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Elizabeth line roundel.svg
Route length: 118 km
Gauge : 1435 mm ( standard gauge )
Power system : 25 kV 50 Hz  ~
Top speed: 140 km / h
Dual track : whole route
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West Drayton
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Heathrow Terminal 5
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Heathrow Terminal 4
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Heathrow Central
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Airport Junction
Station, station
Hayes & Harlington
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Stop, stop
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West Ealing
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Ealing Broadway
Stop, stop
Acton Main Line
Old Oak Common
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Bond Street
Tottenham Court Road
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Liverpool Street
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Canary Wharf
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Custom House
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Connaught tunnel
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Forest Gate
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Abbey Wood
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Manor Park
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Seven Kings
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Chadwell Heath
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Gidea Park
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Harold Wood
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Crossrail is a railway project under construction in London . It is currently one of the largest rail projects in Europe. Construction work began in 2009 and commissioning is scheduled to take place in stages in 2019/20. Crossrail will create a high-performance, S-Bahn- like connection that will link parts of Berkshire , Buckinghamshire and Essex with the central and south-eastern districts of Greater London . The new route will be called Elizabeth Line and is intended to relieve the London Underground , in particular the Central Line .

The heart of the project are tunnels with a length of 21.6 km that cross the city center from west to east. The main tunnel runs from Paddington via Liverpool Street and Canary Wharf to Abbey Wood . Another tunnel branches off at Whitechapel and leads to Stratford . Trains will operate 118 km from Reading in the west to Shenfield in the east and Abbey Wood in the southeast. They will use parts of the Great Western Main Line and Great Eastern Main Line , as well as a short branch line to Heathrow Airport . Up to 24 trains per hour and direction are planned in the central section.

Since 31 May 2015, there is a forward operation by TfL Rail , a subsidiary of MTR Corporation , which by Transport for London received an operating license. TfL Rail has been operating under the name Crossrail since 2017 and has been expanding its operations to the new routes since 2018. The central tunnel section should originally have opened in December 2018, but it is not expected to go into operation before summer 2021.

A similar project for a north-south connection is the Crossrail 2 , which is still in the planning stage .


Proposals from 1948

In June 1941, in The Star newspaper, railroad historian George Dow first presented a concept of large-diameter rail tunnels to connect Paddington and Liverpool Street terminus stations in central London . He also proposed north-south lines, anticipating the Thameslink lines of the post-war years. The current Crossrail project is based on the County of London Plan of 1943 and the Greater London Plan of 1944, both developed by city planner Patrick Abercrombie . These concepts were carefully reviewed by the Railway (London Plan) Committee , which reported in 1946 and 1948. Route A would have led from Loughborough Junction to Euston , with the Blackfriars Bridge rebuilt . Route F would have connected Lewisham to Kilburn via Fenchurch Street , Trafalgar Square , Marble Arch and Marylebone . Ultimately, only Route C was implemented around 1970 in the form of the Victoria Line , albeit with tunnels of smaller diameter.

1974 proposals

The term Crossrail first appeared in 1974 in the London Rail Study Report, a steering committee set up by the Environment Department and the Greater London Council to study future transport needs and develop strategic plans for London and south-east England. The report contained several options for new lines and expansions, including the Jubilee Line (then called the Fleet Line ) to Fenchurch Street , the River Line (now the eastern part of the Jubilee Line) and the Chelsea – Hackney Line . The reopening of the Snow Hill Tunnel and the construction of two low-lying railway tunnels were also proposed .

The 1974 study assumed that 14,000 passengers per hour would use the northern and 21,000 the southern tunnel during rush hour. Comparisons were made with the RER Paris and the S-Bahn Hamburg . A connection to Heathrow Airport was also considered . Although the concept was considered imaginative, there was only a vague estimate of £ 300 million . The authors recommended a feasibility study with high urgency, as well as a planning safeguarding of the tunnel course.

1989 proposals

The 1989 Central London Rail Study recommended three British Rail Standard tunnels between different parts of the existing rail network, named East-West Crossrail , City Crossrail and North-South Crossrail . The east-west project envisaged a line from Liverpool Street to Paddington / Marylebone, with two connections at the western end to the Great Western Main Line and the Metropolitan Line . The City Route was proposed as a new connection from the Great Northern Route through the City of London to London Bridge. The north-south route was to bundle trains from the West Coast Main Line , Thameslink and Great Northern Route at Euston and King's Cross / St Pancras and lead them into a tunnel over Tottenham Court Road to Victoria, from where they continue to Crystal Palace and Hounslow . The report also suggested a number of other lines, including a Thameslink metro and a new Chelsea – Hackney line. The cost of the east-west route including vehicles was estimated at £ 885 million.

2003/04 proposals

An unrealized Super Link

Cross London Rail Links (CLRL), a joint venture between Transport for London and the Ministry of Transport, continued to develop the east-west plan from 2001, as did a line between Wimbledon and Hackney. In 2003 and 2004 a 50-day traveling exhibition took place, which presented the proposals in 30 different locations.

A more ambitious proposal was estimated at 13 billion pounds Super Link in 2004, the additional infrastructure construction outside London included: In addition to the east-west tunnel had new lines Cambridge , Ipswich , Southend-on-Sea , Pitsea , Reading , Basingstoke and Northampton opened . According to the promoters, the Superlink would have carried four times as many passengers and, as a result, would have required lower public subsidies. Mayor Ken Livingstone and the Department of Transportation did not support the proposal.

Crossrail project and approval

Crossrail logo

Consultations in the UK Parliament were required to approve the Crossrail project . A committee of members of the House of Commons met between December 2005 and October 2007. The committee issued a preliminary ruling in July 2006 calling on promoters to add a train station in Woolwich . The government, as the client, did not want to do this at first, as otherwise the affordability of the entire project would have been jeopardized, but later gave in. While the law was still being discussed, Minister of Transport Ruth Kelly ordered spatial planning measures on January 24, 2008 to protect the planned traffic corridor from other construction projects that would otherwise have stood in the way of Crossrail and possible future extensions. In February 2008 the bill was discussed by a committee of the House of Lords . On July 22, 2008, the Crossrail Act 2008 became law through Royal Assent .

The Crossrail Act 2008 included an environmental impact assessment , plans and other related information. The act gave Cross London Rail Links the necessary powers to build the railway line. Transport Secretary Andrew Adonis announced a £ 230 million stake from BAA and confirmed that funding was secured despite the global financial crisis . Donors (including Transport for London, the Department of Transport, Network Rail , BAA and the City of London ) pledged full funding of £ 15.9 billion on December 4, 2008. Transport for London announced in December 2018 that it would need up to £ 2.2 billion on top of the £ 600 million handed over in the summer of 2018. Crossrail's final budget will then be up to £ 17.6 billion, including emergency funding.

Transport for London received a £ 1 billion loan from the European Investment Bank on September 7, 2009 . After the 2010 general election , the new conservative-liberal coalition government confirmed that the project would continue as agreed. According to the original schedule, the first trains should have run in 2017. A financial analysis carried out that same year found that simpler but slower construction (made possible by fewer tunnel boring machines and access shafts) could save more than a billion pounds. The commissioning of the central section was postponed by a year.

The project is carried out by Crossrail Ltd. implemented. It was jointly owned by Transport for London (TfL) and the UK Ministry of Transport until December 2008 , after which it was wholly owned by TfL. The company has £ 16 billion at its disposal to make the project a reality. While the branches to the west and to Shenfield will continue to be owned by Network Rail , TfL will own and operate the tunnel in the city center and to Woolwich.


Route map

Western sections

Heathrow Central train station

Most of the western section, the Great Western Main Line , runs above ground from Reading to Paddington . The stations in this area have been modernized and expanded. A flyover was built in Acton so that passenger trains can overtake slower freight trains that are on their way to a shunting facility there. The structure was completed in July 2016 and put into operation in January 2017.

The Heathrow junction, which begins at Airport Junction between Hayes & Harlington and West Drayton, has three underground stations in the area of London Heathrow Airport . A flyover at Hayes & Harlington called the Stockley Flyover allows Heathrow Express trains to cross the Crossrail tracks without crossing them.

Central part

The central section of the Crossrail route traverses downtown in a west-east direction underground, with the tunnel portals west of Paddington and east of Whitechapel . New underground stations are being built in Paddington, Bond Street , Tottenham Court Road , Farringdon , Liverpool Street and Whitechapel. All offer transfer options to other subway and railway lines. Because of the length and positioning of the platforms, Farringdon is connected to Barbican Tube Station , as is Liverpool Street to Moorgate Station .

Eastern sections

The route branches off east of Whitechapel station. One of the two branches of the route leads to the existing Great Eastern Main Line , with the tunnel portal located a little south of the Olympic Stadium . Via Stratford is Shenfield reached.

The other branch of the route initially leads underground to Canary Wharf and comes to the surface at Custom House . He then used a section of the North London Line to North Woolwich, which was closed in 2006 . The route then crosses under the Thames and reaches Abbey Wood station on the North Kent Line via Woolwich .

List of train stations

Surname Connecting lines location District region
Main Line Reading - Abbey Wood
Reading Great Western Main Line
Reading - Taunton
Reading - Basingstoke
Waterloo - Reading
North Downs Line
Coord. Reading Berkshire
Twyford Henley branch line Coord. Wokingham
Maidenhead Marlow branch line Coord. Windsor and Maidenhead
Taplow Coord. Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire
Burnham Coord. Slough Berkshire
Slough Slough - Windsor & Eton Coord.
Langley Coord.
Iver Coord. Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire
West Drayton Coord. Hillingdon Greater London
Hayes & Harlington Heathrow branch line Coord.
Southall Coord. Ealing
Hanwell Coord.
West Ealing Greenford branch line Coord.
Ealing Broadway Central Line
District Line
Acton Main Line Coord.
Old Oak Common High Speed ​​2
North London Line
West London Line
Acton - Northolt
Bakerloo Line
Central Line
Coord. Hammersmith and Fulham
Paddington Great Western Main Line
Heathrow Express
Bakerloo Line
Circle Line
District Line
Hammersmith & City Line
Coord. City of Westminster
Bond Street Central Line
Jubilee Line
Tottenham Court Road Central Line
Northern Line
Crossrail 2
Coord. Camden
Farringdon Thameslink
Circle Line
Hammersmith & City Line
Metropolitan Line
Coord. Islington
Liverpool Street Great Eastern Main Line
West Anglia Main Line
Lea Valley Lines
Central Line
Circle Line
Hammersmith & City Line
Metropolitan Line
Coord. City of London
Whitechapel Shenfield Branch
East London Line
District Line
Hammersmith & City Line
Coord. Tower Hamlets
Canary Wharf Jubilee Line
Docklands Light Railway
Custom House Docklands Light Railway Coord. Newham
Woolwich Coord. Greenwich
Abbey Wood North Kent Line Coord. Greenwich / Bexley
Heathrow branch line
Hayes & Harlington Hillingdon Greater London
Heathrow Central Heathrow Express
Piccadilly Line
Heathrow Terminal 4 Piccadilly Line Coord.
Heathrow Terminal 5 Heathrow Express
Piccadilly Line
Shenfield Branch Line
Whitechapel East London Line
District Line
Hammersmith & City Line
Tower Hamlets Greater London
Stratford Great Eastern Main Line
West Anglia Main Line
North London Line
Central Line
Jubilee Line
Docklands Light Railway
Coord. Newham
Maryland Coord.
Forest Gate Coord.
Manor Park Coord.
Ilford Coord. Redbridge
Seven Kings Coord.
Goodmayes Coord.
Chadwell Heath Coord.
Romford Romford - Upminster Coord. Havering
Gidea Park Coord.
Harold Wood Coord.
Brentwood Coord. Brentwood Essex
Shenfield Great Eastern Main Line
Shenfield - Southend

Implementation of the project

Construction work

Western tunnel portal at Royal Oak (July 2011)
Interior finishing of the Whitechapel tunnel (December 2013)

Prime Minister Gordon Brown and Mayor Boris Johnson attended the groundbreaking ceremony on May 15, 2009 . The first construction work was deep foundations in the area of ​​the future Canary Wharf station. Preparatory work began on Tottenham Court Road in September 2009, which had previously required the expropriation and demolition of several buildings (including the Astoria Theater ). The tunnel boring turned out to be particularly challenging there, as the Crossrail tunnel runs less than a meter below the Northern Line tunnel and above an escalator shaft.

The tenders for the two main tunneling contracts were published in the Official Journal of the European Union in August 2009 . The contract section tunnel West (C305) included the 6.2 km section of Royal Oak to Farringdon , with a tunnel portal west of Paddington. The Tunnels East (C300) section comprised three tunnel sections and launch shafts in east London. The companies BAM Nuttall , Ferrovial and Kier Group were awarded the contract for Tunnels West at the end of 2010 , while the companies Dragados and Sisk Group were successful for Tunnels East . Finally, in August 2011, the last construction lot C310 (Plumstead to North Woolwich), which included a tunnel under the Thames , was awarded to Hochtief and J. Murphy & Sons.

In December 2011, BAM Nuttall and Van Oord were awarded the contract to transport the excavated material from the tunnel boring to Wallasey Island , an island off the coast of Essex. The excavation with a total weight of over seven million tons was used there to fill the Wallasey Wetlands, a bird sanctuary planned by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds . The tunneling work officially ended on June 4, 2015 at Farringdon in the presence of the Prime Minister and the Mayor. The track construction was completed in mid-September 2017.

Tunnel boring machines

Eight tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the German manufacturer Herrenknecht from Schwanau in Baden were used . They were 7.1 m in diameter, weighed 980 tons and were 148 m long. Six TBMs were equipped for use in stable chalk rock formations, two for unstable deposits of clay, sand and gravel under the Thames.

The TBMs have traditionally been given a name. The Crossrail company held a competition in January 2012. Over 2500 submissions were received, whereupon ten name pairs were shortlisted. After a public vote in February 2012, the first three pairs were announced on March 13th.

On August 16, 2013, the two names for the fourth TBM pair were announced.

Tunnel boring machine Ada

Archaeological digs

The tunnel boring as part of the Crossrail project provided a unique opportunity to explore the underground in parts of central London that were previously considered inaccessible. CLRL led one of the largest archaeological research projects in British history. More than a hundred archaeologists unearthed tens of thousands of objects from 40 excavation sites (especially in the area of ​​the future train stations). More than 500 of these objects were exhibited in a special exhibition at the Museum of London Docklands from February to September 2017 .

One of the most significant finds is the former cemetery of the Bethlem Royal Hospital (Bedlam) in the Liverpool Street station area, where over 3,300 skeletons from the 16th and 17th centuries have been found. Many of those buried there died in 1665 during the Great Plague of London . Another excavated cemetery at Charterhouse Square contains mostly the remains of people who fell victim to the Black Death in the mid-14th century . Other notable finds include a.

Design and Infrastructure


The central route comprises five separately constructed tunnel sections with a total length of 21.6 km, which run up to 40 meters below the surface of the earth. The westernmost section of the tunnel begins at Royal Oak and runs 6.8 km to Farringdon . This is followed by the 8.3 km long section from Farringdon via Stepney Green to the Limmo Peninsula (at the mouth of the River Lea ), followed by the 0.9 km long section from the Limmo Peninsula to the Royal Victoria Dock . The section from Stepney Green to Pudding Mill Lane at Stratford is 2.7 km long. In the far southeast is the 2.9 km long section from North Woolwich under the Thames to Plumstead . Each section consists of two single-lane tunnel tubes with an inner diameter of 6.2 m, each erected by a tunnel boring machine . The concrete segments for the inner lining of the tunnel walls were produced in London, Chatham and Mullingar ( Ireland ). The tunnel diameter is significantly larger than the tube railways of the London Underground , where it is only 3.81 m.

Train stations

Crossrail requires the construction of eight new underground stations at Paddington , Bond Street , Tottenham Court Road , Farringdon , Liverpool Street , Whitechapel , Canary Wharf and Woolwich, and two above-ground stations at Custom House and Abbey Wood . The platforms will be 250 m long and have platform screen doors. In the existing stations, the platforms will be extended if necessary. Exceptions are the Maryland and Manor Park stations on the branch line to Shenfield, where this is not possible for financial and structural reasons. Not all train doors can be opened there. In a test center in Leighton Buzzard in the county of Bedfordshire 2011 was demonstration of a Crossrail station built to present to the public the future design.


British class 345 multiple unit (July 2017)

Newly developed British Class 345 vehicles will be used on the Crossrail routes . The Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Transportation produces a total of 70 trains. The nine-part railcars are 205 m long and reach a top speed of 145 km / h. They offer space for up to 1500 passengers (including around 450 seats). The trains are completely barrier-free , have compartments for wheelchairs and are equipped with a video surveillance system.

On March 30, 2011, Crossrail announced that five applicants had been shortlisted in the tendering process . One of the applicants, Alstom , withdrew in July 2011. At the end of February 2012, Crossrail asked the other four applicants, CAF , Siemens , Hitachi and Bombardier, to submit specific offers by the middle of the year. Siemens also withdrew in July 2013, but then supplied the signaling and control systems.

Transport for London and the Ministry of Transport announced on February 6, 2014 that Bombardier had been awarded the contract to build and maintain the trains. The contract initially comprised 66 trains and the construction of a depot at the Old Oak Common rail junction . The trains were built at Bombardier's Litchurch Lane plant in Derby . This created 760 industrial jobs and 74% of the value added remained in the UK economy. The first train ran on June 22, 2017. Three weeks later, on July 13, 2017, Transport for London announced the re-ordering of four more trains.

Energy supply and train control

The Crossrail lines are electrified with 25  kV 50  Hz alternating voltage , with the traction current being supplied via overhead lines . This system was previously used on the Great Eastern Main Line (GEML) and on part of the Great Western Main Line (GWML). While the GEML has been electrified since the 1950s, at the beginning of the 21st century the GWML was still predominantly powered by diesel multiple units. With the start of operation of the Heathrow Express on June 23, 1998, the section between Paddington and Heathrow Airport was electrified. The electrification between Airport Junction (at Hayes & Harlington) and Maidenhead , an integral part of the Crossrail project, took place on March 28, 2017. Finally, on January 2, 2018, the last missing section between Maidenhead and Reading was added.

Different train control systems are used: European Train Control System ( ETCS Level 2 ) on the western section, Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC) with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) on the central section and to Abbey Wood (with a possible later upgrade on ETCS) as well as Automatic Warning System with Train Protection and Warning System at GEML.


Introduction in stages

On July 18, 2014 were London rail (the rail division of Transport for London ) announced that the MTR Corporation from Hong Kong have been awarded the eight year operating concession, with an option for two more years. For this purpose, MTR founded a new railway company called TfL Rail . On May 31, 2015, it took over the route from Liverpool Street to Shenfield , whose concession had previously been owned by Abellio Greater Anglia , as preliminary operation . On the same day, TfL Rail also took over the concession for suburban traffic from Paddington to Reading and Heathrow from the Great Western Railway .

When the project is completed the route after Queen to Elizabeth II. In Elizabeth Line be renamed. Similar to the transfer of the Silverlink lines to London Overground , Transport for London will overhaul the existing stations, install new ticket machines and platform barriers, introduce the Oyster card and ensure that all stations are staffed. Existing rail vehicles were adapted to the appearance of TfL Rail.

The start of rail traffic in the central tunnel section was originally planned for December 2018. At the end of August 2018, Crossrail Ltd. known that this deadline could not be kept. The company justified this with the fact that more time was needed for the installation of the safety equipment and for test drives and named autumn 2019 as the new opening date. By this time, the adaptation of the signal systems on the Great Western Main Line should also be completed. This deadline could not be kept either. In December 2019, Crossrail Ltd. announced that the opening of the central tunnel section may be delayed by up to two years. As early as July 2018, it became known that the budget had been exceeded by around £ 600 million and that the construction costs were now £ 15.4 billion instead of £ 14.8 billion. In early 2020 that total rose to £ 18.25 billion.

Introduction of Crossrail lines in stages
stage map scheduled
0 Preliminary operation from 2015 May 2015 May 31, 2015 Transfer of the existing suburban connection between Liverpool Street and Shenfield from Abellio Greater Anglia to TfL Rail .
1 May 2017 22nd June 2017 Commissioning of the British class 345 railcars .
2 Second stage from 2018 May 2018 20th May 2018 Transfer of the existing suburban connection between Paddington (above-ground part) and Heathrow Terminal 4 from Heathrow Connect to TfL Rail. TfL Rail is also taking over the shuttle connection between Heathrow Central and Heathrow Terminal 4 from Heathrow Express .
5a Section to Reading - 15th December 2019 Transfer of most trains between Paddington and Reading from Great Western Railway to TfL.
3 Third stage from 2021 December 2018 Mid-2021 Start of operations between Paddington (underground part) and Abbey Wood ; this section and existing TfL lines will be renamed Elizabeth Line.
4th Fourth stage 2022 May 2019 until mid-2022 Elizabeth Line begins operations between Paddington and Shenfield via Whitechapel.
5 Fifth stage from 2022 December 2019 until mid-2022 All connections from Heathrow to Paddington are tied through to Shenfield and Abbey Wood, the remaining trains between Reading and Paddington are transferred to the Elizabeth Line and tied through.


After the start of full operation in December 2019, all trains are to stop in the central section at all stations. As on the outer sections of Thameslink , the Elizabeth Line uses platforms and tracks of other railway lines outside the tunnel sections. Trains from other rail companies will continue to run on sections of the route, for example the Heathrow Express between Paddington and Heathrow Airport. Between Paddington and Whitechapel there are 20 trains every hour, one every three minutes.

The Elizabeth Line will save significant time by eliminating the need to switch to other rail routes or London Underground lines:

Travel time (in minutes)
route today future
Paddington - Tottenham Court Road 20th 4th
Paddington - Canary Wharf 34 17th
Bond Street - Paddington 15th 3
Bond Street - Whitechapel 24 10
Canary Wharf - Liverpool Street 21st 6th
Canary Wharf - Heathrow 55 39
Whitechapel - Canary Wharf 13 3
Abbey Wood - Heathrow 93 52

Further planning

Extensions proposed by Network Rail

Plans carried out in 2010 include the construction of Old Oak Common station (between Paddington and Acton Main Line) at a later date . This would create a link with the planned High Speed ​​2 high-speed line between London and Birmingham , with the Central Line and lines from London Overground . The opening is scheduled for 2026. In 2013, London City Airport proposed in its ten-year strategy the reopening of the Silvertown train station, which had been closed seven years earlier, in order to connect the airport to the Crossrail route. The cost is estimated at £ 50 million and would be financed by the airport itself; the London Borough of Newham supports the project in principle.

The route utilization strategy published by Network Rail in July 2011 recommended diverting local traffic on the West Coast Main Line (WCML) between London Euston and Milton Keynes to the Crossrail route in order to create additional capacity for High Speed ​​2 in Euston. This would enable direct connections from WCML to Shenfield, Canary Wharf and Abbey Wood, relieve the London Underground around Euston, better utilize the capacity of Crossrail west of Paddington and improve connections to Heathrow Airport from the north. Under-Secretary of State Patrick McLoughlin announced in August 2014 that the government was considering at least an extension from Crossrail to Tring . However, the proposal was filed two years later due to insufficient profitability. Transport for London is considering an extension of the Crossrail route from Abbey Wood in an easterly direction to Ebbsfleet and confirmed its intentions in January 2018.

Crossrail 2

Crossrail 2 is the project name for another underground railway line through central London. It would connect Surrey to Hertfordshire and Victoria Station to King's Cross Station . The intersection with the west-east route would be at Tottenham Court Road station .


  • London's megatunnel - project of superlatives (OT: The Fifteen Billion Pound Railway ). Documentary, Great Britain, 2014-, 5 episodes, 177 min., By: Joby Lobmann, production: windfallfilms, BBC Two, original first broadcast: from 16 Jul. 2014 on BBC Two , German first broadcast: from 17 Jan 2019 on cable one documentation
  • The Crossrail project in London. (OT: Mega City Railway. ) Documentary, Great Britain, 2017, 47:19 min., Written and directed by Matthew Grosch, Greg Williams, Production: Science Channel, Series: Geniale Technik , (OT: Impossible Engineering ), original premiere : April 27, 2017 on Science Channel US, German first broadcast: June 12, 2017 on n-tv , table of contents by n-tv, online video (English).
  • Drilling with precision - 118 kilometers of new underground line are being built in London. Documentary, Germany, 2017, 5:38 min., Written and directed: NN , production: 3sat , series: nano , first broadcast: May 26, 2017 on 3sat, online video.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Andrew Dow: Telling the Passenger Where to Get Off . Capital Transport, London 2005, ISBN 978-1-85414-291-7 , pp. 52-55 .
  2. ^ Alan Jackson, Desmond F. Croome: Rails Through The Clay . Allen & Unwin, London 1962, OCLC 55438 , pp. 309-312 .
  3. Greater London Council, Department of Environment (Ed.): London Rail Study Report Part 2 . London 1974, p. 87-88 .
  4. Crossrail - from its early beginnings. Crossrail, 2015, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  5. ^ John Young: Investment of £ 1,390m in London rail urged. The Times , Nov. 29, 1974, p. 4.
  6. Safeguarding. Crossrail, 2015, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  7. ^ Central London Rail Study. (PDF) British Rail Network SouthEast; London Regional Transport; London Underground, 1989, pp. 11-16 , accessed April 1, 2018 (English).
  8. ^ Sponsors and Partners. Crossrail, 2015, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  9. ^ History of Crossrail. Crossrail, June 2, 2009; archived from the original on June 2, 2009 ; accessed on April 1, 2018 (English).
  10. Superlink to rival Crossrail unveiled. Evening Standard , December 15, 2004, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  11. ^ Rival cross-city rail plan aired. BBC News , December 15, 2004, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  12. Crossrail will fail, say backers of rival plan. The Independent , December 16, 2004, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  13. ^ Crossrail Bill Select Committee. UK Parliament , 2007, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  14. Safeguarding directions for development affect in the route and associated works proposed for the Crossrail project. (PDF) Department for Transport, January 24, 2008, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  15. Crossrail Act 2008. Crossrail, 2015, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  16. ^ Alistair Darling : Orders of the Day - Crossrail Bill. They work for you, July 19, 2005, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  17. Crossrail gets £ 230m BAA funding. BBC News , November 4, 2008, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  18. £ 15.9 billion Crossrail: 'Show me the money'. Railway Magazine, January 14, 2009, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  19. Crossrail handed extra £ 2.2bn amid fears of two-year delay. 2017, accessed on December 11, 2018 .
  20. ^ Crossrail project gets £ 1bn loan. BBC News , September 7, 2009, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  21. ^ New coalition government makes Crossrail pledge. BBC News , May 14, 2010, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  22. Mayor secures vital London transport investment and protects frontline services. Greater London Authority , October 20, 2010, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  23. ^ Conclusion - the future of the project. House of Commons , October 23, 2007, accessed April 1, 2018 .
  24. Greater Anglia Franchise - Invitation to tender. (PDF) Department of Transport, April 21, 2011, archived from the original on May 4, 2011 ; accessed on April 1, 2018 (English).
  25. Network Rail completes £ 100m of upgrades over Christmas. International Railway Journal, January 4, 2017, archived from the original on August 22, 2018 ; accessed on April 1, 2018 (English).
  26. ^ First Crossrail tracks laid on Stockley Flyover bridge. BBC News , November 24, 2014, accessed April 1, 2018 .
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