase, the ETCS Level 2 equipment on the line was the first in the world to be approved for commercial passenger operation in December 2005. The line train control of the line was not yet approved and not in operation at this time. On February 24, 2006, an ETCS-guided train reached a speed of 180 km / h for the first time. The IC train pair 2418/2419 ran on a trial basis from May 26, 2006 between Leipzig and Berlin with ETCS at up to 200 km / h. On June 17, 2006, for the first time in Europe, ETCS started operating at 200 km / h, albeit for a limited time and only with individual pairs of trains; the IC 2418/2419 or 2416/2417 as well as the EN 228/229 operated by ETCS. As part of this pilot project, special ETCS plan documents were created for the first time in Germany. This also resulted in the first drafts for ETCS guideline modules (819.1344 and 819.1347). DB ProjektBau founded an ETCS competence center in Dresden in 2009 on the basis of operational experience . As part of the pilot project, only those functions were implemented that were absolutely necessary for operation in the DB network. A large number of other functions (e.g. for maneuvering or for level crossings) were not yet included. In addition, the SRS version 2.2.2 used was not yet considered interoperable.
After different development and test steps had initially been implemented on various sections of the pilot route, a standardization to a uniform equipment level was carried out in 2007. Due to a lack of approval from the Federal Railway Authority, the ETCS equipment on the line is no longer in operation. In the meantime, the planning has been revised and new balises (according to SRS 2.3.0d) have been laid on the track.
ETCS Level 1 was tested on a section of the Berlin – Frankfurt (Oder) railway line . In one direction, level 1 full supervision was used, in the other level 1 limited supervision. Level 2 was also tested. The test setups were out of service in 2017.
At the end of 2012, ETCS test drives began on the Nürtingen – Neuffen railway line to test an on-board unit from the manufacturer Thales. On September 6, 2018, the first trip under ETCS Level 3 in the Deutsche Bahn network took place on the Annaberg-Buchholz-Schwarzenberg railway line.
On May 14, 2004, DB and the then French infrastructure operator RFF signed a letter of intent to equip the Paris - Saarbrücken - Ludwigshafen corridor (later on to Frankfurt) with ERTMS and ETCS. The equipment of the POS Nord (ETCS L2 according to SRS version 2.3.0d) should be completed in December 2008. Commissioning is now scheduled for the end of 2019.
The equipment of the high-speed line Nuremberg – Ingolstadt – Munich (ETCS L2, according to SRS version 2.3.0d) was put out to tender in December 2006. Commissioning was planned for the timetable change in December 2009 at the latest. The system is set up, but not in operation (as of 2016). The commissioning of ETCS in the Ingolstadt – Petershausen section by 2025 is mentioned, the LZB replacement or expansion from Petershausen to Obermenzing and Ingolstadt – Nuremberg is not.
In mid-2007, it was planned to equip lines with a total length of around 7,000 km and equip around 3,000 vehicles.
The order to equip the Berlin – Rostock axis with ETCS L2 (initially with SRS version 2.3.0d) was awarded in August 2011 for 14 million euros. With this, the 35 km long route between Kavelstorf and Lalendorf Ost was initially equipped and accounted for as operationally handed over by the end of 2013.
In July 2012, operational rules for ETCS were included for the first time in the driving regulations (guideline 408) and have since been further developed.
With the exception of the ICE 2 , all ICE multiple units are to be equipped with ETCS. The ICE 1 used for traffic to Switzerland were already equipped for ETCS L2 between 2004 and 2009. Since the costs of 34 million Swiss francs were borne by the Swiss federal state, this ETCS equipment can only be activated in the "Switzerland" mode (country switchover). The test equipment of the ICE 1 for the current SRS began in spring 2016, the series conversion for domestic traffic in February 2017. The ICE 1, which was newly equipped by the end of 2017, have different, more modern ETCS equipment than the other equipment suitable for Switzerland.
The ICE T were converted between 2012 and 2015. The series conversion of the not yet equipped ICE 3 of the 403 and 406 series began in early 2017 with the conversion of the previous ICE 3MF. The ICE 3 of the 407 series and ICE 4 are supplied by the manufacturer with pre-installed ETCS equipment.
Some of the class 185 locomotives were equipped with ETCS for transit traffic through Switzerland. During the first trips in December 2015, a large number of disruptions occurred and the vehicles were withdrawn from the Gotthard. After the problems were resolved, the vehicles returned to Gotthard service in March 2016.
In Germany, DB Cargo expects to have a sufficient number of ETCS-equipped locomotives by 2020 to be able to use freight trains on the new Ebensfeld – Erfurt line. Since December 2017, Siemens Vectron locomotives equipped with ETCS have been running on the route with double-decker regional trains. After the opening, there were various problems with newly equipped vehicles of the types ICE 1 and ICE 3, but these could only be partially attributed to the ETCS function and did not correspond to the extensive speculations. After a special troubleshooting program, Deutsche Bahn was able to determine that the usual reliability was achieved and in some cases exceeded within a month.
Due to delays in equipping the Intercity-2 trains with ETCS , it will be possible to offer the continuous hourly IC service between Stuttgart and Zurich planned from December 2017 with a delay of one to two years. Commissioning was postponed again at the beginning of 2019, now to the end of 2020.
On September 2, 2019, ETCS was put into operation on the Wuppertal suspension railway .
In 2003, the Federal Republic of Germany notified a migration plan that was based on the first version of the TSI ZZS from 2002. The implementation of a basic level should be completed by 2009/2010. This included the five projects Südlicher Berliner Außenring and Aachen-Belgian border (each ETCS L1), the POS Nord (partly level 1, partly level 2) as well as Ludwigsfelde – Leipzig and Nuremberg – Ingolstadt – Munich (each ETCS L2).
Based on the recording of the TSI ZZS for the existing network from March 2006, the Federal Government submitted a national implementation plan in a letter dated September 5, 2007. Initially, six corridors selected by the federal government were to be equipped:
- Aachen - Duisburg - Hanover - Magdeburg - state border north of Görlitz (Corridor 1G)
- Karlsruhe - Stuttgart - Ulm - Augsburg - Munich - Salzburg (Corridor 2G)
- Flensburg - Hamburg - Stendal - Magdeburg - Halle (Saale) - Jena - Nuremberg - Treuchtlingen - Augsburg - Rosenheim (Corridor 3G)
- Emmerich - Cologne - Darmstadt - Offenburg - Basel (Corridor 4G)
- Hamburg - Wittenberge - Berlin - Dresden - Bad Schandau (Corridor 5G)
- Darmstadt - Würzburg - Nuremberg - Regensburg - Passau (Corridor 6G)
ETCS L2 with electronic interlockings was planned for these corridors, PZB was initially to be retained as a class B system with double equipment. ETCS Level 1 LS should be used as a temporary solution in individual cases in short sections. The equipment should start at the national borders and gradually be continued inland. Corridor 1G should be equipped with the highest priority by 2015, followed by Corridor 4G by 2020. Corresponding letters of intent have been concluded with Poland, the Netherlands and Switzerland and binding commissioning times have been set. In addition, around 4,800 km of corridors and high-speed lines should be equipped with ETCS by 2020. A total of around 9000 km of equipment was planned. According to information provided by Deutsche Bahn from 2009, 8,000 km should be equipped with ETCS by 2020.Furthermore, by 2026 , all high-speed sections with a total length of around 4000 km should be equipped with ETCS L2. In addition, “closing gaps” were planned to enable continuous traffic for trains exclusively equipped with ETCS. ETCS L2 should mainly be used on high-speed sections.
According to the decision 2009/561 / EG of the European Commission of July 22, 2009, Germany is obliged to use ETCS on the German corridor sections Emmerich - Basel , Puttgarden - Nuremberg - Munich, Dresden ( - Prague) and Aachen - Frankfurt (Oder) until 2015/2020 to introduce [obsolete] . According to a rough cost estimate by DB Netz from 2010, the cost of equipping the corridors with ETCS L2 would be around 4.5 billion euros. The equipping of the Rhine corridor between Emmerich and Basel alone is estimated by DB Netz at around 870 million euros. The Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development probed to 2011 to the European Commission the opportunity to dispense with a full ETCS equipment and instead ETCS STM use, as the German network dispose already a powerful train control. If the European Commission does not follow the request to amend the decision of July 22, 2009, the Federal Republic of Germany is threatened with infringement proceedings with fines or a minimum lump sum of 11.3 million euros. In view of the expected costs for fully equipping the corridors, the Federal Ministry of Transport decided in 2011 to initially equip only the German part of Corridor A (Emmerich-Basel) with ETCS. The national train control systems are to continue to operate on the other corridors (STM). The European Commission saw this as a “setback for the further development of the pan-European rail area” and did not rule out legal consequences. EU Transport Commissioner Kallas called on the federal government to push ahead with the installation of ETCS and spoke of significantly lower conversion costs in the region of 250 million euros, which he underpinned with the conversion costs in Switzerland on a similarly long route. In March 2013, the Federal Ministry of Transport rejected the STM plans and decided to expand the Rhine corridor with ETCS L1 and L2. Germany returned 92% of the EU funding allocated between 2007 and 2013 for the introduction of ETCS.
The current ETCS equipment strategy of Deutsche Bahn is based on four components (status: 2014):
- Introduction on the four European freight corridors leading through Germany (according to TSI ZZS and EU regulation 913/2010). Initially, the equipment of the German part of the freight corridor A is planned: the approximately 675 km long Emmerich – Basel section of the Rotterdam – Genoa corridor ; ETCS Level 1 LS and Level 2 are provided in roughly equal parts.
- Equipment of all new lines (according to TSI ZZS) as well as for performance-enhancing conversions on TEN lines. First of all, the equipment of the two new lines of the German Unity Transport Project No. 8 is planned.
- In the 2020s, the line train control by ETCS L2 is to be gradually replaced. For this purpose, a concept is to be developed and the need for double equipment to be examined in individual cases (status: 2014). Where new interlockings are being built as part of the changeover, ETCS L2 should be used without fixed signals (L2oS) and ETCS should become a route access criterion. The replacement concept is in development (as of April 2014).
- On 13 cross-border lines between Germany and Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Austria, ETCS is to be used to switch between two national train control systems while the train is in motion (ETCS-based transition). Seven of these crossings were already in operation in spring 2014.
At the request of the federal government, the equipping of the VDE-8 new lines and the A freight transport corridor was prioritized. The planning of all other ETCS projects is therefore being revised (as of April 2014).
A new European Deployment Plan should be negotiated with the EU by the end of 2015 , in which the introduction of ETCS should be bindingly agreed by 2030. An analysis is now planned to be carried out by the end of 2016 (status: beginning of 2016). This was still pending in December 2017.
According to information from the beginning of December 2015, Deutsche Bahn planned to equip an estimated 5000 to 8000 kilometers of route with ETCS by 2030. In the meantime (as of 2017) it is planned to fulfill equipment obligations to an extent of 8000 km by 2030 and to create continuous connections in all TEN core network corridors. In a first stage, border crossings are to be equipped by 2020. Corridor A (approx. 1450 km in Germany) is to be equipped by 2022. By 2022, more than half of the border crossings should be equipped with ETCS.
According to the “National Implementation Plan ETCS” from December 2017, a total of 1818 kilometers of lines in Germany are to be equipped with ETCS by 2023. For the most part, this is “Corridor A” (Emmerich – Basel) and various border crossing routes.
Other planned projects are:
- ABG: Aachen Hbf - Belgian border; the equipping of tracks 6 to 9 in Aachen Hauptbahnhof station and line 2600 to the Belgian border (feeder to HSL 3 ) was equipped with the Belgian train control system TBL1 + from 2007 and has been in operation since December 15, 2013. Originally, ETCS Level 1 FS should be used there. The now installed TBL1 + system is based on Eurobalises and is prepared for ETCS Level 1 LS. It uses the ETCS telegram 44 and thus does not interfere with ETCS vehicles.
- German part of the EU Corridor A (Rotterdam - Genoa): Emmerich - Basel (equipped with ETCS L2 and ETCS L1 Limited Supervision according to Baseline 3 - initially the Emmerich - Oberhausen and Katzenberg tunnel sections)
- As part of the Berlin-Dresden expansion, equipment with ETCS L2 with SRS version 3.4.0 is planned. In the middle of 2016, the commissioning of the first section was postponed from the end of 2018 to the end of 2020.
- Corridor section 1G between Knappenrode - Horka of the Węgliniec – Roßlau railway line, which has been modernized with high priority, will not be put into operation with ETCS at the end of 2018 as planned, but ETCS will not be made available until 2023.
- In 2021, a section of the Hamburg S-Bahn is to be equipped with automated rail operations (ATO) based on ETCS. The City of Hamburg is providing 1.5 million euros for investigations into possible use in the entire network. Capacity gains of 20 to 30 percent are expected.
- In the S-Bahn München intended Second main line be equipped with ETCS, a conversion of the existing regular route is planned to 2030 (as of 2016).
- As part of the digital node Stuttgart , the Stuttgart region is to be equipped with ETCS from 2024 to 2030. The discussion about ETCS ignited around 2015 on the main line of the Stuttgart S-Bahn , for which a mere preservation of the previous performance would have been possible within the framework of the renewal of the conventional control and safety technology, which is already planned as part of Stuttgart 21 . According to the results of a feasibility study presented in October 2018, ETCS can be implemented in the core network of the Stuttgart S-Bahn, with a 20% reduction in the minimum headway time on the main route and a reduction in delays. The ETCS expansion decided in January 2019 is accompanied by an extension of the S-Bahn transport contract, the procurement of 58 additional S-Bahn multiple units and various service improvements.
- The Zweckverband transport Rheinland announced the end of 2018 to commission an S-Bahn ETCS expansion study by the Stuttgart model.
- ETCS equipment is mentioned for the section Hof – Marktredwitz, which is already in the planning stage, in the construction project for the railway expansion in northeast Bavaria .
- ETCS L2 is also used in other new construction projects such as the new Wendlingen – Ulm line (commissioning December 2022), Stuttgart 21 (commissioning December 2025), the new Rhine / Main – Rhine / Neckar line , Alpha E and the upgraded and new Hanau – Würzburg / Fulda line –Erfurt planned.
- In the case of the north inlet to the Brennern , which is currently in the planning process , the complete four-track expansion from Munich to Rosenheim is described as part of the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030. The existing Munich-Trudering-Großkarolinenfeld line is to be equipped with ETCS as part of a block consolidation.
The first routes, which may only be driven over their entire length if ETCS vehicle equipment is available, are the new Erfurt – Leipzig / Halle line that went into operation as part of VDE 8 (December 2015) and the new Ebensfeld – Erfurt line (December 2017).
177 ICE trains are to receive ETCS by 2019. The costs, including the re-registration of the retrofitted vehicles, amount to almost 90 million euros.
At the end of 2015, as part of the Zukunft Bahn concept, Deutsche Bahn announced that it would create an “example of success for the modernization of infrastructure in the EU” and “pioneer the widespread introduction of new technology through an“ accelerated expansion of ETCS in all corridors by 2030 ” “Wanting to be. In connection with NeuPro , the delay minutes from the control and safety technology are to be halved and "investment synergies" of around 1.8 billion euros are to be realized. Furthermore, the costs of operation and maintenance are to be reduced, area organizations in maintenance are to be merged and a basis for autonomous driving is to be created. In talks between the federal government and DB, a decision on the start of the upgrade is to be made. This means that route capacity can be increased by 5 to 10 percent even on heavily used routes (as of 2015) and train path prices can be reduced. A feasibility study by the company in 2017 envisaged initially equipping the majority of the locomotives with ETCS between 2020 and 2023, and 80 percent of the route network with digital interlockings and ETCS without signals from 2023 to 2030 . The rest of the network would follow by 2037. The DB proposed three pilot projects for the "digital rail" (DSTW and ETCS), which are to be implemented with a total volume of three billion euros by 2025: Equipping an S-Bahn line in Hamburg, a demonstration hub in the greater Stuttgart area as well as an axis from Hamburg towards Brenner. The network's capacity is to be increased by 20 percent through digital interlocking technology and ETCS. A schedule for the introduction should be presented to the DB Supervisory Board in autumn 2018. In 2019, the DB named a value of up to 35 percent.
DB Netz expects savings of 640 million euros per year from the network-wide introduction of ETCS Level 2 (as of 2016). Field elements and external cabling account for around half of the infrastructure costs of a new DB interlocking. The introduction would take at least 15 years and the necessary retrofitting of routes and signal boxes would cost 20 to 25 billion euros, which could be financed by the EU, federal government and DB. Funds from Performance and Financing Agreement II amounting to half a billion euros per year are to be used for the interlocking conversion . The financing is to be negotiated with the new federal government, which will take office in 2017. In February 2017, the Federal Ministry of Transport issued a feasibility study on the extensive use of ETCS over a period of 20 years. An investigation by DB Netz AG had previously shown that with ETCS and NeuPro a significant improvement in the cost-effectiveness of control and safety technology could be achieved, provided that all vehicles are equipped with ETCS at an early stage. The contract was awarded to McKinsey at the end of July 2017 for 2.9 million euros . The technical implementation, schedule, financing and economic benefits should be shown by mid-2018. The final report presented in December 2018 recommends a gradual widespread introduction of digital interlockings and ETCS by 2040. The investment requirement for the infrastructure is estimated at around 28 billion euros, and that for vehicles at around 4 billion euros. On the other hand, there is a benefit that will increase annually and will reach one billion euros per year in 2040 and allow a reduction in train path prices. Ongoing ETCS projects should be completed and the first network districts and vehicles converted by the mid-2020s. This should be followed by an industrialized rollout from 2025 to 2040. In the period from 2020 to 2025, three packages of measures totaling 1.7 billion euros are to be implemented.
Deutsche Bahn expects a capacity increase of up to 20 percent as part of the program now known as “Digital Rail Germany”. (As of January 2018). ETCS is at the heart of the program. In the coalition agreement presented in February 2018, a possible government coalition (CDU / CSU / SPD) is in favor of federal funding for ETCS route and vehicle equipment. According to the Federal Ministry of Transport, ETCS L3 is being sought, but initially the same configuration should be achieved with Level 2.
In 2020, the federal government plans to provide 120 million euros for ETCS, in 2021 180 million, 2022 330 million and finally 390 million euros in 2023.
ETCS in France
In France, the LGV Est européenne was equipped with ETCS in addition to the existing TVM system.
In September 2009, the infrastructure operator RFF awarded the contract to equip the French sections of the freight corridors C and D with ETCS Level 1. First, 120 signals in Lorraine (near the border with Luxembourg) were to be equipped for 7.5 million euros. The other 4100 signals should follow in a second stage.
The high-speed line Bretagne-Pays de la Loire , completed in 2017, is equipped with ETCS Level 2 in addition to the national TVM train control system. ETCS Level 1 FS (SRS 2.3.0d) is used for the connections to the old lines.
ETCS in the UK
In Great Britain, the decision was made in May 2003 to initially equip the Cambrian Line with ETCS Level 2 on a comparatively weak route. After the contract was awarded in 2006, there were delays due to unclear system specifications (SRS 2.2.2, 2.3.0, 2.3.0d). The 200 km long route with little traffic was originally planned for 2008. At the end of 2008, the equipment of the route and the vehicles on it began. Commissioning was delayed further due to problems with legibility of the driver displays in strong sunlight. The system was put into operation on October 29, 2010 on a first section (35 km). Operations on the entire single-track line began at the end of March 2011. For this purpose, 24 diesel multiple units (series 158) and three rail service vehicles were equipped with ETCS.
Further routes in Great Britain should follow in 2011.
An ERTMS part in the national company rules (National Rule Book) was created from the requirements and experience of this project.
The Great Western Main Line is to be equipped with ETCS Level 2 (with signals) between 2018 and 2021. In another project, the British rail network operator Network Rail is cooperating with Hitachi on the development of an ETCS Level 2 solution based on Hitachi's Japanese interlocking technology. The East Coast Main Line should be equipped with ETCS Level 2 by 2019. A framework agreement is to be put out to tender in June 2018. ETCS was to be introduced on the High Speed One in the course of the 2010s. Outside the core network, a number of further routes are to be equipped by around 2020.
On behalf of Network Rail, a simulation of a combination of ETCS with automatic train operation (ATO) was carried out for scheduled continuous operation with 24 S-Bahn trains per hour and direction, with an (unscheduled) maximum of 30 trains per hour and direction.
Thameslink plans to run trains with ETCS Level 2 (high-performance block, with signals) on its main route in London from 2017. From 2018 - for the first time with ETCS - an automatic train operation (ATO) is to take place, according to plan with 24 trains per hour and direction. National packages (package 44) should include stopping time and driving recommendations and information on selective door control. In 2009 Thameslink opted for automatic operation, as this was the only way to achieve the required high-performance timetable with the desired quality. The track equipment was awarded to Invensys Rail (today Siemens), the vehicles ( British Class 700 ) to Siemens in 2013.
The Crossrail project relies on a CBTC train control system, although it is part of the Trans-European Transport Network.
Network Rail operates a series 313 ETCS test train.
In December 2017, Siemens received the order for the ETCS retrofitting of around 750 freight locomotives from all major operators. The conversion is scheduled to begin in 2022.
ETCS in Italy
Italy had developed a linear train control system for high-speed traffic at an early stage. RS9 Codici was used on the Florence – Rome high-speed line that went into operation in 1977 . It is based on the RS4 Codici system (up to 180 km / h), which is based on an automatic track block with coded track circuits BACC . In Italy, cab signaling is mandatory for driving speeds greater than 150 km / h (similar to the LZB application in Germany). However, the operation of the Florence – Rome high-speed line showed that no further increases in performance are possible with the 3 kV DC power supply. Therefore, all subsequent high-speed routes were electrified with 25 kV / 50 Hz AC voltage. Since the basic RS4 Codici system uses track circuits fed with 50 Hz for track vacancy detection, it was not possible to use them at the same time. All subsequent high-speed lines were therefore equipped with ETCS L2oS.
On December 19, 2005, the high-speed line Rome – Naples went into operation, on which 300 km / h can be reached under ETCS L2 (without signals). In 2019, ETCS L2 is also to go into operation on the Florence – Rome high-speed line. In order to continue to enable mixed use of the route, both systems will initially be operated in parallel. In the medium term, however, routes and vehicles in Italy are to be gradually converted to ETCS.
In contrast to the LZB, the RS Codici is a pure system for driver's cab signaling. This results in some restrictions, such as very inaccurate location of the locomotive. On the track side, only the occupancy of the average 1350 m long block sections is determined; on the vehicle side, when a restrictive command is received, a braking curve is started similar to the German PZB. However, exact information on the position of the train and the distance from the danger point is not available. With the Eurobalises that had existed since the mid-1990s, however, a technical solution with good investment protection was available. For this reason, the punctual train control system SCMT running under ETCS L1 was installed parallel to BACC. The vehicle equipment combines the complementary information from both systems: BACC serves as a self-block, RS4 Codici or RS9 Codici as linear driver's cab signaling, the SCMT balises provide point-like detailed information on position, signal distance, slow-speed areas, permissible maximum speed and incline / slope. In this way, the safe train journey can be monitored precisely and the train safely stopped in front of the danger point.
In Italy there were plans in 2006 to equip the conventional network with ETCS L1 (in sections with radio infill). By the end of 2007, all main and supplementary lines had been retrofitted with the punctiform component SCMT, but without using it for ETCS information.
ETCS Level 2 will be used on all new high-speed lines. The equipment of some important existing routes, especially the Alpine crossings, is already in preparation. The Chiasso – Milan railway line , which is part of ERTMS Corridor A, is to be fully equipped with ETCS L2 as a route without high-speed traffic. The two and a half year contract announced in January 2016 has a volume of 34 million euros.
The Italian infrastructure operator RFI announced in February 2016 that it wanted to equip essential parts of the regional transport network with ETCS L2 over the course of a decade. To this end, ten new ETCS centers should go into operation by 2020 and 2025. From the end of 2018, an expanded form of ETCS L2 with dense, virtual track vacancy detection sections will be tested in the nodes of Rome, Milan and Florence. With “ETCS High Density”, today 1350 m long train track sections are to be divided into four virtual block sections each around 350 m long over a length of around 50 km. Naples, Turin, Bologna and Genoa are to follow, GPRS and ATO are to be integrated. The award for the first wave should take place in June 2018, the total costs for this amount to around 100 million euros. The first commissioning is planned for 2020/2021.
For the time being, ETCS according to SRS 2.3.0d is to continue to be used on high-speed lines, since all high-speed trains are equipped with it and, due to the electrification with AC voltage, there is no mixed operation. In mid-2018, 709 km of high-speed lines with ETCS L2oS were in operation. On the other hand, all other routes should be equipped according to SRS 3.4.0, since all traction vehicles must first be equipped with new ETCS vehicle equipment, so that the current equipment can be carried out uniformly and without additional effort. A total of 500 million euros are to be spent.
ETCS in Luxembourg
In 1999, Luxembourg decided to fully equip the network with ETCS Level 1. After a hearing in December 1999, a specification was drawn up, the project was put out to tender across Europe and awarded to Alcatel in July 2002 .
The conversion work began in 2003. At the beginning of 2004, a 25 km long pilot section with ETCS L1 went into operation. The first of nine sections (50 km) has been operated with ETCS since March 1, 2005. By 2014, the entire network had been equipped with ETCS and 33 million euros were spent on it.
The retrofitting of locomotives began in 2002. Ten locomotives were equipped as a pilot series. The locomotive series 2000 , 2200 and 2300 were fully equipped. In spring 2016, problems with the new registration of the 2200 series for cross-border traffic to Belgium were reported. In February 2017, the conversion of the 3000 series was still largely pending and only one prototype of the 4000 series had been converted. By December 2017, all CFL locomotives were equipped with ETCS.
In addition to ETCS, GSM-R was introduced nationwide on December 9, 2018 to replace all previous analog radio systems.
Since July 1, 2017, the double equipment has been gradually decommissioned and the route network is driven in ETCS mode (driver's cab signaling, signal pick-up of external signals on transparent data balises, SRS 2.3.0d).
In an evaluation of the train accident in Bettembourg on February 14, 2017, the accelerated use of the ETCS installation in Luxembourg was initiated. Not only were general recommendations given, but the deadline for shutting down the outdated Memor II + system was brought forward by 18 months to December 31, 2019. Driving under ETCS was also instructed as a preset standard. In cross-border traffic with France, the use of ETCS should be exhausted as far as possible. Since January 29, 2018, the CFL has been allowed to use the ETCS with passenger trains in France. The neighboring railway companies SNCF and SNCB are requested to accelerate the changeover in the direction of ETCS and to convert the rolling stock used across borders accordingly.
In 2018, work became known for a further development of the ETCS Level 1 Full Supervision (L1FS) in Luxembourg. On Digital Signal boxes to allow bi-directional transmission of information connected and Transparentdatenbalisen be achieved in the result, a similar performance as with ETCS Level. 2 In doing so, GSM-R should be dispensed with for the transmission of safety-critical information and a simplified light signaling should be used as a fallback option.
ETCS in the Netherlands
The introduction of ETCS, as part of a program to upgrade the Dutch railways for the 21st century, was funded from 1999. In the Netherlands, the equipment of a pilot line ( Zwolle - Leeuwarden , with two trains) started in October 2001 and test runs started in March 2002. ETCS Level 2 was used over a length of 26 km, which was overlaid by ETCS Level 1 for 12 km. In 2005, test drives by various manufacturers took place on various routes, during which vehicle and track equipment from different manufacturers were tested together in so-called cross tests for the first time . The Betuweroute has been in operation since 2007, the upgraded Amsterdam – Utrecht line and the cross - border high-speed Schiphol – Antwerp line with ETCS Level 2 since 2009 .
In May 2003, the line equipment for the four-track, 30 km long line between Amsterdam and Utrecht was awarded and put into operation in four stages between August 2005 and December 2006. The order value, which also includes an electronic interlocking and conventional signals, was 23 million euros.
In the Netherlands, ETCS is used according to SRS 2.3.0 (status: 2006).
On December 8, 2014, the train control system in the Zevenaar area was converted from ATB to ETCS L2.
Eurobalis-based class B transitions on German-Dutch border infrastructure have been active since 2010 on the following route sections:
- Laarwald - Coevorden (route number 9203)
- Bad Bentheim - Oldenzaal (route number 2026)
- Kaldenkirchen - Venlo (route number 2510)
- Herzogenrath - Landgraaf (route number 2543)
as well as on the following Belgian-Dutch route sections:
Large parts of the rail network should be equipped with ETCS Level 2 by 2028, especially in the densely populated west of the country. The estimated cost of 2.5 billion euros will be financed by the Dutch government. Delays became known in January 2016. The retrofit schedule, which includes all TEN corridor routes and main axes of the Dutch network, is to be revised, among other things due to criticism of inadequate project and cost management and delays in neighboring countries.
In mid-2016, the NS exercised an option to purchase a further 8 Traxx locomotives (with ETCS Level 2) that are to be used in intercity traffic via HSL Süd. The regional trains of the NS series SLT are to be equipped with ETCS between 2021 and 2025 .
ETCS in Norway
In Norway one has been dealing with the use and possibilities of ETCS since 2008. A government resolution followed from the investigations in 2012, which raised the system to the standard of the future signaling and assurance system. As a result, the establishment of a pilot operation on the Mysen - Sarpsborg section of the Østfold line began in November 2013 . For this purpose, the previous traffic lights were removed and replaced by line equipment for ETCS L2. By September 2015, the remaining section up to Ski of the 80 km long route had been equipped with SRS 2.3.0d and connected to the central traffic control center in Oslo. For the test, nine multiple units of the BM74 series were equipped with ETCS L2.
The preparation of an ETCS Level 2 tender for the Luleå – Narvik railway line began at the end of 2014 . Due to the urgency of the renewal of the outdated and failure-prone train protection technology, the parliamentary decision was made in 2016, which will enable financial security of the planned equipping of the entire network with ETCS L2 by 2030. The expected costs, including vehicle equipment, amounted to 26 billion Norwegian kroner . The infrastructure operator Jernbaneverket (since January 1, 2017: Bane NOR ) received permission from the Norwegian government in May 2016 to advance a corresponding three-part award procedure.
Infrastructure, vehicle equipment and traffic control system were tendered and awarded separately. The three contracts are to be signed in April 2018. The introduction should already start in 2018/2019.
The infrastructure part of the contract was awarded to Siemens and includes the line equipment for the entire 4200 km long network with 375 stations and new digital interlockings according to the Eulynx specification as well as maintenance over 25 years. It has a volume of around 800 million euros over the entire term. Initially, the Nordlandsbanen ( Trondheim - Bodø ), the Bergensbanen ( Hønefoss - Bergen ) and the Ofotbanen (Swedish border - Narvik ) will be equipped. Thereafter, the entire Oslo area is to be converted to ETCS by 2026 . The remaining lines are then to be equipped by 2034. The equipment is based on baseline 3.
The state infrastructure operator BaneNor takes over the coordination for the vehicle installation for all national operators. 467 vehicles (55 series) are to be equipped by 2026.
To equip the 4200 km long network with 350 stations with ETCS Level 2 "without signals" a. 10,000 euro balises and 7,000 axle counters planned. The 19 signal boxes and RBCs required to equip the country are to be housed in a single, 200 m² room in future. A new traffic control system is to replace three previous traffic control centers. In the first phase, all lines will be connected with the old signal system. Then these lines will be reconnected when the new ETCS equipment is commissioned. In terms of organization, the network will in future be divided into the three tax areas east, southwest and north.
ETCS in Austria
ÖBB operate 484 km of ETCS (as of 2019).
On November 9, 1999, the pilot project "ETCS Vienna - Budapest" was presented with a demonstration trip to Hegyeshalom . From mid-2001, the Vienna - Nickelsdorf section of the Ostbahn was equipped for level 1 in a field test . On September 22, 2005 ETCS Level 1 was put into operation on the 247 km long Vienna - Hegyeshalom - Budapest route.
On April 30, 2008, an internal group program under the name "ETCS Level 2" was started at ÖBB. Parts and objectives of the project were the allocation of infrastructure and vehicle equipment to industry (2009), the implementation of GSM-R tests, the commissioning of the test route ( Inntal tunnel ; 2010) and regular operation (Q4 / 2012).
The order to equip all new lines and some main lines (including the Westbahn ) with ETCS Level 2 by the end of 2013 was awarded to a consortium made up of Siemens and Thales. The order to equip 449 vehicles (by the end of 2015) was awarded to Alstom in January 2010 for 90 million euros . In 2012 ETCS Level 2 was put into operation between Vienna and St. Pölten (approx. 60 km), between Wörgl and Innsbruck (approx. 65 km) and between Kundl and Baumkirchen (approx. 40 km).
In December 2012, the BMVIT asked the ÖBB to submit an ETCS strategy. In February 2013, ÖBB-Holding started the "ETCS Strategy 2025+" project, the planning of which should be completed in June 2013. The Court of Auditors criticized in a December 2015 report by the locomotive-procurement strategy ÖBB among other things, the lack of a coordinated strategy to ETCS.
In mid-2016, with a delay of almost two years due to operational problems, ETCS L2 in the Bernhardsthal – Vienna Süßenbrunn – Vienna Simmering section of the Nordbahn and Laaer Ostbahn was put into service as planned.
The routes with commissioning by 2017 were / will be equipped according to Class 1 - 2.3.0d , Baseline 3 is planned for the other routes .
Equipping the main line of the Vienna S-Bahn with ETCS Level 2 is being considered in order to increase the efficiency of the line.
ETCS in Poland
In December 2009 the contract to equip the Grodzisk Mazowiecki – Zawiercie railway with ETCS L1FS was awarded. After the ETCS commissioning scheduled for June 2011, the route should be traveled at speeds of up to 200 km / h. The commercial commissioning took place in 2014 in connection with the start of regular operation of the Pendolino trains. In 2016, the maintenance contract for the manufacturer Thales was extended to December 2019.
At the end of 2014, ETCS L1FS was in operation on a 90 km long section in the European E65 corridor between Warsaw and Gdynia , some of which could be driven at 200 km / h. The testing of ETCS L2 (for 250 km / h) was running, but it was not yet foreseeable that it would go into operation.
The connection of the airport Danzig serving railway Gdynia-Gdansk port Lotniczy-Wrzeszcz is equipped with ETCS.
In 2009, the agreement to pilot ETCS L2 on the 84 km long state border near Bielawa Dolna - Węgliniec - Legnica , which is part of the E30 corridor, was concluded between PKP-PLK and a consortium led by Bombardier. This section of the route is part of the long-distance rail link Magdeburg – Wrocław. The fundamental modernization is the subject of a German-Polish government agreement and is funded by the EU within the framework of the pan-European transport corridors. In December 2015, ETCS went into commercial operation in this section. The results of the piloting showed a need for adjustment for the (national) implementation on the other lines to be equipped with L2, as otherwise the ED250 trains would be obstructed.
In 2013, Bombardier won the follow-up contract for the 148 km Legnica – Wrocław - Opole line . Commissioning with ETCS L2 should take place towards the end of 2017.
For the equipment of the section Poznan - Wongrowitz the route Poznan-Bydgoszcz was completed in 2013 with the company Thales a contract. This equipment with ETCS L1LS was completed in mid-2017 and will bring findings for further use from 2018 with the new Poznań S-Bahn network.
In 2017, the ETCS equipment for the route between Kunowice (German border) and Terespol (Belarusian border) was put out to tender. At the same time, the route from Rzeszów to Podłęże near Kraków was tendered for ETCS L2.
Because of the questionably slow and expensive implementation of equipping railway lines and locomotives with ETCS in Poland, a hearing was held in the Sejm in June 2017 . As a result, measures of technical standardization, financing, regulatory commissioning, tenders and project monitoring should be initiated, which should enable the implementation of the goals set for 2023. Furthermore, maintenance and operational problems were discussed (e.g. unintentional emergency braking due to ETCS malfunctions), which unsettle the passengers and are publicly perceived as a quality defect.
The contract for the ETCS equipping of the approximately 700 km Kunowice – Terespol was awarded to Thales at the beginning of January 2018. The contract is to be completed within five years and, with the exception of the Warsaw node, also includes the southern freight bypass route, the GSM-R equipment and the new construction and modernization of five regional control centers. At the end of January 2018, Thales was also awarded the contract to equip the 135 km long Podłęże – Rzeszów line. The order includes the equipment with GSM-R and the construction of two ESTWs.
In March 2018, the order for ETCS L2 of the 162 km long section Wroclaw – Posen of the corridor route E59 was awarded to Bombardier. Three ESTWs with RBC will be set up at the Breslau, Lissa and Poznan locations . The contract follows the "Design and Build" tendering model and includes completion within five years.
|route||Route no.||section||Length [km]||ETCS level||Baseline||Remarks|
|Warsaw – Skarżysko-Kamienna||4th||82||L1FS||2|
|Kielce – Czestochowa||4th||67||L1FS||2|
|Kozłów – Starzyny||64||33||L1FS||2|
|Breslau – Liegnitz||275||10||L2||2||Route km 65–75; Lack of full implementation of the specification, top speed 130 km / h for one-man operation|
|Liegnitz – Kohlfurt||282||62||L2||2||Lack of full implementation of the specification, top speed 130 km / h for one-man operation|
|Kohlfurt – Niederbielau||295||13||L2||2||The ETCS system was not put into operation on the Węgliniec – Bielawa Dolna section. When entering route 295, the ETCS on-board units must be manually switched to level 0 or STM (if available). When driving from Węgliniec station to route 282, the ETCS on-board units must be manually set to level 2. The restriction applies until the ETCS system is adapted to the changed track layout in the Bieława Dolna area.|
|Poznan – Wongrowitz||356||51||L1LS||3||according to specification SRS 3.3.0|
ETCS in Portugal
In October 2018, the planning, implementation and maintenance of ETCS for various route sections in Portugal were tendered and awarded in May 2019. The total of 380 km of routes is the first application of ETCS Level 2 in Portugal.
ETCS in Sweden
ETCS Level 2 is also called System E2 in Sweden.
In Sweden, on April 12, 2007, a train ran for the first time under ETCS control on a 20 km long section of the Botniabahn between Arnäsvall and Husujm . Since the end of August 2010, ETCS L2 has been set up on the Botniabahn in connection with the commissioning of the new line in the Nyland - Umeå section (maximum speed 250 km / h).
From 2009 ERTMS Regional was used for the first time on the 134 km long Västerdals Railway .
The Ådalsbahn was put back into operation in the Sundsvall – Västeraspby section after extensive reconstruction in September 2012 with ETCS L2.
In December 2013 the new Haparandabahn (Boden / Buddbyn) –Haparanda with ETCS L2 went into operation.
The Malmö City Tunnel was equipped with ETCS L2 when it was built, and Malmö Central station with ETCS L1. The commissioning of the ETCS equipment was assumed for 2015 at the earliest, as no vehicles with the corresponding equipment were yet available.
The state has planned that the cost of vehicle equipment (0.2 - 1 million euros per vehicle) must be financed by the vehicle owners.
In 2016, successful interoperability tests between the then current ETCS L2 equipment according to BL3, the Danish ATC and the Swedish-Norwegian ATC2 equipment took place on the west coast railway between Gothenburg and Lund . This equipment will be installed in the area of the Oresund Bridge.
After there was a general validation of the ETCS components of the type INTERFLO 450 from Bombardier by the Swedish supervisory authorities Trafikverket and Transportstyrelsen in 2017, practical tests of the line equipment according to the ETCS L2 SRS 3.6 standard (Baseline 3 Release 2) were carried out for the first time worldwide in August 2018.
The Västlänken regional transport project in Gothenburg, which is scheduled to go into operation in 2026, is also to be equipped with ETCS.
ETCS in Switzerland
The fundamental decision to use ETCS in Switzerland was made in February 1998. The Swiss Federal Office of Transport decided in 2000 to use ETCS throughout Switzerland. The entire standard gauge network had been converted to ETCS by the end of 2017. In general, it was converted to ETCS Level 1 Limited Supervision (ETCS L1LS), while some new lines with high-speed traffic were equipped directly with ETCS L2. The conversion to ETCS L2 is to begin in the entire network from 2025. Switzerland expects a capacity increase of up to 30 percent and cost reductions through ETCS.
New lines with ETCS Level 2
Since the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) wanted to travel faster than 160 km / h on planned new lines, they needed a system for driver's cab signaling .
In order to gain experience with ETCS, they equipped the approximately 40 km long Zofingen - Sempach section as a pilot line. ETCS L2 ( SRS 5a ) with radio coverage based on conventional GSM was used . Outside signals were not used. The system equipment of the RBC, the track balises and 63 locomotives of six different types was implemented by Bombardier.
After lengthy tests, the first commercial application of ETCS L2 went into regular operation on this section at the end of April 2002 . Around 140 trains ran daily. Initially, around 140 incidents per week were recorded. As of March 2003, the same punctuality as before the ETCS commissioning was achieved, with subsequent incidents that continued to decrease. There were no security-related disruptions. After the underlying design of the ETCS specification was outdated, the ETCS system was again out on November 30, 2003 Operating taken.
For the new Mattstetten – Rothrist line opened in 2004 , the commissioning of ETCS L2 was initially classified as too risky and provisional conventional signaling was installed. After eight months of preliminary operation, the route was switched to ETCS L2 on March 18, 2007. In December 2007 the speed was increased from 160 km / h to 200 km / h.
In the Lötschberg base tunnel , BLS has been using ETCS L2 since the opening, with a maximum speed of 250 km / h. If a train because of a derailment or a fire , the change direction of travel needs, is the ETCS mode Reversing (RV) is available that allows a monitored reverse. On October 16, 2007, an ETCS-related accident occurred on the Lötschberg base line . The cause of the derailment was software errors in the ETCS headquarters (RBC). The event had temporarily caused great concern among experts about the operational safety of ETCS.
Migration to ETCS Level 1 Limited Supervision
In 2011 it was announced that the existing train control systems Integra-Signum and ZUB on the Swiss rail network would be supplemented by ETCS L1LS by the end of 2017 . In a pilot test from September 2009 to February 2010 in Burgdorf , this new operating mode was used for the first time worldwide.
SBB and other European railways had a certain change request for a first as ETCS Level 1 point- filed designated system. As part of Baseline 3 , this ETCS design, which simplifies migration, was standardized.
The migration should take place in several stages at the start of planning:
- By 2017, all of the Integra Signum magnets as well as the track coupling coils and line cables of the ZUB should be replaced by Eurobalises or Euroloops . These transmit the Integra Signum or ZUB information in the appendix to the data telegrams (package 44) reserved for national applications . This system is called the Euro-Signum or Euro-ZUB . In order to read this information, all vehicles were equipped with the Eurobalise Transmission Module (ETM), also known colloquially as a “rucksack”.
- The ETCS L1LS mode should be introduced by 2017, using the Eurobalises and loops with the corresponding ETCS information. This means that both pure ETCS vehicles (ETCS only) and existing vehicles with Euro-Signum / -ZUB-based train control should be able to use the Swiss network .
Network-wide use of ETCS Level 2
Until 2015, ETCS Level 2 was used exclusively on new lines. Since the northern and southern approaches to the Gotthard Base Tunnel went into operation at the end of 2015, ETCS L2 has been used together with the renewal of signal boxes on various sections of the Gotthard route . This is the first time that ETCS L2 will be used in medium-sized stations worldwide . Only vehicles with full ETCS equipment can travel on these sections of the route and the access lines to the Gotthard Base Tunnel. With the conversion of conventional routes to ETCS L2, network access for vehicles without ETCS was restricted from 2015.
ETCS L2 has been used in the Gotthard Base Tunnel since it was commissioned in 2016. The Ceneri base tunnel , which is due to open in 2019, will also be equipped with ETCS L2.
In April 2017, the Lausanne – Villeneuve section was converted to another existing route to ETCS L2 .
For the network-wide introduction of ETCS L2, the SBB presented the FOT with a migration plan in two variants in December 2016:
- Variant 1: If ETCS Level 2 were to be introduced to replace lost interlockings, this would result in migration by 2060 and costing CHF 9.5 billion. Among other things, up to 230 level crossings with a total cost of 0.6 billion Swiss francs would be required in the meantime.
- Variant 2: A second variant envisages replacing all interlocking systems with new ETCS interlockings within 13 years from around 2025 at a cost of around 6.1 billion Swiss francs. The feasibility of this variant will be examined by the end of 2019.
- Basis: Simply maintaining the conventional control and safety technology would also cost 6.1 billion francs.
ETCS L2 should be ready for series production in 2020. According to more recent information, from 2025 ETCS L2 with a completely new generation of interlockings will be introduced network-wide, for which SBB has joined the EULYNX organization . The upgrade is expected to be completed in the 2030s.
ETCS in Serbia
The Yugoslav Railways (1918-2004, from 1991-2004 still on the territory of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ) and the successor company to the Serbian Railways in Serbia also planned to introduce ETCS. This was intended to ensure harmonization both with European railways for transit and with the railways within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. While ETCS Level 1 (without Euroloops) was planned on branch lines, ETCS Level 1 with Euroloops was to be used on main lines and ETCS Level 2 on fast-traveled routes. Relay interlockings from the 1960s were to be replaced by electronic interlockings . The upgraded and new line of the Belgrade-Budapest high-speed line will have ETCS Level 2 over a length of 351 km (181 km in Serbia, 166 in Hungary). Since the railway is operated in mixed operation, it also has PZB90. China Railway Signal & Communication (CRSC) opened a control center for ETCS Level 2 in Belgrade in summer 2019. The Chinese Railway Control Center of Železnice Srbije, known as the Lab, will also train Serbian railway workers and control cross-border rail traffic between Serbia and Hungary. The CRSC also takes over the signal integration Beograd Centar - Stara Pazova . The Chinese control center in Belgrade is the first that they have opened abroad and in the area of European express transport.
21 new regional multiple units ( Stadler Flirt ), which were ordered in 2013, prepared for the retrofitting of ETCS Level 2.
ETCS in Slovakia
At the end of June 2007, the Slovakian Railways ( ZSR ) awarded the equipment of the Svätý Jur to Nové Mesto nad Váhom line with ETCS Level 1. The line went into operation in December 2008. Since the ŽSR itself did not have any ETCS on- board units , the Magyar Államvasutak and the Austrian Federal Railways supported them in driving and testing the route with ETCS locomotives.
In 2009, the ETCS equipment for the Škoda HDV 350 locomotives was commissioned. Ten vehicles from the ZSSK 671 series were also equipped with ETCS.
In December 2009, the last part of the line (Trnava to Nové Mesto) went into operation. Slovakia has thus equipped around 90 km of corridor 5 with around 750 balises. ETCS L2 has also already been installed between Žilina and the Czech border.
ETCS in Spain
In summer 2005 - for the first time in European high-speed traffic - ETCS Level 1 went into operation on the high-speed line Madrid – Barcelona . The system was initially designed for speeds of 300 km / h and a headway time of up to five and a half minutes.
Since the on- board units of the series 102 multiple units (delivered from February 27, 2005) were initially unable to communicate with the line equipment from another manufacturer, the line speed could not be extended on the vehicle side. After around 400,000 test hours and a cost of 112.3 million euros (since July 2004), the network operator Adif announced in mid-March 2006 that it wanted to use the linear train control LZB on the route instead of ETCS . In the spring of 2006, the ETCS system (in level 1) began to function almost flawlessly. The planned conversion to LZB was therefore withdrawn and the line speed increased to 250 km / h on May 17, 2006. The maximum operational speed in the ETCS L1 was limited to 300 km / h.
With the commissioning of ETCS Level 2, the permissible speed on the line was increased to 310 km / h from October 24, 2011. The travel time of the through trains between Madrid and Barcelona has been reduced by eight minutes to two hours and 30 minutes.
In 2009, Spain had the world's largest ETCS equipment with 1,053 kilometers of track operated under ETCS. In addition to the new lines (excluding the LZB-operated line between Madrid and Seville), the system is also used in Madrid suburban traffic and other upgraded lines. Investigations into retrofitting the entire Spanish railway network are ongoing.
At the beginning of 2009 the Spanish government approved a 4 billion euro investment package for the expansion of the Barcelona S-Bahn , which also provides for the introduction of ETCS and GSM-R on the network to be expanded to 492 km. Implementation should take place by 2015. The equipment of a 56 km long route section with ETCS Level 2 was tendered in 2015 and awarded at the end of 2015. This is intended to increase capacity and operational quality. The project has not yet been put into operation (as of March 2019).
In order to increase capacity, the Madrid S-Bahn will be equipped with ETCS Level 2. In March 2012, ETCS Level 1 was put into operation on line C4. Test drives with ETCS Level 2 took place in the same month. For the first time, ETCS (Level 1 and 2) was used in a European S-Bahn system. The further equipping of the Madrid node with ETCS is ongoing (as of 2015). An automatic operation (ATO) in the inner city tunnel was aimed for, due to financial problems initially not pursued further. In regular operation, ETCS level 1 is used, level 2 is not used (as of November 2017).
On the Corredor mediterraneo along the Spanish east coast to the French border, the equipment is running with ETCS Level 1, in some cases also with ETCS Level 2 (as of 2015). In March 2015, the order for equipping the 210 km long Valencia – Vandellós section with ETCS Level 1 was awarded. Equipping the 65 km long high-speed section Monforte del Cid - Murcia with ETCS Level 2 was also awarded at the beginning of 2015 .
ETCS in the Czech Republic
Studies and plans for the introduction of ETCS have been carried out in the Czech Republic since 2001. In 2005, the scope of the test was defined with an ETCS center and four OBUs; in the detailed planning 2007 an implementation according to SRS 2.2.2+.
In 2007 a national implementation plan was issued and deposited with the EU as part of the EDP, since 2014 in an updated version. It defines the guidelines for implementing ERTMS by 2020.
As of 2007, the equipment works both the three locomotives began the series 151 , 362 and 471 of Ceské dráhy and the intended route section. With these test vehicles, ETCS was tested in combination with the national security system VZ LS and the previous analog radio system in a 22 km long pilot section between Kolín and Poříčany on the Česká Třebová – Praha route . The investigations were successfully completed in 2011.
After a presentation by the infrastructure operator SŽDC in 2015, it planned the introduction of ETCS on a route length of 1350 kilometers and with 890 vehicles by 2020.
The Velim Railway Test Ring has been equipped with ETCS Level 2 since mid-2015.
In April 2016, the České dráhy railway company announced that it would equip up to 663 vehicles from 33 different series with ETCS on-board units (Level 2, Baseline 3). The costs of around 244 million euros are to be financed up to 85 percent from an EU program.
Equipment work for ETCS Level 2 has been taking place on the First Corridor between Kolín and Břeclav since 2016 and test operation has been possible since the end of 2018. In the summer of 2019, the start of equipment work on the fourth corridor in the Prague– Votice section was officially started.
ETCS in the 1520 mm broad gauge network
The railway network, also known as Russian broad gauge , essentially comprises Russia with neighboring countries of the former USSR as well as Finland and Mongolia . In total, around 225,000 km of railway lines are operated with this standard in the eastern half of Europe , Central and Northeast Asia . In Asia, it borders on the regular-gauge networks of Turkey , Iran , China and Korea .
The close cooperation between the Western European signaling industry and Chinese manufacturers and operators as well as the orientation of the Chinese system CTCS to ETCS results in a very large economic area with a bridging function for the 1520 mm broad-gauge network. Due to the strong economic ties between the successor states of the USSR, their railway administrations continue to coordinate the introduction of modern technical solutions in the signaling sector, even if they are not delivered from Russia. The organization of a new Silk Road with heavy transit traffic between East Asia and Central Europe strengthens the technical and logistical cooperation of the railways.
In accordance with economic requirements, technical standardization continues to be largely determined by the Russian Railways RZD with its research institute VNIIZhT . In the field of signaling, the ITARUS-ATC system has been developed in cooperation with Hitachi Rail STS since 2007 as an equivalent to the Western European ETCS. This cooperation was supported by relevant ERA decisions.
For the 2014 Winter Olympics in Russia, the route to Sochi was to be equipped with ITARUS ATC train protection.
A homologation of ITARUS-ATC at the UIC as a compatible system to ETCS is sought. At a presentation in December 2015, the application of virtual balises using wheel sensors and satellite positioning was used as a substitute for position determination with Eurobalises. This means that the system is compatible with both ETCS L2 and L3.
Belarus is trying to obtain a license for the ITARUS ATC system in order to use this KLUB- compatible train control system in the pan-European traffic corridors 2 and 9.
Finland, as part of the 1520 mm broad-gauge network, has had radio communication with TETRA that deviates from ETCS approved by the EU. This solution is compatible with equipment used in Russia.
The Baltic countries Lithuania , Latvia and Estonia have known according to earlier reports on the introduction of ETCS. In Latvia, the east-west corridor is to be equipped with ETCS between 2017 and 2021. According to information from 2018, Estonia plans to fully equip its network with ETCS within ten years.
While the new standard-gauge Rail Baltica will strictly adhere to ERA-specified ETCS with GSM-R as a communication component, compatibility with KLUB signaling will be maintained on the 1520 mm network, which is heavily used by Russia for transit.
ETCS in the rest of Europe
At the end of 2003, the Greek State Railways placed an order to equip the new Athens - Kiato line with ETCS Level 1. The line to Athens Airport was put into operation for the 2004 Olympic Games.
Irish Rail will introduce a mixture of ETCS Level 1 and the existing systems (including Caws ) on its 1600 mm broad gauge network by 2026 .
In Croatia , the contract to equip the 34 km long Vinkovci - Tovarnik section (part of the European freight corridor X) with ETCS Level 1 was awarded in September 2008.
In Macedonia , the order for ETCS Level 1 equipment for the Kumanovo - Beljakovtse line was awarded in spring 2015 .
In Slovenia the existing sections Pragersko – Sentilj and Zidani Most – Dobova are to be equipped with ETCS.
In 2010, the Romanian infrastructure operator CFR SA awarded an order to equip a 37 km long section of the Bucharest – Ploieşti line with ETCS Level 2 (with signals). It is the first application of ETCS in Romania. Commissioning took place on December 12, 2015. In November 2014, an order was placed to equip the 170 km Simeria - Coşlariu - Sighișoara line with ETCS Level 2.
ETCS outside of Europe
In 2000 the Indian Ministry of Transport decided to implement an ETCS pilot project on the Delhi - Mathura route . In 2005 an order was placed for Level 1 on the 50 km long suburban line between Chennai and Gummidipoondi (including vehicle equipment for 82 vehicles), followed later by a Level 1 order for 200 km of the Northern Railway between Delhi and Agra (including 35 locomotives). Trial operations for ETCS Level 1 on the 66 km long section between Basin Bridge and Arakkonam ( Southern Railway ) should begin at the end of 2014 . ETCS Level 1 is referred to by Indian Railways as the Train Protection and Warning System . The Board of Directors of Indian Railways decided on December 15, 2017 to equip the entire 9,000 km long network between the four Indian metropolitan regions and 6,000 vehicles with ETCS Level 2. The goal is accident-free operation. A variant of ETCS Level 1 is already being used on a 342 km long route and has led to accident-free operation there. The widespread introduction of ETCS Level 2 is to begin in 2018 (as of February 2018). In February 2018, the introduction of ETCS Level 2 was announced in the entire Indian broad-gauge network (around 60,000 km). Eight planned regional express lines in the greater Delhi area are also to be equipped with ETCS Level 2 (Baseline 3). According to information from 2019, ETCS Level 2 is to go into operation for the first time on the 82 km Delhi– Ghaziabad - Meerut line . At the end of 2019, Indian Railways tendered the ETCS-L2 equipment for route sections with a total length of 650 km. If ETCS proves its worth, further sections will be equipped.
The People's Republic of China signed contracts for four ETCS track equipment in the 2000s. The Chinese train control system CTCS is from level 3 directly compatible with ETCS Level 2. The system CTCS-3 was from 2009 in the People's Republic of China on the nearly 1000 km long high-speed line between Wuhan and Guangzhou first put into service. The Chinese high-speed network is now the longest in the world at over 18,000 km.
The six states of the Arabian Peninsula ( Bahrain , Qatar , Kuwait , Oman , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates ) united in the Gulf Cooperation Council decided to use ETCS Level 2 as a common train control system. In June 2009, ETCS Level 1 went into operation in Saudi Arabia on the two railway lines between the capital Riyadh and Dammam . The conversion of the 556 km long freight route and the 449 km long travel route is the first time ETCS has been deployed in the Arab world . The order volume, including the equipment with GSM-R, was the equivalent of 91 million euros . ETCS Level 2 is used on further routes. In some cases, systems for automatic wagon condition checks (so-called CheckPoints ) are connected to ETCS. In January 2009, a contract to equip the first stage of the rail network in the United Arab Emirates with ETCS Level 2 was announced. In April 2009, an order was placed to equip the 2,400 km north-south line with ETCS Level 2 and other systems. It was the first order for ETCS Level 2 in the Middle East and the order for the longest Level 2 equipment in the world.
In Iran , the Tehran – Isfahan high-speed line is to be equipped with ETCS Level 2 as the first line . A total of six new lines with a total scope of 2800 km are to be equipped with ETCS.
In Israel , ETCS Level 2 should replace the PZB in the entire network between 2018 and 2022. The tender, in three parts (ETCS infrastructure, ETCS on-board units, GSM-R), should be issued in 2016. Among other things, the capacity is to be increased on corridors with heavy traffic. The tenders for track and vehicle equipment are ongoing, and commissioning should take place in 2020 if possible (status: January 2018). In total, ETCS is to be put into operation on 625 kilometers of the existing network and 255 kilometers of new construction in three stages by 2023. The introduction of ETCS in Israel is being driven by massively increasing demand and increasingly scarce capacity reserves, especially in the Ayalon Corridor in Tel Aviv. With ETCS Level 2, its capacity can be increased from 14 to 17 trains per hour and direction. In addition, the ETCS should be introduced to increase safety, save energy, improve the utilization of the rolling stock and, in the future, increase the permissible maximum speed from 160 to 250 km / h. The introduction of ETCS on the Ayalon Corridor began in 2017, commissioning is scheduled for 2019 and all vehicles will be converted by then. The further rollout is to follow between 2020 and 2025. The dismantling of conventional control and safety technology, which is planned for 2026, should save up to 2 million euros per year. The introduction of ETCS is expected to cost around 750 million euros.
In Australia , after an accident due to excessive speed on the Sydney S-Bahn (in 2003), the decision was made to use ETCS Level 1 as a supplement to the existing signaling system. ETCS was ultimately selected from 67 examined train control systems and in April 2007 a manufacturer-independent working group was formed and ETCS was tested on a short section of the Sydney – Lithgow line . In the late 2000s, there was serious interest in suburban ETCS applications in Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne, as well as long-haul Queensland Rail . Under the designation Advanced Train Control System (ATCS), the introduction of ETCS Level 2 on busy route sections is being considered in Australia to increase performance. Trials of the first ETCS system in Australia were provisionally concluded in June 2016.Additional equipment with ETCS Level 1 and a later change to ETCS Level 2 is also planned in Brisbane . 75 new multiple units, which were ordered in December 2013, are prepared for the retrofitting of ETCS Level 2. In June 2016, the Queensland government announced that it would introduce ETCS in Brisbane by 2021. With investments of 634 million Australian dollars , the core capacity is to be increased by eight trains per hour or 20 percent. 20 million additional passengers are to be transported through the city center annually. The city center and the new Cross River Rail (CRR) inner city tunnel are to be equipped as part of an overall ETCS project. In the course of the profitability calculation, ETCS Level 2 without signals, with automatic driving operation (ATO) with driver (GoA 2) was taken into account. Simulations had shown that the required performance could not be achieved without ETCS.
In New Zealand , Ontrack placed an order in 2009 to equip them with ETCS Level 1. Three suburban lines (150 km in total) in the greater Auckland area will be equipped and modernized and electrified in parallel. This is the first installation of the European train control system in New Zealand. In April 2014, the first upgraded line went into operation between Auckland and the suburb of Onehunga.
In Mexico , ETCS Level 1 has been in use on the 27 km long suburban railway (FS1) between the Buenavista stations in Mexico City and Cautitlán in the state of Mexico since May 7, 2008. In 2014, an order was placed to equip the 58 km Mexico City - Toluca line with ETCS Level 2 and automatic operation (ATO).
In Brazil , the 223 km long suburban train network of Rio de Janeiro ( SuperVia ) was awarded with ETCS Level 1 in spring 2011. The headway times should thus be halved to three minutes. The start of operations was planned to be staggered between November 2012 and July 2013. It is the first time ETCS has been deployed in South America .
In Chile , a contract was awarded in October 2013 to equip the 22 km long section between Santiago de Chile and Nos (Santiago– Rancagua route , “Metrotrén Nos”) with ETCS Level 1. This should enable train head times of four minutes. It is the second application of ETCS in Latin America.
A contract for a commercial ETCS application was already signed in Algeria in 2009. In 2011, the order to equip the 290 km long high plateau route between M'Sila and Tissemsilt with ETCS Level 1 was awarded. At the end of 2014, the order to equip the 90 km long route between Beni Mansour and Bejaia with ETCS Level 1 was awarded. In December 2015, a contract was announced to equip 140 km of routes around Algiers with ETCS Level 1 by 2019. In total, ETCS is to be used over a length of 1600 km (status: 2013).
In Morocco , the LGV Tanger – Kenitra , the first high-speed line on the African continent, is being equipped with ETCS Level 2.
In Libya , ETCS is to be used over a length of 2800 km (status: 2013).
In Turkey , ETCS Level 2 will be installed for the first time on the 212 km long Ankara – Konya section . On the section completed in December 2010, only test drives with a maximum of 120 km / h have been carried out under ETCS Level 1 (as of 2011). In the future, 250 km / h will be permitted here. In the Marmaray project , ETCS Level 1 is used for long-distance trains and CBTC for S-Bahn. Contracts for commercial ETCS projects with four suppliers were already in place in Turkey in 2009.
In the United States , the California High-Speed Rail ETCS project was being considered between San José, California and Los Angeles . It is considered to implement the project in a reduced form by the end of 2022.
In East Africa , a number of routes are being considered or planned that will use ERTMS regionally. The 19 routes considered are in Burundi , Congo , Kenya , Rwanda , South Sudan , Tanzania and Uganda .In Zambia , Zambia Railways announced the introduction of ERTMS Regional (with as few outdoor facilities as possible) on the 848 km north-south route between Livingstone and Chingola in mid-2014 .The line between Awash and Woldia in Ethiopia , which has been under construction since 2012 , is being equipped with ETCS Level 1 and is scheduled to go into operation in 2018.
In South Africa , the network operator Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa planned to deploy a modified version of ETCS Level 2 in the Johannesburg , Durban and Cape Town areas by 2022 . In order to counteract frequent thefts and willful damage, Eurobalises in particular should be avoided. From 2025, the removal of conventional signals and operation with virtual block sections was planned. After a call for tenders in 2015, however, there was no award by the end of 2018.
At least one contract for a commercial ETCS project ran in Taiwan in 2009. 2013 ETCS planned or in operation on 1,800 km of route kilometers.
In Malaysia , an order was placed in 2011 to equip the Kuala Lumpur Monorail with ETCS Level 1. Equipping a S-Bahn line to Subang Airport with ETCS Level 1 is being considered.
In 2007, the South Korean infrastructure authority KNRA planned to equip the entire conventional network with ETCS within two to three years and thus achieve higher speeds. An approximately 700 km long pilot section of the core network, between Seoul and Busan or Mockpo, with ETCS Level 1 started in 2004 and was in progress in 2006. In 2009 contracts were signed with two ETCS suppliers. In September 2010, an order was placed to equip the section between Mangu and Seoul with ETCS Level 1. High-speed lines with a total length of 3861 km are to be equipped with ETCS Level 2 and LTE-R.
In Indonesia , a new 23 km S-Bahn line to Palembang Airport , which is scheduled to go into operation in 2018, is being equipped with ETCS Level 1. Other routes are to be equipped with a system based on ETCS.
ETCS Level 1 is planned in Egypt .
In Thailand , the Thai State Railways decided in 2015 to gradually introduce ETCS Level 1; Level 2 is planned for future high-speed lines. Several lines in Bangkok are to be equipped with Level 1.
In Tunis ( Tunisia ), two S-Bahn lines are being equipped with ETCS Level 1 (including 28 on-board units). Commissioning was planned for the end of 2016 (status: 2013).
In Senegal , the first section of the ETCS Level 2 local transport route between the capital Dakar and Dakar-Blaise Diagne Airport was opened in January 2019 . The remaining section should follow by 2020.
In the Sri Lankan capital Colombo , ETCS Level 1 is to be used in the expansion of the S-Bahn system.
In Kazakhstan , ETCS is to be used on the 300 km stretch between Zhetygen and Altynkol (on the border with China).
In Uruguay , the 276 km long route between Paso de los Toros and the port of Montevideo is to be equipped with ETCS Level 1.
- The capacity effects of ETCS depend on many boundary conditions of the respective project and cannot be given across the board. In projects such as Thameslink or Cross River Rail , ETCS Level 2 in conjunction with automatic train operation (ATO) is a prerequisite for meeting the performance requirements. In Switzerland, the SBB expect longer-term capacity increases through ETCS, but ETCS has so far also led to capacity losses through longer braking curves. In the Lötschberg base tunnel, control technology based on ETCS Level 2 leads to a capacity increase of 20 percent. For rail infrastructure operators who already have efficient train control and train control systems ( DB Netz : LZB with CIR-ELKE , SNCF Réseau : TVM ), the gain in efficiency through ETCS is rather lower than with other operators.
- The radio channel capacities required for ETCS Level 2 cannot always be provided in the area of shunting yards and large railway junctions using classic, connection-oriented GSM-R. With the adoption of the updates to GSM-R Baseline 1 in 2016, around four times more trains can be run in parallel in ETCS using the packet-switched GPRS transmission mode than with connection-oriented GSM-R.
- The interoperability in rail transport is increasing. As a result, multiple equipping of different train control systems in one locomotive can be avoided, which in turn saves costs. The basic prerequisite for this, however, is a continuous route network equipped with ETCS. While the first networks (e.g. Luxembourg, Switzerland) will soon be fully equipped with ETCS, the equipment of the European network is lagging behind earlier expectations.
- The backward compatibility to earlier national train control systems ( "class B systems") is by Level 0 and Level STM / NTC possible (optional).
- The scalability is given by the Level 1, 2 and 3. FIG. This enables ETCS to meet the requirements of different routes, usage profiles and railway administrations.
- During the introductory phase, old and new systems usually have to be installed in parallel. Depending on the procedure for the introduction, vehicles, routes or both must be equipped twice. Diversion options must also be taken into account.
- There are significant costs associated with the introduction of ETCS. Equipping a traction vehicle with ETCS typically costs a few hundred thousand euros. In the existing network, the introduction of ETCS Level 2 usually requires a switch to electronic interlockings.
- The protracted ETCS development history resulted in a large number of system versions which are only compatible with one another to a limited extent. Special adaptations by the individual operators make interoperability even more difficult.
- While train control systems can be technically standardized with ETCS, the operational rules of the individual countries are not aligned. In conjunction with the language barriers that still exist, there are still barriers to cross-border traffic with ETCS.
The Association of Swiss Locomotive Drivers and Candidates considers ETCS Level 2 only suitable for high-speed trains. The system is "too complex" for classic routes and not suitable for normal operation. It causes billions in costs without noticeably increasing security.
According to an analysis in Switzerland, when converting 25 vehicles of a series, around 30 to 40 percent is due to the ETCS components, 10 percent to their installation, 10 to 20 percent to necessary technical adjustments to the vehicle and 20 to 50 percent to the implementation .
- Jochen Trinckauf , Ulrich Maschek, Richard Kahl, Claudia Krahl (eds.): ETCS in Germany . 1st edition. Eurailpress, Hamburg 2020, ISBN 978-3-96245-219-3 .
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- UIC (Ed.): Compendium on ERTMS. European Rail Traffic Management System. Eurailpress, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7771-0396-9 .
- European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) . Information (including ETCS specification ) on the homepage of the European Union RailwayAgency
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- ETCS on the website of the Swiss Federal Office of Transport
- Map of the routes equipped with ETCS (incomplete) on the OpenRailwayMap
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- ↑ Regulation (EU) No. 1315/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on Union guidelines for the development of a trans-European transport network and repealing Decision No. 661/2010 / EU .
- ^ European Union Agency for Railways: Guide for the application of the TSI for the Subsystems Control-Command and Signaling Track-side and On-board. (PDF) July 1, 2016, accessed on April 12, 2018 (English).
- ↑ See main text.
- ↑ a b 2002/731 / EG: Commission decision of 30 May 2002 on the technical specification for the interoperability of the subsystem "control, train protection and signaling" of the trans-European high-speed rail system in accordance with Article 6 (1) of Directive 96/48 / EC .
- ↑ a b 2006/679 / EG: Commission decision of March 28, 2006 on the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) for the “Train control / command and signaling” subsystem of the conventional trans-European rail system .
- ↑ a b 2007/153 / EC: Commission decision of March 6, 2007 amending Annex A of Decision 2006/679 / EC on the technical specification for the interoperability of the control, command and signaling subsystem of the trans-European high-speed rail system and amending Annex A of Decision 2006/860 / EC on the technical specification for the interoperability of the control-command and signaling subsystem of the conventional trans-European rail system .
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j Ariane Boehmer, Ralf Schweinsberg: The national implementation plan for the introduction of ERTMS / ETCS . In: Railway technical review . No. 10 , 2008, p. 660-664 .
- ↑ ATO over ETCS - opportunities through higher automation. In: Alliance pro rail . Retrieved March 27, 2018 .
- ↑ Decision No. 1692/96 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 1996 on Community guidelines for the development of a trans-European transport network
- ↑ a b c d e f 2012/88 / EU: Decision of the Commission of 25 January 2012 on the technical specification for the interoperability of the subsystems "train control, train protection and signaling" of the trans-European rail system . Section 7.3 in conjunction with Section 1.2.
- ↑ a b c d e f g Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/919 of May 27, 2016 on the technical specification for the interoperability of the "train control, train protection and signaling" subsystems of the rail system in the European Union , accessed on June 15 2016
- ↑ National Implementation Plan ETCS. (PDF) In: eba.bund.de. December 11, 2017, accessed May 2, 2020 (version 1.11).
- ↑ Application of the exception to the general obligation to equip new vehicles with the ETCS assurance system according to Chapter 7.4.3 of the TSI train control, train protection and signaling. Technical notification 17/2016. In: eba.bund.de. Federal Railway Office, August 3, 2016, accessed on May 2, 2020 .
- ↑ 2020/387: Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/387 of March 9, 2020 amending Regulations (EU) No. 321/2013, (EU) No. 1302/2014 and (EU) 2016/919 with regard to enlargement the area of use and the transition periods , p. 13.
- ^ A b Henri Werdel: ETCS Level 1 in action . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 4 , 2006, p. 3 .
- ↑ a b Directive 96/48 / EC on the interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail system in the consolidated version of April 30, 2004 .
- ↑ Florian Kollmannsberger: ETCS - a possible successor technology for the LZB? In: The Federal Railroad . tape 67 , no. 7 , 1992, pp. 753-755 .
- ^ Warren Kaiser, Stein Nielsen: The Core of ATP - Data Engineering . IRSE Technical Meeting "All about ATP", Sydney, March 14, 2008 ( PDF file ( Memento of the original from November 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. )
- ↑ Council Directive 93/38 / EEC of June 14, 1993 on the coordination of the award of contracts by contracting authorities in the field of water, energy and transport as well as in the telecommunications sector. .
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- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j Frank Walenberg, Rob te Pas, Lieuwe Zuchterman: Making progresses towards standardized train control . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 168 , no. 3 , 2012, p. 35-38 .
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- ↑ a b Jaime Tamarit, Peter Winter: The testing of ETCS components from different manufacturers on the EMSET test facility in Spain . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 5/2000, pp. 218–224.
- ↑ a b c d e Klaus Garstenauer, Bernhard Appel: Market developments for ERTMS solutions in Europe and overseas . In: Railway technical review . tape 56 , no. 11 , 2007, p. 666-668 .
- ↑ a b Roland Berger, Paco Cabeza-López, Patrick Clipperton, Nicolas Erb, David Gillan, Ralf Kaminsky, Jacques Poré: Towards a coordinated ERTMS / ETCS deployment in the European network . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 7 + 8 , 2005, pp. 6-10 .
- ↑ a b c d e Wolfgang Jakob, Danilo Alba, Hannes Boyer, Patrick Clipperton, Ralf Kaminsky, Nigel Major, Cabeza Lopez Paco, Jacques Pore: ERTMS / ETCS - A Powerful Tool to Make Rail Traffic More Efficient . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 12 , 2006, p. 40-43 .
- ↑ a b c d e f Chris Jackson: ERTMS moves on: 'there is no way back' . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 163 , no. 10 , 2007, p. 608-609 .
- ↑ a b c d Definition of Baseline 3 functional CR solutions . ZIP-compressed Word document dated September 29, 2008.
- ↑ a b c d Also Germany with ETCS Level 2 . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 2 , 2016, p. 76-78 .
- ^ A b c d Andreas Schwilling, Christian Freese: Accelerating interoperability . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 170 , no. 4 , 2014, p. 70 .
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- ↑ a b Swen Lehr: Project planning and testing of ETCS line control centers . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 6 , 2005, p. 14-17 .
- ↑ Jörg Demnitz, Steffen Wolter, István Hrivnák: RBC user interfaces in international comparison . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 65 , no. 1 , 2016, p. 38-41 .
- ↑ a b Thomas Brunnengräber: Introduction to ETCS. 2016, accessed on March 10, 2019 (Section 5: ETCS Level STM and Level 0 ).
- ↑ ETCS level STM. In: http://www.mermecgroup.com . MER MEC SpA, 2020, accessed June 24, 2020 .
- ^ A b Peter Eichenberger: Increase in capacity through ETCS . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 3 , 2007, p. 6-14 .
- ↑ a b c Fabio Senesi, Chris Jackson: ETCS Level 2 to boost network capacity . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 4 , 2016, p. 41-43 .
- ↑ Giancarlo Trignani: radio infill, a way to improve ERTMS Level 1 performance: the first worldwide trial application. (PDF) In: ertms-conference2016.com. 2016, accessed April 30, 2016 .
- ↑ Demonstration of ETCS Level 3 technology in the DB Netz Living Lab. DB Netze , September 17, 2018, accessed on October 17, 2018 .
- ^ Martin Zweers, François Hausmann, Mark van Hesse, Bob Janssen, Peter Aukes: Finding a stepping stone to Level 3 . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 9 , 2015, p. 44-46 .
- ↑ CERTIFICATES WITH RESTRICTIONS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE. (PDF) NB-Rail, July 5, 2014, p. 5 ff. , Accessed on September 15, 2017 (English).
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- ^ Klaus Koop: Shunting in ETCS Level 2 areas . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 65 , no. 1 , 2016, p. 34-37 .
- ^ List of CCS Class B systems. (PDF) European Railway Agency, June 11, 2019, accessed on February 23, 2020 .
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- ^ Combining satellites with ETCS . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 2 , 2016, p. 44 .
- ↑ Fabio Senesi (Rete Ferroviaria Italiana): ITALIAN EXPERIENCE ETCS L2 (PDF; 2.5 MB) European Commission. UIC ERTMS World Conference. 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- ↑ Francesco Rispoli (Ansaldo STS): GNSS for Train Control Systems . European Commission. June 4, 2013. Archived from the original on December 22, 2013. Retrieved on November 24, 2013.
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- ↑ European Rail Research Institute (Ed.): Systems Requirements Specification Version 03.01 . August 9, 1996, p. V1 - VII .
- ^ A b Christian Hellwig, Dagmar Wander: Through the mountain at high speed - ETCS level 2 in the Lötschberg base tunnel . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 10 , 2004, p. 14-17 .
- ^ Peter Winter : ETCS project history . In: UIC (Ed.): Compendium on ERTMS . DVV Media Group, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7771-0396-9 , p. 69-81 .
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- ↑ a b c Re-commissioning of the 185 series on the Gotthard failed . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 2 , 2016, p. 80-81 .
- ↑ Set of specifications # 2 (ETCS baseline 3 and GSM-R baseline 0).
- ↑ 2012/696 / EU: Commission decision of November 6, 2012 amending the decision 2012/88 / EU on the technical specification for the interoperability of the “train control, train protection and signaling” subsystems of the trans-European rail system .
- ↑ a b Decision (EU) 2015/14 of January 5, 2015 of the Commission amending the decision 2012/88 / EU on the technical specification for the interoperability of the subsystems "train control, train protection and signaling" of the trans-European rail system .
- ↑ Ulrich Wiescholek, Mattias Potrafke, Gerd Wolters, Dirk Behrends, Michael Seemann, Ulrich Wölfel, Andreas Bantel: The new technical specifications for interoperability - Part 2 . In: Railway technical review . tape 64 , no. 7 + 8 , 2015, pp. 14-19 .
- ^ Gotthard delays: Findings and measures taken by the SBB . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 6 , 2016, p. 274-277 .
- ↑ New delays in "Baseline 3"? In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 6 , 2016, p. 297 .
- ↑ European Train Control System (ETCS) - Information on ETCS and the migration to European train control technology at DB Netz AG. (PDF; 6.2 MB) DB Netz , August 22, 2018, p. 19 , accessed on November 10, 2018 .
- ↑ Federal Office of Transport (FOT): Guideline. Train control in the Swiss standard-gauge railway network. Migration from Signum / ZUB ( memento from October 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). Bern, 2012.
- ^ A b c Christian Panten, Jan Richard: Acceleration of the ETCS - Migration through the "Limited Supervision" operating mode . In: Railway technical review . tape 56 , no. 11 , 2007, p. 689-695 .
- ^ A b c Walter von Andrian: From Signum and ZUB to ETCS Level 1 Limited Supervision . In: Swiss Railway Review , issue 4/2010, pp. 198–199.
- ↑ a b Werner Weigand: ETCS - operational advantages of the different functional levels and operating modes . In: Railway technical review . tape 56 , no. 11 , 2007, p. 676-681 .
- ↑ Siemens Industry Sector / Mobility Division: Most of the route network of the Swiss Federal Railways receives ETCS from Siemens . Press release. Berlin, September 9, 2011
- ↑ a b Federal Office of Transport (BAV): European Train Control System ETCS. Status report 2012 ( Memento from February 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). Bern, 2012
- ^ Peter Schmied: 36th conference "Modern Rail Vehicles" . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 2/2006, pp. 78-79.
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- ↑ System Requirements Specification (SUBSET-026) . European Railway Agency. May 12, 2014.
- ↑ ETCS Driver Machine Interface (ERA / ERTMS / 015560) . European Railway Agency. May 12, 2014.
- ↑ European Railway Agency (ed.): ETCS B3 Release 2 Project Plan . December 20, 2015, p. 7–10, 31, 36 ( europa.eu [PDF]). as well as further information ( Memento from February 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Signaling TSI revised. In: railwaygazette.com. February 12, 2016, accessed April 30, 2016 .
- ↑ See Safety Requirements for the Technical Interoperability of ETCS in Levels 1 & 2 (Subset 91), p. 5 and, for the background, Change Request 1249
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- ↑ ERA: Generic ETCS Driver's Handbook. January 24, 2020.
- ↑ László Mosóczi, Péter Tóth: Experience with the use of the ETCS system in Hungary . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 4 , 2004, p. 19-23 .
- ↑ Report ETCS Level 1 in Hungary . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 2/2001, p. 84
- ↑ Alfrted Velder, Walter Böhm: Modern aspects of track and train protection in ERTMS / ETCS projects . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 7 + 8 , 2004, pp. 6-13 .
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- ↑ ŽelPage: Švédsko spustilo ETCS Level 3, pomůže hlavně regionálním tratím
- ↑ Gotthard section converted to ETCS Level 2 . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 10 , 2015, p. 482-486 .
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- ↑ for ETCS RFF prepare the réseau de demain
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- ↑ SRF 4 News, 5:00 p.m.; sda / herm; widb: Ceneri base tunnel opens late . In: Swiss Radio and Television (SRF) . ( srf.ch [accessed on December 13, 2017]).
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- ↑ a b Our construction projects: Paris - Eastern France - Southwest Germany (POS). Deutsche Bahn AG, accessed on May 10, 2015 .
- ↑ a b Marc Behrens, Enrico Eckhardt, Michael Kümmling, Markus Loef, Peter Otrzonsek, Martin Schleede, Max-Leonhard von Schaper, Sven Wanstrath: On the way to the digital node Stuttgart: an overview . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 71 , no. 4 , April 2020, ISSN 0013-2810 , p. 14-18 ( PDF ).
- ^ Jens Bergmann: Digital node Stuttgart. (PDF) Declaration by DB Netz AG on content and objectives. DB Netz, April 21, 2020, pp. 3, 5 , accessed on April 24, 2020 .
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- ↑ Eurailpress: Zugsicherung / Germany: Corridor A gets ETCS Level 1 and Level 2 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- ^ ÖBB-Infrastruktur - Southern route Vienna – Villach. Retrieved December 13, 2017 .
- ↑ a b c To Van den Abeele, Johan Verschaeve: Train control and train protection in Belgium - today and tomorrow . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 11 , 2007, p. 14-18 .
- ^ Jean-Jacques Gehrenbeck: Cross-border operation at 300 km / h . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 3 , 2007, p. 32-35 .
- ↑ Siemens wins major order for ETCS components . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 7 + 8 , 2006, pp. 50 .
- ^ A b Benoît Gilson: ETCS Master Plan for rail safety in Belgium. (PDF; 1.6 MB) In: Website. Infrabel, Public Limited Company; Place Marcel Broodthaers 2, BE-1060 Brussels, March 9, 2014, accessed December 20, 2017 .
- ^ A b First Belgian conventional line equipped with ETCS. (No longer available online.) In: Rail Journal. March 5, 2012, archived from the original on March 31, 2012 ; Retrieved July 20, 2013 .
- ↑ Antwerp tunnel opened . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 1 , 2015, p. 9 (including title railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ Infrabel cuts . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 1 , 2015, p. 10 .
- ↑ ETCS Level 2 contract signed . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 9 , 2015, p. 10 (similar version to railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ ETCS on hold . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 2 , 2015, p. 23 .
- ^ ETCS in service from Athus to Antwerp . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 2 , 2016, p. 43 .
- ^ Longest ETCS route in Belgium . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 4 , 2016, p. 192 .
- ^ Double-deck framework . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 2 , 2016, p. 7 (similar version under the title railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ Implementation strategies for ERTMS. (PDF; 2.4 MB) (No longer available online.) UIC, July 1, 2008, pp. E20-E22 , formerly in the original ; accessed on April 13, 2017 (English). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ AlTrac 6413 ETCS Level 1 solution. (PDF; 600 kB) (No longer available online.) Thales Rail Signaling Solutions GesmbH, Scheydgasse 41, A-1211 Vienna, 2008, archived from the original on April 14, 2017 ; accessed on April 13, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ NATIONAL ERTMS DEPLOYMENT PLAN OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA. (PDF; 600 kB) (No longer available online.) European Commission, September 22, 2016, archived from the original on April 14, 2017 ; accessed on April 13, 2017 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Keith Barrow: Consortium wins Bulgarian ERTMS contract. International Railway Journal, February 8, 2013, accessed April 13, 2017 .
- ↑ EUR 1 bn for Bulgaria's major rail infrastructure project. Think Railways, PO Box 12-151, Bd. Garii de Nord 6-8, sector 1, Bucharest - Romania, April 28, 2014, accessed on April 13, 2017 (English).
- ^ Report for the Factual Condition of the Railway Infrastructure / Network Statement /. (PDF; 1 MB) (No longer available online.) Republic of Bulgaria, State Enterprise National Railway Infrastructure Company, Head Office, March 29, 2017, pp. 19-20 , archived from the original on January 29, 2018 ; accessed on April 13, 2017 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ A b Lars Barfoed : Current status of public transport in Denmark. In: Eurotransport , Heft 3, 2009 (Vol. 7), pp. 14-17.
- ↑ Danes pick Level 2 . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 165 , no. 1 , 2009, p. 10 .
- ↑ Signalprogrammet - beslutningsoplæg December 2008. (PDF; 1.2 MB) Banedanmark , November 29, 2017, accessed on October 17, 2018 (Danish).
- ↑ a b Morten Søndergaard, Jost Lüking: Managing Banedanmark's signaling program . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 168 , no. 3 , 2012, p. 41-44 .
- ↑ Chris Jackson: 'We want to be the number one' . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 2 , 2016, p. 38-41 .
- ^ Stefan Schwaab: The route to approval . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 168 , no. 3 , 2012, p. 47-49 .
- ↑ The Rail Engineer: Biting the bullet - the Danish ERTMS roll out
- ↑ Strækningsoversigt ETCS. Banedanmark , April 9, 2020, accessed June 8, 2020 (Danish).
- ^ Keith Barrow: Denmark funds ETCS equipment for freight locomotives. In: railjournal.com. September 18, 2017, accessed October 15, 2017 .
- ↑ Denis Bowers, Keith Barrow: Danish ERTMS program facing seven-year delay. In: railjournal.com. November 17, 2017, accessed June 24, 2018 .
- ↑ Banedanmark: Agreement with Alstom regarding delayed ETCS delivery. (No longer available online.) In: www.eurailpress.de. February 8, 2019, formerly in the original ; accessed on February 8, 2019 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ IC3-tog for digital boost in Langå. Banedanmark , November 13, 2019, accessed November 18, 2019 (Danish).
- ↑ God fremdrift for Signalprogrammet. In: https://www.bane.dk . Banedanmark, May 12, 2020, accessed June 8, 2020 (dk).
- ↑ Andreas Lindqvist: Banedanmark: "Nu er signalprogrammet i god gænge". In: https://ing.dk/ . OM TEKNOLOGIENS MEDIEHUS, Kalvebod Brygge 33, DK-1560 København V, May 10, 2020, accessed on June 8, 2020 (dk).
- ↑ Second ERTMS pilot line commissioned. In: Railway Gazette International. December 17, 2019, accessed on January 19, 2020 .
- ↑ God fremdrift for Signalprogrammet. In: https://www.bane.dk . Banedanmark, May 12, 2020, accessed June 8, 2020 (dk).
- ↑ Michael Leining: System with the highest security standard in Europe . In: Your train . tape 40 , no. 2 , 2012, p. 10-13 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g DB Netz (Hrsg.): European Train Control System (ETCS) at DB Netz AG . Frankfurt am Main April 2014, p. 7, 9–15 ( fahrweg.dbnetze.com [PDF]). fahrweg.dbnetze.com ( Memento of the original from June 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Infrastructure status and development report 2019. (PDF) Performance and financing agreement II. In: eba.bund.de. Deutsche Bahn, April 2020, p. 124 , accessed on May 17, 2020 .
- ↑ Manfred Frank: Extension of the LZB system for the Cologne – Rhine / Main line . In: signal + wire . tape 95 , no. 10 , 2003, p. 31-33 .
- ↑ Erich Wojanowski: reader's letter . In: signal + wire . tape 91 , no. 11 , 1999, p. 35 .
- ↑ a b ETCS - another way. In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 8–9 / 2002, p. 380.
- ↑ a b c d e f Christian Panten: With ETCS, “Railway Europe” is supposed to grow closer together - can it do that? In: Railway technical review . tape 56 , no. 11 , 2007, p. 670-675 .
- ↑ DB AG starts "series testing" of ETCS Level 2 . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 10/2003, pp. 448–449.
- ↑ Notification of ETCS test drives approved . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 11/2005, p. 504.
- ↑ Florian Kollmannsberger, Lennart Kilian, Klaus Mindel: Migration from LZB to ETCS - LZB / ETCS track-side parallel equipment . In: signal + wire . tape 95 , no. 3 , 2003, p. 6-11 .
- ↑ a b c Wolfgang Feldwisch, Holger Schülke: The commissioning of the major projects of the railway for the soccer world championship 2006 ( Memento of September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau (55) 2006, issue 5, p. 296.
- ↑ Gerd Renninger, Franz Riedisser: The further development of line train control since 2000 . In: Railway engineer calendar . DVV Media Group / Eurailpress , 2009, ISBN 978-3-7771-0375-4 , p. 173-184 .
- ↑ Hans-Werner Renz, Marcus Mutz: Coupling signal box / train protection with a new high-availability interface . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 12 , 2005, p. 35-39 .
- ↑ ETCS (Level 2) approved for passenger operation . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 1 + 2 , 2006, pp. 72 .
- ↑ Swen Lehr, Thomas Naumann, Otto Schittenhelm: Parallel equipment of the Berlin – Halle / Leipzig line with ETCS and LZB . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 4 , 2006, p. 6-10 .
- ↑ 180 km / h for the first time with ETCS . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 4 , 2006, p. 40 .
- ↑ Deutsche Bahn AG, DB Systemtechnik: Activity Report 2006 ( Memento of July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.6 MB), p. 42.
- ↑ a b c d e f Andreas Funke, Jutta Göring, Daniel Trenschel, Volker Schaarschmidt: ETCS competence center planning of DB ProjektBau at the Dresden location . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 63 , no. 8 , August 2012, p. 44–50 ( eurailpress.de [PDF]). eurailpress.de ( Memento of the original from May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Eisenbahn-Revue International , 2/2009, p. 66: National ETCS solutions or standardization of the ETCS? .
- ↑ Dirk Riedel: ETCS operational tasks. (PDF) ETCS equipment border connection line PL - Frankfurt (Oder) border - Erkner (- Berlin) in the area of PD Cottbus ETCS signal-guided / ETCS L2. (No longer available online.) DB Netz, May 17, 2017, p. 51 , archived from the original on January 7, 2020 ; accessed on January 7, 2020 (file 02 order BAst QUAST BAst.pdf ).
- ↑ ETCS test drives on the valley railway. (PDF) WEG Württembergische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft mbH and Thales Deutschland are testing a state-of-the-art European train control system. (No longer available online.) Thales Germany, August 28, 2017, archived from the original on August 27, 2017 ; accessed on August 28, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Demonstration of ETCS Level 3 technology in the DB Netz Living Lab. In: youtube.com. Deutsche Bahn, September 6, 2018, accessed on September 30, 2018 .
- ↑ a b New ETCS projects in Europe . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 7/2004, p. 311.
- ↑ Letter of Intent signed for ETCS project . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 6 , 2004, p. 42 .
- ↑ a b ETCS for ICE routes . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 1 + 2 , 2007, pp. 45 .
- ↑ ETCS for Nuremberg – Munich ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Report on eurailpress.de from December 27, 2006.
- ^ NIM-ABS-Nord - final expansion Petershausen – Ingolstadt. DB Netz , accessed on October 18, 2018 .
- ↑ Ralf Kaminsky, Siemens Transportation Systems: ETCS on the traffic corridors in Europe: Challenges for the signaling industry and status of the introduction (presentation). Magdeburg, September 6, 2007.
- ↑ Ansaldo STS wins the Berlin-Rostock ERTMS / ETCS 2 signaling systems contract. Accessed April 12, 2018 .
- ↑ Operational Program Transport, ERDF BUND 2007-2013, final implementation report. (PDF; 8.1 MB) In: Website. Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure, March 20, 2017, pp. 78-79 , accessed on September 3, 2017 .
- ^ Frank Tasch: Rules of procedure for driving trains . In: Your train . tape 43 , no. 12 , 2015, p. 14-19 .
- ↑ a b Jan-Peter Böhm, Werner Geier, Peter Lankes, Jürgen Memke: The equipment of the German ICE high-speed trains with ETCS . In: Railway technical review . tape 63 , no. 5 , 2014, p. 49-57 .
- ↑ Switzerland finances ETCS in DB locomotives . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 9 , 2005, p. 50 .
- ↑ Conversion of ICE 1 to ETCS . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 65 , no. 6 , 2016, p. 57 .
- ^ André Daubitz, Frank de Gavarelli, Marcus Schenkel: A major project on the home straight - the new line between Erfurt and Leipzig / Halle . In: Railway technical review . tape 64 , no. 12 , 2015, p. 33-42 .
- ↑ DB presents the first modernized ICE 3 . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 4 , April 2017, p. 204 .
- ↑ Infrastructure and vehicle problems on the Gotthard . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 4 , 2016, p. 222-224 .
- ^ Tino Zippel: Saalbahn becomes route for goods traffic . In: Ostthüringer Zeitung . tape 26 , no. 134 , June 10, 2016, p. 1 (chargeable otz.de ).
- ↑ Operating concept on the new Nuremberg-Erfurt line - connection to Coburg. In: stmi.bayern.de. Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Transport , June 24, 2016, accessed on June 24, 2016 .
- ↑ "The installation of ETCS had to be done quickly and without many tests" . Focus online, December 14, 2017.
- ↑ Deutsche Bahn: number of passengers Berlin – Munich more than doubled - operational quality stable. In: website. Locomotive Report , January 9, 2018, accessed on January 9, 2018 .
- ↑ New traffic concept on the Gäubahn: hourly service with IC trains ensured despite technical challenges. Press release. (No longer available online.) Deutsche Bahn, July 15, 2016, archived from the original on July 31, 2016 ; accessed on July 31, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Announcement of ETCS expansion increasingly important for DB ProjektBau . In: DB Welt , December 2009 edition, p. 11.
- ↑ DB Netz AG, Dr. Reiner Behnsch: GSM-R and ETCS. Overview, status and interfaces . Lecture at the 52nd Railway Technology Conference of the VDEI. Magdeburg, September 6, 2007.
- ↑ a b German Bundestag (ed.): Answer of the Federal Government to the small question of the MPs Dr. Anton Hofreiter, Dr. Valerie Wilms, Stephan Kühn, other MPs and the BÜNDNIS 90 / DIE GRÜNEN parliamentary group on the “Status of the expansion of ERTMS / ETCS on railway lines” - printed matter 17/7421 - (PDF; 109 kB). Printed matter 17/7618 of November 8, 2011.
- ↑ Answer of the Federal Government to the minor question from the MPs Dr. Anton Hofreiter, Winfried Hermann, Dr. Valerie Wilms, another member of parliament and the parliamentary group ALLIANCE 90 / THE GREENS - Printed matter 17/947 - (PDF; 88 kB). Printed matter 17/1125 of March 22, 2010.
- ↑ Thomas Ludwig: Harmonization in rail traffic faltering . In: Handelsblatt , No. 15, 20./21. January 2012, p. 21 (similar version online ).
- ↑ Thomas Ludwig: EU pushes for a common safety system for the railways. In: Handelsblatt . No. 37, February 21, 2012, p. 15.
- ↑ Brussels enforces competition . Articles on wiwo.de .
- ↑ Green light for ERTMS equipment in "Corridor A". (No longer available online.) Deutsche Bahn AG, March 8, 2013, archived from the original on March 17, 2013 ; Retrieved December 7, 2015 .
- ↑ C. Müller: ETCS: Federal government is holding back on financing - will EU target be achieved? In: Rail Business . No. May 16 , 2018, ZDB -ID 2559332-8 , p. 1 .
- ↑ a b Christian Wüst: Esperanto in Knappenrode . In: Der Spiegel . No. 50 , 2015, p. 114 ( online ).
- ↑ Michael Leining: The future of signal technology. (PDF) Is automation a must? (No longer available online.) DB Netz AG, April 17, 2017, archived from the original on April 23, 2017 ; Retrieved May 3, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b c "Digital Rail Germany" brings more performance and quality to the tracks. In: deutschebahn.com. Deutsche Bahn, January 25, 2018, accessed on January 26, 2018 .
- ↑ National Implementation Plan ETCS. (PDF) December 11, 2017, pp. 10-13 , accessed April 25, 2018 .
- ↑ Train control system TBL1 + on the route between Aachen and the Belgian border . In: signal + wire . tape 106 , no. 7 + 8 , 2014, pp. 35-39 .
- ↑ Final spurt - commissioning at a glance! Expansion and electrification Knappenrode - Horka. (PDF; 946 kB) (No longer available online.) In: Website. DB Netz , February 5, 2018, archived from the original on February 12, 2018 ; accessed on February 12, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Ulrich Möhle: From Knappenrode via Horka to China . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 68 , no. December 12 , 2018, ISSN 0013-2810 , p. 32-35 .
- ↑ Kristian Meyer: Hamburg's S-Bahn trains will soon run autonomously. In: mopo.de. April 17, 2018, accessed May 10, 2018 .
- ↑ Plans for digital S-Bahn in Hamburg continue. In: deutschebahn.com. Deutsche Bahn, January 8, 2020, accessed on January 10, 2020 .
- ↑ Marco Völklein: The airport as a model . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . January 25, 2016, p. 39 .
- ↑ Winfried Hermann : Implementation of the ETCS / DSTW pilot project in the Stuttgart region. (PDF) (No longer available online.) In: vm.baden-wuerttemberg.de. Ministry of Transport Baden-Württemberg, October 24, 2018, pp. 15 f., 18 , archived from the original on November 23, 2018 ; accessed on November 22, 2018 .
- ↑ Study on the introduction of ETCS in the core network of the Stuttgart S-Bahn. (PDF) Final report. WSP Infrastructure Engineering, NEXTRAIL, quattron management consulting, VIA Consulting & Development GmbH, Railistics, January 30, 2019, pp. 35, 38 , accessed on April 13, 2019 .
- ↑ A great success for the Stuttgart rail hub. In: vrs.de. Verband Region Stuttgart, January 30, 2019, accessed on January 30, 2019 .
- ^ Peter Berger: Every two minutes an S-Bahn . In: Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger . December 20, 2018 (similar version among other titles online ).
- ^ Electrification Hof – Marktredwitz. (PDF; 2.2 MB) (No longer available online.) In: Website. DB Netz , April 22, 2016, p. 3 , archived from the original on January 9, 2018 ; accessed on January 9, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ First discussions in the adjacent planning rooms. DB Netz , September 19, 2018, accessed on October 18, 2018 .
- ↑ DB AG (Ed.): Future Rail - Together for more quality, more customers, more success . Berlin 2015, p. 20, 21 ( deutschebahn.com [PDF]). deutschebahn.com ( Memento of the original from February 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b Richard Rother: Bahn discovers punctuality . In: the daily newspaper . No. 10897 , December 18, 2015, p. 2 (including the title taz.de ).
- ↑ a b PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTION for the award of the feasibility study for the Future Rail project (ETCS / NeuPro). (PDF) Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure , February 20, 2017, accessed on February 25, 2017 .
- ↑ Hans Leister: DSTW and ETCS - is the future coming faster than you thought? In: Bahn-Manager . 2017, ZDB -ID 2852343-X , p. 46-50 .
- ↑ Dieter Fockenbrock: Billion plan for the "digital rail" . In: Handelsblatt . No. 131 , July 11, 2018, ISSN 0017-7296 , p. 4th f . ( Short version ).
- ↑ a b Gerald Traufetter: City, Country, Zug . In: Der Spiegel . No. 31 , 2018, p. 62-66 ( online - 28 July 2018 ).
- ↑ Bavaria gets the first digital interlocking on a main line in Germany. In: deutschebahn.com. Deutsche Bahn, June 10, 2019, accessed on August 2, 2019 .
- ↑ Timon Heinric: DB discovers potential savings through ETCS . In: Deutsche Verkehrs-Zeitung . February 12, 2016 (chargeable dvz.de ).
- ↑ Cost reduction in signaling technology . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 5 , 2007, p. 24-29 .
- ^ Zukunft Bahn: Another stage in the DB announcement marathon . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 2 , 2016, p. 94-95 .
- ↑ DB Supervisory Board takes note of the future concept - ETCS full network is planned. In: eurailpress.de. Eurailpress , December 18, 2015, accessed February 20, 2016 .
- ^ Germany-Bonn: feasibility study, advice, analysis. Document 73028. In: Supplement to the Electronic Official Journal of the European Union . February 25, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2017 .
- ^ Germany-Bonn: feasibility study, advice, analysis. Document 2017 / S 143-295074. In: Supplement to the Electronic Official Journal of the European Union . July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
- ↑ Feasibility study for the rollout of ETCS / DSTW. (PDF) Summary of the results. McKinsey & Company , December 2018, pp. 19-21, 23 , accessed April 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Feasibility study for the Future Rail project (ETCS / NeuPro). (PDF) Core results of the study by McKinsey & Company for the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. September 19, 2018, pp. 3–5 , accessed September 30, 2018 .
- ↑ The railway system is to be digitized. In: deutschebahn.com. Deutsche Bahn, September 19, 2018, accessed September 30, 2018 .
- ↑ ######. (PDF) Digital Rail Germany. (No longer available online.) Deutsche Bahn, January 2018, p. 5 , archived from the original on February 13, 2018 ; accessed on February 12, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ A new departure for Europe. A new dynamic for Germany. A new cohesion for our country. (PDF) Coalition agreement between the CDU, CSU and SPD. February 7, 2018, p. 78 , accessed February 8, 2018 .
- ↑ Hermann Schmidtendorf: "An agreement needs more pressure on the system ." In: Bahn-Manager . No. 1 , January 7, 2018, ZDB -ID 2852343-X , p. 70-71 .
- ↑ Federal budget 2020: Little funds for ERTMS . In: The Railway Engineer . tape 69 , no. 5 , May 2019, ISSN 0013-2810 , p. 78 .
- ↑ a b Patrick Castan: Evolution of Signaling Systems and Implementation of ETCS on New High Speed Lines . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 12 , 2006, p. 44-47 .
- ↑ Audrey Cayol: ETCS Level 1 solution to equip the French sections of corridors C and D . In: signal + wire . tape 103 , no. 10 , 2011, p. 42-49 .
- ↑ La signalisation ferroviaire. (PDF; 1.1 MB) In: EIFFAGE Rail EXPRESS No. 14, JOURNAL D'INFORMATIONS DU PROJET DE LIGNE À GRANDE VITESSE • BRITTANY - PAYS DE LA LOIRE. Eiffage LGV BPL; Loïc Dorbec, Frédérique Alary, October 1, 2015, accessed March 7, 2017 (French).
- ↑ a b without author: ETCS - program slips as snags emerge . In: Modern Railways . Vol. 65, No. 721, 2008, pp. 30-31.
- ^ Rhodri Clark: Sunshine delays Cambrian ERTMS . In: Modern Railways . Vol. 67, No. 742, 2010, p. 14.
- ↑ UK's first ETCS Level 2 signaling goes live. In: Railway Gazette International , November 16, 2010
- ↑ a b c d Chris Jackson: Intelligent train management will cut costs . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 167 , no. 6 , 2011, p. 61-64 .
- ↑ National Operations Publications ( English ) Rail Safety and Standards Board Ltd. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- ↑ a b c d Paul Botth: ETCS and ATO through the Thameslink core . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 9 , 2015, p. 33-37 .
- ^ A b Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 6 , 2015, p. 18-19 ( railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ Hitachi and Network Rail collaborate on ETCS-compatible signaling demonstration. Hitachi, Ltd., February 20, 2008, accessed December 7, 2015 .
- ↑ Eversholt awards ETCS First in Class contract. In: railwaygazette.com. Railway Gazette International, November 26, 2015, accessed June 22, 2016 .
- ^ Germany-Stuttgart: Catenary construction work. Document 2018 / S 075-166100. In: Supplement to the Electronic Official Journal of the European Union . April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018 .
- ↑ a b c Starting with a blank sheet . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 167 , no. 5 , 2011, p. 74-75 .
- ↑ David Morton, Maik Bähr, Rolf Detering, Gregor Theeg: Optimization of headway times using ETCS and ATO . In: signal + wire . tape 104 , no. 10 , 2012, p. 16-19 .
- ↑ a b c Ian Mitchell: ETCS or CBTC on cross-city links? In: Railway Gazette International . tape 169 , no. 4 , 2013, p. 32-36 .
- ↑ Network Rail awards ETCS freight fitment contract. In: website. Railway Gazette , December 19, 2017, accessed January 3, 2018 .
- ↑ Guillaume De-Tilière, Roberto Semprini: Roma – Napoli: Commercial operation of ERTMS / ETCS at 300 km / h . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 11 , 2006, p. 30-32 .
- ↑ PIANO DI SVILUPPO ERTMS / ETCS e GSM-R. (PDF; 2.7 MB) In: Website. Rete Ferroviaria Italiana , March 30, 2017, pp. 39-40 , accessed February 18, 2018 (Italian).
- ↑ a b c d Peter Winter: UIC conference on the introduction of the European Rail Traffic Management System . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 6 , 2006, p. 284-285 .
- ^ ETCS Level 2 for Italian conventional line. In: railwaygazette.com. January 29, 2016, accessed April 30, 2016 .
- ↑ ERTMS for High Density in Urban Nodes. (PDF) In: ertms-conference2016.com. 2016, accessed April 30, 2016 .
- ^ Maurizio Gentile: Italian Rail Network chases three-minute headways with ETCS High Density . In: International Railway Journal . tape 58 , no. 3 , March 2018, p. 46 .
- ↑ ERTMS, per l'interoperabilità tra le reti europee. Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane , August 29, 2018, accessed August 30, 2018 (Italian).
- ^ Henri Werdel, Jean-Jacques Kolb, André Feltz, Hans Kast: Equipping the entire Luxembourg railway network with ETCS Level 1 . In: signal + wire . tape 95 , no. 9 , 2003, p. 18-24 .
- ↑ André Feltz, Robert Wietor, Gerhard Hillenbrand: ETCS Level-1 project in Luxembourg . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 11 , 2004, p. 16-23 .
- ^ A b Philippe Hammelmann: Two hypotheses possible . In: Luxemburger Tageblatt . 17th February 2017.
- ↑ -: When simplification makes things complicated ... ETCS-SYSTEM. (No longer available online.) In: http://www.tageblatt.lu/ . Tageblatt Letzeburg; 44, rue du Canal, L-4050 Esch-sur-Alzette, March 31, 2016, archived from the original on March 8, 2017 ; accessed on March 7, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b REPORT D'ETAPE - Collision ferroviaire du 14 février 2017 à Dudelange. (PDF; 1.4 MB) (No longer available online.) In: Website. Luxembourg - Ministry for Sustainable Development and Infrastructures, February 19, 2018, pp. 32-34 , archived from the original on February 21, 2018 ; accessed on February 20, 2018 (French). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois: Rapport intégré 2018. Retrieved on July 5, 2020 (Annual Report of the National Society of Luxembourg Railways, page 17).
- ^ André Feltz, Niels Nießen, Jürgen Jacobs, Tobias Walke: Determination of the performance of the Luxembourg railway network taking into account ETCS Level 1 FS. (PDF; 2.7 MB) November 2016, pp. 14-20 , accessed on March 8, 2017 (special print from "ETR - Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau 11/2016 - Pages 14-20", Eurailpress (DVV Media Group GmbH)).
- ^ Lionel Arend, Laurent Pott, Nico Hoffmann, Ronny Schanck: ETCS Level 2 without GSM-R . In: signal + wire . tape 110 , no. 10 . DVV Media Group , Hamburg 2018, p. 18–28 ( online [PDF; accessed December 7, 2018]).
- ↑ a b Patrik Ahlqvist, Mathias Hering: Mixed Signaling - Conventional Signaling and ERTMS on One Line . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 12 , 2005, p. 47-49 .
- ↑ Patrik Ahlqvist, Mathias Hering: Mixed signaling - conventional signaling and ERTMS on one route . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 3 , 2007, p. 15-18 .
- ^ Nick Cory: Current ETCS projects in the Netherlands . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 6 , 2004, p. 17-25 .
- ↑ Successful tests with ERTMS Level 2 in the Netherlands . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 4 , 2005, p. 40 .
- ↑ Successful ETCS cross test on Betuweroute . In: signal + wire . tape 97 , no. 7 + 8 , 2005, pp. 49 .
- ↑ Bombardier supplies ESTW for the Netherlands . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 7 + 8 , 2006, pp. 47 f .
- ^ Roger Hall: ETCS vehicle equipment in the Netherlands . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 9 , 2006, p. 6-10 .
- ↑ The Netherlands rely on ETCS . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 6 , 2014, p. 298 .
- ↑ ETCS rollout re-evaluated. In: railwaygazette.com. January 18, 2016, accessed January 23, 2016 .
- ↑ In letter . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 56 , no. 7 , 2016, p. 17 .
- ↑ Harry Hondius: Civity and flirt to boost NS fleet . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 4 , 2015, p. 54-55 .
- ↑ Keith Barrow: ERTMS in Norway: escaping the “burning platform”. In: International Railway Journal. July 12, 2016, accessed March 28, 2018 .
- ↑ ETCS pilot goes live . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 10 , 2015, p. 7 (under a similar title railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ a b Intelligence market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 1 , 2015, p. 16-17 ( railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ ERTMS roll-out funded . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 6 , 2016, p. 9 (under a similar title railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ Siemens is digitizing the infrastructure of the Norwegian rail network. In: siemens.com. Siemens, April 6, 2018, accessed April 7, 2018 .
- ^ Keith Barrow: Alstom and Siemens selected for Norwegian ERTMS contracts. In: International Railway Journal. March 20, 2018, accessed March 28, 2018 .
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- ↑ Stefan Göbel: ERTMS for a whole country: Norway opens Nyland campus . In: City traffic . tape 64 , no. December 12 , 2019, ISSN 0038-9013 , ZDB -ID 242252-9 , p. 16-19 .
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- ↑ Dominik Schreiber: "Security is a human right" . In: Courier . April 21, 2019, p. 16 ( online ).
- ↑ Peter Schmied: ETCS system successfully tested on the Vienna - Budapest route . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 1/2000, pp. 32–33.
- ↑ Report ETCS Level 1 on the Vienna - Budapest route . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 12/2005, p. 592.
- ^ Vienna - Budapest: Europe's first cross-border thoroughfare with the ETCS train protection system. APA-OTS, ÖBB, September 23, 2005, accessed on June 2, 2015 .
- ↑ Stefan Rameder: ETCS at ÖBB: The start of a new era of train protection . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 5, 2010, pp. 222–225.
- ↑ Alstom and Thales equip Austrian Federal Railways with ETCS train protection system. (No longer available online.) Alstom, June 15, 2011, archived from the original on July 22, 2015 ; Retrieved June 2, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ No home advantage: Alstom slows down Siemens Austria . In: Wirtschaftsblatt . No. 3529 , January 19, 2010, p. 2 .
- ^ Roman DOWN, Gerhard Fritze: The EU test of the GSM-R network of the ÖBB-Infrastruktur AG according to the TSI ZZS . In: signal + wire . tape 108 , no. 6 , 2015, p. 40-47 .
- ↑ Court of Auditors criticizes the procurement of locomotives by ÖBB . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 2 , 2016, p. 65 .
- ↑ Peter Schmied: Compaction of the Vienna S-Bahn traffic . In: Railway Austria . No. 8 , 2018, p. 438 .
- ^ First ETCS route for Poland. (No longer available online.) Eurailpress, December 15, 2009, archived from the original on December 20, 2015 ; Retrieved December 7, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Andrei Ciufu: First ETCS certified in Poland. December 23, 2013, accessed October 30, 2016 .
- ^ A b Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 1 , 2016, p. 16-17 (including title railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ Chris Jackson: Joining the 200 km / h club . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 2 , 2015, p. 58-60 .
- ^ Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 169 , no. 6 , 2013, p. 18–19 (including titles online ).
- ^ Maciej Kaczanowski: Bombardier Completes First ERTMS Level 2 Rail Control in Poland. December 3, 2015, accessed October 31, 2016 .
- ↑ a b c Zapis przebiegu posiedzenia komisji - Komisji infrastructure (No. 92) z dnia 8 czerwca 2017 r. (PDF; 386 kB) In: www.sejm.gov.pl. Sejm , June 20, 2017, accessed May 22, 2018 (Polish).
- ^ Bombardier Wins Further Order for ERTMS Technology in Poland. February 15, 2013, accessed October 31, 2016 .
- ↑ ETCS Level 2 goes live in southwest Poland. December 10, 2015, accessed October 31, 2016 .
- ↑ Thales wdroży system ETCS 1 Limited Supervision. In: https://kurierkolejowy.eu/ . October 4, 2013, accessed May 23, 2018 (Polish).
- ^ Poznań Metropolitan Railway to launch this year. In: Railway Gazette International . January 6, 2018, accessed May 23, 2018 .
- ↑ a b Poland launches ERTMS tenders. In: https://www.railwaypro.com/ . January 10, 2017, accessed May 23, 2018 .
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- ↑ Thales wins new ERTMS contract in Poland. In: https://www.railwaypro.com/ . January 31, 2018, accessed May 24, 2018 .
- ↑ Bombardier wykona ERTMS / ETCS na linii Poznań - Wrocław. In: https://kurierkolejowy.eu/ . Courier Kolejowy; ul. Szczęśliwicka 62; PL-02-353 Warszawa, March 30, 2018, accessed May 22, 2018 (Polish).
- ↑ Wykaz linii kolejowych, które są wyposażone w urzadzenia systemu ETCS. (PDF; 186 kB) Network Statement 2018/2019. PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe SA, December 9, 2018, accessed on January 28, 2019 (Polish).
- ^ Portugal-Almada: Work for railway signal systems. Document 2018 / S 201-457485. In: Supplement to the Electronic Official Journal of the European Union . October 18, 2018, accessed October 18, 2018 .
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- ^ The New Generation of Railway Signaling in Portugal Starts with Thales. In: newswiretoday.com. Thales Group, December 10, 2019, accessed January 18, 2020 .
- ↑ Sweden: Successful test of ERTMS Level 2 . In: signal + wire . tape 99 , no. 6 , 2007, p. 43 .
- ↑ Dyraste tåglinjen en flopp. on dn.se.
- ^ Cost-effective train control on low-density lines . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 166 , no. 6 , 2010, p. 40-44 .
- ↑ Rebuilt Ådalsbanan officially reopened. In: website. Railway Gazette, September 26, 2012, accessed December 6, 2017 .
- ↑ ETCS goes live to Haparanda. In: website. Railway Gazette, January 17, 2014, accessed December 6, 2017 .
- ↑ INTERFLO 450 & 250 - Trafikverket, Sweden. In: website. Bombardier Transportation, December 6, 2017, accessed December 6, 2017 .
- ↑ ERTMS i Citytunneln skjuts upp. (No longer available online.) In: Website. City tunnel project 2003, November 28, 2008, archived from the original on September 6, 2009 ; Retrieved December 6, 2017 (Swedish). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Siemens ETCS on test in Sweden. In: website. International Railway Journal, December 8, 2016, accessed December 6, 2017 .
- ↑ Annelie Andersson: Bombardier completes world-first ERTMS tests in Sweden. Bombardier Transportation , August 19, 2018, accessed September 20, 2018 .
- ^ Västlänken project to reshape Göteborg commuter network . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 12 , 2016, p. 30-32 .
- ↑ a b Marc Zurflüh: ETCS on border routes . In: signal + wire . tape 107 , no. 9 , 2015, p. 9-15 .
- ↑ Standard gauge network completely converted to a new train control system. In: website. Bahnonline.ch, December 31, 2017, accessed on March 27, 2018 .
- ↑ a b Stefan Sommer: ETCS in Switzerland - step by step to the goal . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 7/2013, pp. 351–353.
- ↑ a b c d e Oskar Stadler, Arnold Trümpi: Network-wide use of ERTMS / ETCS at Swiss Federal Railways . In: signal + wire . tape 95 , no. 3 , 2003, p. 11-14 .
- ↑ Andreas Zünd, Hans-Peter Heiz: The network-wide implementation of ETCS in Switzerland . In: signal + wire . tape 98 , no. 7 + 8 , 2006, pp. 6-9 .
- ↑ Urs Dolder: The introduction of driver's cab signaling at the SBB . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 8–9 / 2000, pp. 354–358.
- ^ Paul Messmer, Christopher Nicca: The radio supply with GSM-R for the ETCS pilot route Zofingen - Sempach of the SBB . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 7/2000, pp. 310–313.
- ^ Walter von Andrian: Driver's cab signaling Zofingen-Sempach in operation . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 6/2002, pp. 276–277.
- ^ Mathias Hering, Rasmus Krevet, Marco Liesch: Availability of the world's first ERTMS / ETCS line with level 2 . In: signal + wire . tape 95 , no. 9 , 2003, p. 14-18 .
- ^ Walter von Andrian: Test track for ETCS Level 2 switched off . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 1/2004, p. 36.
- ↑ European Train Control System ETCS - Status report 2011. (No longer available online.) Federal Office of Transport FOT, p. 21 , archived from the original on April 7, 2012 ; Retrieved December 7, 2015 .
- ↑ Increase in the speed limit in the Lötschberg base tunnel in NZZ Online from December 31, 2008
- ^ Walter von Andrian: ETCS accident on the Lötschberg base line in Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 12/2007, pp. 584-585.
- ↑ Jean Gross: Final report on the derailment of freight train 43647 of BLS AG on switch 34 (entrance to Lötschberg base line). (PDF; 2.3 MB) Swiss Accident Investigation Board Railways and Ships (UUS), June 23, 2008, accessed on February 2, 2020 .
- ^ SBB, Walter von Andrian: ETCS L1 LS and speed monitoring at SBB . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 11/2011, p. 543.
- ^ Walter von Andrian: Wrong development in train protection . In: Swiss Railway Review , issue 6/2013, p. 274.
- ↑ Federal Office of Transport (FOT): ERTMS. Implementation in the standard-gauge railway network in Switzerland ( memento of October 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). Bern, December 2012.
- ↑ Trafic ferroviaire restreint entre Lausanne et Villeneuve mardi 25 avril 2017 également. In: website. bahnonline.ch, April 24, 2017, accessed on May 7, 2018 (French).
- ↑ a b c d Migration from ETCS Level 2 at a dead end? In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 6 , June 2017, p. 282 .
- ↑ a b c Martin Messerli: SmartRail 4.0: The ETCS interlocking. (PDF) (No longer available online.) SBB, April 20, 2017, pp. 5, 12 ff. , Archived from the original on April 23, 2017 ; Retrieved April 23, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Slobodan Lozarević, Miroslav Stojković: introduction of the ETCS in the Yugoslav Railways . In: signal + wire . tape 86 , no. 7 , 1996, pp. 26-30 .
- ↑ Andreja Neskovic: development of security systems at the Yugoslav Railways . In: signal + wire . tape 87 , no. 12 , 1997, p. 22-23 .
- ↑ Loan agreed for $ US 1.78bn Budapest - Belgrade upgrade
- ↑ China Launches First Overseas High-speed Train Control Technology Lab
- ↑ Beograd suburban EMUs . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 169 , no. 4 , 2013, p. 12 (similar version online ).
- ↑ ETCS test drive with Taurus in April 2009 (Slovak)
- ↑ Roland Stadlbauer: Efficient equipping of rail vehicles with ETCS using the example of Slovakia . In: signal + wire . tape 108 , no. 11 , 2016, p. 29-37 .
- ^ Mike Bent: Spain's high speed step change . In: Today's railways Europe . 150, June 2008, p. 34.
- ↑ Madrid - Barcelona at 310 km / h with ETCS Level 2 . News from October 18, 2011.
- ^ Richard Malins: Spain - a New Railway Mania? In: Modern Railways . Vol. 66, No. 726, 2009, pp. 58-63.
- ^ ETCS for Barcelona suburban . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 161 , no. 4 , 2005, p. 9 .
- ↑ Spending in the cities . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 7 , 2015, p. 51 .
- ^ Alstom and Bombardier win Barcelona ETCS contract. In: railwaygazette.com. Railway Gazette International, December 2, 2015, accessed June 22, 2016 .
- ^ Jorge Lopez: Mobile mapping assists Rodalies resignalling . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 175 , no. 3 , 2019, ISSN 0373-5346 , p. 36 f .
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- ↑ ERTMS Level 2 testing starts in the Commuter Network of Madrid. (No longer available online.) In: thalesgroup.com. Thales , March 26, 2012, archived from the original on June 24, 2016 ; accessed on June 24, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ High speed priority in 2016 . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , 2015, p. 8 (under a similar title railwaygazette.com ).
- ^ Nick Kingsley: Developing the Mediterranean Corridor . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 7 , 2015, p. 53-54 .
- ^ Intelligence market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 4 , 2015, p. 16-17 (including title railwaygazette.com ).
- ^ Thales and Bombardier to Deliver Latest Rail Control Contract for the Mediterranean Corridor in Spain. Thales, June 16, 2016, accessed June 17, 2016 .
- ↑ World rail infrastructure market March 2015 . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 3 , 2015, p. 18-19 ( railwaygazette.com ).
- ↑ Petr Varadinov: Postup na prací realizaci project ů ETCS v síti SŽDC. (PDF; 3.2 MB) In: Website. Správa železniční dopravní cesty, May 16, 2013, p. 2 , accessed on May 20, 2017 (cz).
- ↑ -: ERTMS - National Implementation Plan. (PDF) (No longer available online.) In: Website. Czech Republic, September 2007, archived from the original on March 3, 2018 ; accessed on May 20, 2017 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ -: Národní implementační plán - ERTMS. (PDF) In: Website. Česká republika, November 2014, accessed on May 20, 2017 (cz).
- ↑ Report ETCS Level 2 in the Czech Republic . In: Swiss Railway Review , January 2008 edition, p. 38.
- ↑ -: ETCS pilot project in the Czech Republic completed. In: website. Správa železniční dopravní cesty, October 26, 2011, accessed on May 20, 2017 .
- ↑ Radek Čech, Petr Varadinov: Národní implementační plán ERTMS 2014–2020. (PDF; 2.4 MB) In: Website. Správa železniční dopravní cesty, November 4, 2016, p. 16 , accessed on May 20, 2017 (cz).
- ^ Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , 2015, p. 18-19 .
- ↑ ČD are planning major vehicle investments . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 6 , 2016, p. 285 .
- ↑ The ČD trains will be equipped with the European ETCS train control system. (No longer available online.) In: ceskedrahy.cz. České dráhy , April 14, 2016, archived from the original on June 19, 2016 ; accessed on April 23, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ ETCS Level 2 rollout for Czech Railways' fleet. In: globalrailnews.com. April 15, 2016, accessed April 23, 2016 .
- ↑ Quintus Vosman: SZDC rises to Czech capacity challenge. In: International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing, July 26, 2019, accessed September 10, 2019 .
- ↑ ERA, Interoperability Unit - Railway system with a gauge of 1520/1524 mm: Recommendation on the relationship to railway networks with a gauge of 1520/1524 mm (ERA / REC / 03 - 2008 / INT). (PDF; 320 kB) In: http://www.era.europa.eu/ . European Union Agency for Railway, October 31, 2008, accessed March 9, 2017 .
- ↑ Michael Tillian: Italians build rail connections. (No longer available online.) In: Wirtschaftsblatt . July 14, 2010, archived from the original on March 24, 2016 ; Retrieved July 20, 2013 .
- ↑ -: Разработка ОАО «НИИАС» получила высокое признание МСЖД. (No longer available online.) ОАО «НИИАС» - Головной офис Москва, Россия, 109029 Нижегородская ул., 27 стр. 1, December 10, 2015, archived from the original on September 16, 2016 ; Retrieved September 14, 2016 (Russian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Технологии Finmeccanica могут появиться в Беларуси. In: Trans-port.com.ua. April 28, 2010, Retrieved July 20, 2013 (Ukrainian).
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- ↑ Study examines GSM-R for Lithuania . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 5 , 2005, p. 234 .
- ↑ a b Elena Ilie: Latvia, committed to develop rail traffic . In: Railway Pro Magzine . No. 135 , September 2016, p. 50 .
- ↑ David Briginshaw: Freight recovery boosts prospects for Estonian railways . In: International Railway Journal . tape 55 , no. 6 , June 2018, p. 30-32 .
- ^ ETCS report for Greece . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 12/2003, p. 558.
- ↑ François Lacôte, Jacques Pore: ERTMS / ETCS is reality . In: signal + wire . tape 96 , no. 6 , 2004, p. 6-12 .
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- ↑ Irish Rail to install national ATP system . In: International Railway Journal . tape 59 , no. 4 , April 2019, ISSN 2161-7376 , p. 12 .
- ^ Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 163 , no. 10 , 2008, p. 772 .
- ↑ Slovenia wants to modernize rail infrastructure . In: gtai - markets at home and abroad . June 24, 2016.
- ^ Lick Kingsley: 'Rail can contribute more' . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 1 , 2016, p. 27-29 .
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- ↑ Message ERTMS specification established . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 6/2000, p. 275.
- ^ Raghu Dayal: Augmenting capacity and boosting productivity . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 170 , no. 11 , 2014, p. 45-46 .
- ↑ Indian Railways now has a Rs 12,000-cr plan to make your travel safer . In: Transportation Monitor Worldwide . 18th December 2017.
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- ↑ Srinand Jha: India sets rail budget at record $ US 23.3bn. (No longer available online.) In: railjournal.com. February 2, 2018, formerly in the original ; accessed on February 15, 2018 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Railways to have ETCS Level II signaling on the entire broad gauge network. In: business-standard.com. March 7, 2018, accessed March 13, 2018 .
- ↑ Vinay Kumar Singh: Greater Delhi's economic enabler . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 174 , no. 7 , 2015, ISSN 0373-5346 , p. 34-36 .
- ↑ Global tender for rapid rail coaches floated . In: Transportation Monitor Worldwide . September 10, 2019.
- ^ Arun Kumar Das: Six bidders vie for Indian Railways ETCS Level 2 pilot project. In: railjournal.com. November 7, 2019, accessed December 9, 2019 .
- ↑ a b c d e f Peter Winter : International conference for the introduction of ERTMS in Málaga . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 7 , July 2009, ISSN 1421-2811 , p. 350-353 .
- ^ ETCS in Saudi Arabia . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 8–9 / 2009, p. 422.
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- ↑ Etihad signaling contract . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 168 , no. 3 , 2012, p. 12 ( online under a similar title ).
- ^ North-South contracts . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 161 , no. 4 , 2005, p. 7 .
- ^ Nick Kingsley: 'It is not structure that maters, but the process' . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 7 , 2016, p. 47-50 .
- ^ Nick Kingsley: Forging ahead with a TSI-compliant high speed line . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 7 , 2016, p. 52-53 .
- ↑ Oren Dori: מכרז האיתות של רכבת ישראל יוצא לדרך. TheMarker, May 1, 2016, accessed July 17, 2016 (Hebrew).
- ↑ Kevin Smith: New Tel Aviv - Jerusalem line set for 2018 opening . In: International Railway Journal . tape 58 , no. 1 , January 2018, p. 56 .
- ↑ Kevin Smith: Israel electrification program accelerated as ETCS Level 2 tested. In: railjournal.com. April 7, 2020, accessed April 10, 2020 .
- ^ Charles Solomon, Vladimir Simon, Akiva Rom, Haim Aviram, Shlomo Bekhor, Alex Dubov, Asaf Kohane, Yulia Rubinshtein: Making the case for ERTMS . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 174 , no. 6 , 2018, p. 27-29 .
- ↑ a b c Frank Heibel: The future lies in cab signaling . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 11 , 2015, p. 30-34 .
- ↑ Alstom provides Australia's first ETCS level 2 signaling in New South Wales. In: railway-technology.com. June 29, 2016, accessed July 8, 2016 .
- ^ Todd Garvey: Combining the best of local and global . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 6 , 2016, p. 42-45 .
- ↑ Queensland to invest $ 467m in new signaling system. June 15, 2016, accessed June 16, 2016 .
- ↑ Alex de Aboitiz: Technical project overview. (PDF) In: crossriverrail.qld.gov.au. August 30, 2017, p. 29 , accessed on September 15, 2017 .
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- ↑ New Zealand: Installation of ETCS Level 1. (No longer available online.) Eurailpress, April 30, 2009, formerly the original ; Retrieved December 7, 2015 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b Chris Jackson: By EMU to Onehunga . In: Metro Report International . tape June 28 , 2014, p. 18-22 .
- ↑ CAF-Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles, your railway solutions on caf.es.
- ↑ Manuel Villalba: Pioneering ATO over ETCS Level 2 . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 9 , 2016, p. 107-109 .
- ^ Rio Suburban network to be equipped with ERTMS. ERTMS, June 20, 2016, accessed December 7, 2015 .
- ↑ Commuter capacity . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 171 , no. 9 , 2015, p. 8 (including title railwaygazette.com ).
- ^ Murray Hughes: Emerging markets are now the driving force . In: Metro Report International . tape 25 , 2011, p. 5 .
- ↑ Santiago ETCS contract . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 169 , no. 12 , 2013, p. 8 ( online under a similar title ).
- ^ Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 167 , no. 8 , 2011, p. 18 .
- ^ Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 1 , 2016, p. 16-17 (long version railwaygazette.com ).
- ^ Alain Hocke: Building Africa's first LGV . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 168 , no. 6 , 2012, p. 35-36 .
- ^ Intelligence Market . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 169 , no. 5 , 2013, p. 22–23 (including titles online ).
- ^ Turkey: ETCS level for HGV route. (No longer available online.) Eurailpress, February 8, 2011, archived from the original on December 20, 2015 ; Retrieved December 7, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Positive Train Control - Implementation Status, Issues, and Impacts . Federal Railroad Administration. S. August 5, 2012.
- ↑ High speed rail plan scaled back . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 175 , no. 3 , 2019, ISSN 0373-5346 , p. 8 .
- ↑ expansion beckons in East Africa . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 172 , no. 6 , 2016, p. 30-33 .
- ^ Nick Kingsley: ERTMS Regional spearheads Zambian renewal . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 170 , no. 9 , 2014, p. 117-118 .
- ↑ Michele Molinari, Noah Gunzinger: Ethiopia turns big plans into reality . International Railway Journal, June 3, 2015.
- ↑ Railway projects well in progress ( Memento of the original from October 14, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Fana Broadcasting, September 30, 2015.
- ↑ Nick Kingsley: Bringing Prasa into the wireless control era . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 170 , no. 9 , 2014, p. 110-112 .
- ↑ PRASA on the brink . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 174 , no. 11 , 2018, ISSN 0373-5346 , p. 24 .
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- ↑ Chris Jackson: Research underpins Korail's drive to be a global player . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 163 , no. 5 , 2007, p. 291-296 .
- ↑ Gyeongchun Line enters service . In: Railway Gazette International . tape 167 , no. 16 , 2011, p. 16 ( online under a similar title ).
- ^ A b Clive Kessell: ASPECT . In: Rail . February 2018, ZDB -ID 2907092-2 , p. 69 ( PDF ).
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- ↑ In letter . In: International Railway Journal . tape 55 , no. 2 , 2015, p. 15 (The source does not make any more precise statements).
- ↑ Florian Hutter, Manfred Zekl: Thailand relies on the European train control system ETCS . In: signal + wire . tape 111 , no. 3 , 2019, ISSN 0037-4997 , p. 23-31 .
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- ↑ Bangkok's suburban train will boost its capacity by up to 40% with Thales. In: thalesgroup.com. Thales, May 24, 2018, accessed June 2, 2018 .
- ^ Thales consortium to install ETCS Level 1 ATP system in Thailand. In: railway-technology.com. September 20, 2019, accessed on September 20, 2019 .
- ^ For the first time Siemens is to automate mainline routes in Tunisia. In: siemens.com. Siemens, March 25, 2013, accessed November 4, 2016 .
- ↑ President of Senegal Dakar attends TER handover . In: International Railway Journal . tape 59 , no. 3 , 2019, ISSN 2161-7376 , p. 13 .
- ^ Keith Barrow: Colombo backs rail to solve congestion problems . In: International Railway Journal . tape 58 , no. 8 , August 2018, ISSN 2161-7376 , p. 30-32 .
- ↑ Kevin Smith: Kazakhstan adopts Tetra over ETCS for 300km line. In: railjournal.com. September 2, 2019, accessed on September 9, 2019 .
- ↑ ETCS over Tetra certified. In: railwaygazette.co. Retrieved September 9, 2019 .
- ^ CAF provides signaling for new railway line in Uruguay. In: railtech.com. November 8, 2019, accessed November 16, 2019 .
- ↑ Markus Leutwyler: Interview with Dr. Peter Füglistaler. ( Memento of the original from September 5, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In Loco Folio. No. 1, 2017, pp. 17-19.
- ↑ 10 questions about ERTMS. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Federal Railway Office , July 4, 2005, p. 2 , archived from the original on November 7, 2017 ; Retrieved October 30, 2017 : “For new vehicles, the cost, to put the order of magnitude, is around 100,000 EUR. Retrofitting an existing vehicle costs between EUR 200,000 and EUR 300,000. ” Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Application by Abg. Anton Baron and others AfD and statement from the Ministry of Transport: European Train Control System (ETCS). (PDF) State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg , January 26, 2017, p. 4 , accessed on October 30, 2017 : "Price approx. 200,000 euros / vehicle"
- ↑ sda : Train driver president criticizes SBB - "Train driver left alone". In: Aargauer Zeitung , August 4, 2013.