Spatial planning

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Under planning the planning processes are subsumed, a geographical area , often a particular administrative area according to his, natural environment , economic and social to arrange opportunities and targeted use. In the states of Central Europe spatial planning is usually a public authority task .

Spatial planning deals with the future development of spatial planning and can be laid down in the form of a spatial planning program. Spatial planning at the level of the federal states is referred to as state planning (more rarely state spatial planning ) and at the regional level as regional planning and town planning . The latter deal, among other things, with rural development and, like urban planning, with urban development .

The research direction on which spatial planning is based is spatial research (e.g. in geography and sociology ).

The subject is a separate subject at many technical universities , at others it is taught in the context of architecture , geography , surveying or soil culture. There are strong cross-connections to spatial planning , urban and landscape planning .

Definition, tasks and development


It is often difficult for spatial planners to find a definition for their discipline without evaluating the content as part of the definition. Therefore there are numerous versions.

A largely established definition follows the European Regional / Spatial Planning Charter (Torremolinos Charter) , adopted in 1983 by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning  (CEMAT):

“Regional / spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organization of space according to an overall strategy. "

Heinrich Schoof defines spatial planning as follows:

“It is a matter of planning the use of instruments to influence spatial conditions that are relevant to the goals of the planning agency. The geographic space of the earth's surface is considered as space. "

In the Anglo-Saxon world, terms such as land use planning, town and country planning, regional planning, town planning, urban planning, urban design are often largely interchangeable; spatial planning is established in European terminology .

The urban planning can thus, depending on local Usance as a discipline side issue or an umbrella term to be seen.


Spatial planning is the targeted action on the spatial development of society, the economy and the natural, built and social environment in a certain area.

The task of spatial planning - according to a Swiss legal definition, for example - is to coordinate spatial requirements on the various levels ( district , city , region , country , state , continent ) and in relation to the various aspects ( transport , environment , population , economy ) and to balance conflicts and to make provisions for (future) room functions and uses. A sustainable spatial development is aimed for, which brings the social, economic, legal and ecological demands on the space in line with one another. In doing so, the free development of personality should be guaranteed, the natural foundations of life should be protected and developed, the economic conditions for the location created and linked with appropriate monitoring , long-term design options kept open, the diversity of sub-areas strengthened, equal living conditions established in all sub-areas and cohesion created. Spatial planning includes the

“Efforts to protect the natural foundations of life such as soil, air, water, forest and the landscape; to create and maintain comfortable settlements and the spatial conditions for the economy; to promote social, economic and cultural life in the individual parts of the country and to work towards an appropriate decentralization of settlement and the economy; to secure the country's adequate supply base; to guarantee the overall defense. "

Since the Swiss law speaks of spatial planning, the term spatial planning is not defined in a binding manner in Switzerland, but represents an umbrella term that includes all planning measures with spatial effects - from district planning to urban and regional planning to state planning and spatial planning .

The special areas of spatial planning include, for example, land use , development , traffic , energy , water management , environmental , nature conservation , avalanche protection planning , and the like.

Overall, spatial planning - similar to landscape planning and land development - has a strong ecological focus: Humans use the soil, the water, the air and the entire living space. He creates buildings, lives, works, spends his free time and moves in this space. The standard of living depends on goods , productions and services , all of which also take up living space. These intensive usage demands lead to conflicts of interest, which become greater the more scarce the available living space is and the more the need to conserve natural resources is recognized. The different usage requirements are coordinated with the help of spatial planning.


In Germany, individual state planning associations were established in the Weimar Republic, including a. in the Ruhr area ( Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlen district ), in the central German industrial district and in Greater Berlin / Brandenburg. From these beginnings of regional planning , (scientific) spatial planning also arose in Germany. National Socialism turned out to be not (only) disadvantageous for the development of spatial planning in Germany, but the political regime redirected planning tasks to its specific goals. The National Socialist state greatly upgraded “ space ”, also in connection with its “ agricultural policy ”, in line with its racist goals. With the new “ spatial research ”, the party soon tried to pool academic resources for its spatial planning goals. Scientists who worked for the National Socialist state contributed to the implementation of practical political measures in the settlement, including the tension between industrial, armaments, social and agricultural policies and infrastructure expansion.

The state planning continued formally, but increasingly came under the influence of the central political authorities. In 1935 the Reich Office for Spatial Planning (RfR) was founded; in the same year the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft für Raumforschung (RAG). With the RAG and the university working groups for spatial research that emerged at the same time , alliances of application-related research were created, since spatial research was now carried out by geographers, agricultural scientists, economists and social scientists, sociologists, transport scientists, forest scientists and hydraulic engineers at almost every university. Several million Reichsmark research funds were invested in spatial research until the end of the war.

Scientific knowledge of these disciplines was used pragmatically for spatial planning if it proved to be rational, useful (or even only apparently useful) or to make planning sense for the implementation of Nazi goals. However, it is not uncommon for such spatial planning application references to ' self- align ' of the scientists with the basic contents of the Nazi political system (social exclusion , anti-Semitism , spatial expansion, social Darwinism and others). But the regime also relied on the voluntary participation of those actors who had specialist scientific knowledge of spatial planning. In the editorials of the spatial planning magazines, on the other hand, there is a high degree of ideological content, such as " Habitat ", " Race ", " Umvolkung ", " Volksgruppen ", " Volks- und Kulturboden " etc. After the start of the war, spatial planning was largely influenced by the aims of the NS -Settlement policy. 'Race' was once again significantly upgraded within the spatial planning.

On General Plan East planners have advised and cooperative operates. The name of the agricultural politician Konrad Meyer was associated with these plans . One of the three leaders of the Reich Working Group for Spatial Research, Paul Ritterbusch , who had assumed this position between the terms of office of Konrad Meyer and Kurt Brüning , was also responsible for the "war effort of the humanities":

After 1945, in the Federal Republic of Germany and, to a lesser extent, in the GDR, there were continuities in terms of personnel and content with spatial planning in the Nazi state, but in the course of the 1950s those forces in spatial planning were strengthened in the West that favored a federally organized democracy and were open to the capitalist economic order. In individual areas of spatial planning, however, National Socialist and ethnic content also had an impact , such as in landscape planning and land maintenance . With the Hanoverian Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning (ARL, founded in 1946 through an important initiative of the former RAG director Kurt Brüning) and with the Bad Godesberg Institute for Spatial Research (IfR, founded in 1949), two important institutions for spatial research emerged / Spatial planning. The ARL became the legal successor to the RAG. Your magazine " Raumforschung und Raumordnung " (founded by the Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft in 1936) is still published today. After several renaming and organizational changes, the Institute for Spatial Research became what is now the Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research (BBSR):

"As a contribution to the conceptual integration of the paradigm 'planning' in the arsenal market-compatible control method in West Germany were the 'basics' halfway between a purely procedural practice-oriented approach and the early integration of material goals. Approaches to link the system of social market economy with the Since the early 1950s, the spatial planning principle came increasingly from the specialist science itself. Not least the relevant studies from the Hanoverian 'Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning' and from the Godesberg 'Institute for Spatial Research' contributed to the assumption of a fundamental compatibility up to against At the end of the decade, it gradually became common knowledge in the supraregional specialist discussions. In the political reality of the federal states, however, it was predominantly the state planning practice that the existing reservations about a possible new D irigism based on the Eastern model or the return of National Socialist planning patterns . "

Individual spatial planning institutes were also founded at the universities after 1945. Until the 1970s there were still individual university working groups for spatial research. Scientific spatial planning experienced a boom in the 1960s, but from the mid-1970s it lost its importance again because the social steering effect of spatial planning was increasingly questioned. A critical examination of the spatial planning experts with the history of German spatial planning as a scientific subject and as a policy-related application of scientific knowledge did not exist until well into the 1980s.

In Habsburg Austria, geography has always been strongly institutionalized (since the beginning of the land surveys in the 1760s) and oriented towards application and spatial planning. Explicit spatial planning developed - apart from the ideological theory of the pre-war and occupation times - only in the course of the 1970s, under impulses that partly come from urban planning as a sub-area of ​​architecture, partly from ecology, and remained a task of applied geography. For this reason, spatial planners in Austria still tend to be geographers and ecologists, town planners more building experts and civil engineers, and spatial planning is closely linked to current domestic political agendas, applied geography and engineering.

Spatial planning in Switzerland goes the opposite way and develops - with the exception of an initial approach in the 1920s - from communal zoning planning in the course of the 1930s, i.e. bottom-up. In 1969, the population agreed to the federal competence for spatial planning, but this remained strongly federal. In addition, the Swiss spatial planning is closely the Civil Protection connected.

An overarching model of today's spatial planning is the new urbanism . After recognizing the structural flaws of the loosened settlements (or satellite towns ) with separation of functions that have arisen especially since the modern era and the Charter of Athens , this urbanism movement (which began with Team 10, among others ) has been rediscovered since the 1980s Perimeter block development and mixed use of quarters and thus urban density. According to this, this type of urban development, which was previously lamented by settlement planners, supports the advantages of urban life in connection with a healthy social and economic mix and considerable savings in resources (travel routes, heating costs, infrastructure costs, etc.).



Spatial planning levels

Depending on the size of the space to be planned, the German legislator has provided different planning levels . Accordingly, the tasks, standards and possible depth of information of the plans are different. A hierarchical principle is used, according to which subordinate planning must not contradict the superordinate level, but at the same time the interests of the subordinate levels must be taken into account when drawing up the superordinate plans and programs ( countercurrent principle ) . The planning bodies, i.e. the clients, are the administrative units of the public sector, i.e. - in hierarchical order - the federal government , a federal state , administrative districts , districts or independent cities and communities.

Formal spatial planning instruments, i.e. based on legal regulations, are:

  1. At the federal level: none, only informal instruments such as the model of spatial planning,
  2. At the level of the federal states: State development program , state development plan
  3. At the level of the administrative districts (or several districts): regional plan and earlier: area development plan in NRW
  4. At the municipal level: zoning plan , development plan

In addition, there is the European Spatial Development Concept (ESDP) as an overarching plan at European level .

Structures - planning levels

Planning levels are the administrations within the state hierarchy that deal with spatial planning. This is why we also speak of administrative levels. There is the European level, the federal, state and regional level and the municipal level.

European level
At the European level, coordination with the partner countries takes place in international organizations such as the EU , the EFTA (European Free Trade Area) or in special bodies such as the European Conference of Transport Ministers. There are also groups of countries that work together on certain plans, B. the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Alpenländer or the EU-funded COMMIN project, which specializes in the Baltic States .
Federal level
The national level, i.e. the federal government, only has the general authority . The institutions at the federal level are the federal government , embodied by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Home Affairs . The Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR) reports to him for the development of scientific principles . The BBR regularly prepares the regional planning report , which contains important spatial principles, trends and developments in the FRG. The latter authority is u. a. emerged from the Federal Research Institute for Regional Studies and Regional Planning. The Federal Minister for Spatial Planning and the responsible ministries of the federal states form the Ministerial Conference for Spatial Planning . The Federal Minister is supported by an Advisory Council for Regional Planning, with representatives from science and associations.
State level
The actors in state planning are the state governments and the relevant ministries. Which authority operates the highest state planning varies depending on the federal state. In Rhineland-Palatinate it is the State Chancellery, in Lower Saxony the Ministry of the Interior and in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , North Rhine-Westphalia and Hesse and the Ministry of Economic Affairs. In the remaining federal states, the Ministry of the Environment or similar is the highest state planning authority. The middle level, the upper state planning authority, is usually located with the district president , but sometimes also with regional associations ( Baden-Württemberg ) or at the district level (Lower Saxony). It has the technical supervision of the lower state planning authority, i.e. the district administrative authorities.
Regional level
The administrative organization of regional planning is left to each federal state and varies greatly. Two models have emerged in the process. In the authority model, regional planning is viewed as an independent state task and integrated into the administrative structure of the authorities. In the association model, an independent planning association is formed as the carrier of regional planning. In Bavaria z. B. this task is taken over by 18 regional planning associations (Art. 6 BayLplG), associations of municipalities and districts of a region. State planning and regional planning form a legal and organizational unit.
Central associations, specialist academies
In addition to these official institutions, leading associations deal with spatial planning. These are primarily the German Association of Cities in Cologne (for large cities), the German District Association in Bonn and the German Association of Cities and Municipalities in Düsseldorf (for the small cities). In addition, large specialist academies deal with research, further training and technical coordination of questions of spatial planning and spatial planning. Mention should be made here of the Academy for Spatial Development in the Leibniz Association in Hanover and the German Academy for Urban Development and Regional Planning in Berlin. They bring together scientists and administrative experts in spatial planning in joint working groups.

Overview of the planning system in Germany

Planning level institution Program, plan Specialist planning
European Union International organizations (EU, EROMK, CEMT, ...) Recommendations and texts of the conferences, European Spatial Development Concept (ESDP) Action on all levels
Federal Republic Federal Ministry for Regional Planning; Ministerial Conference on Spatial Planning Guiding principles of spatial planning
country Supreme state planning authority State development program, plan
region Regional planning community, district president Regional plan (regional spatial planning plan)
local community Magistrate, Building Department Urban development program, land-use planning (land use plan, development plan)
House, object Builder, architect Blueprint

based on: H. Spitzer: Introduction to Spatial Planning. UTB, Stuttgart 1995.


Federal level
Despite massive influence on the area, the federal government has no spatial planning competence in Austria. There is also no federal spatial planning law. The Austrian Spatial Planning Conference (ÖROK), which is an institution supported by the federal, state and local governments for the coordination of spatial planning at the national level, is only a recommendation.
State level
In Austria, the federal states are responsible for legislation on regional and local level in the area of ​​spatial planning. Due to the lack of federal regulations, there are different regulations in spatial planning (regulatory), community planning and building laws. In the area of ​​supra-local planning, the federal states in Austria have planning competence. To this end, state development programs , subject programs and regional development programs are created that are binding for municipalities. The state planning department is also responsible for reviewing and approving the planning at community level.
Community level
The municipalities have the competence for local spatial planning . You can make decisions for your own sphere of activity, some of which (depending on the federal state and planning instrument) must be approved by the relevant state government. In most countries, the following instruments are available at community level: local development concept , zoning plan , zoning plan . The municipal council is the regional planning authority of the first instance. The mayor is the building authority of the first instance and the municipal council is the second.


Switzerland is a relatively densely populated country (rank 44 out of approx. 190 countries globally, whereby the Alpine region is inevitably only sparsely populated, which further concentrates the density). The federal government specifies the principles in the Spatial Planning Act ; the specific implementation is subject to the sovereignty of the cantons in many areas . As a rule, these leave their municipalities considerable planning leeway.

Initial and continuing education

Study of spatial planning in Germany

Spatial planning can be studied in Germany in special planning courses, although the names of these courses are not uniform. There are also other subjects, such as geography , architecture or surveying , in which spatial planning is offered as a specialization.

The following German universities and technical colleges offer full courses in spatial planning:

In addition, there are other universities and technical colleges that offer spatial planning as an advanced or specialization (here is an exemplary selection):

The planning law as a discipline of spatial planning is also part of law studies, which is why at the Westphalian Wilhelms University in the Faculty of Law near Munster Central Institute of Spatial Planning was established.

Further training opportunities in Germany

After successfully completing a degree, the urban planning clerkship offers the possibility of further professional qualification for spatial planners. The traineeship is on the one hand a preparatory service for the higher civil engineering administration service, on the other hand a comprehensive, practice-oriented additional training. The aim of the legal traineeship is to impart comprehensive knowledge in the areas of administration, law, planning, operations and leadership that goes far beyond the knowledge imparted in the course.

The training is divided into informational activities and practical work at various public administration offices, with the focus on planning and construction management. In addition, there are usually regular weekly working groups for trainee lawyers, in which extensive specialist knowledge is imparted in the form of lectures, presentations and specialist excursions. The training is supplemented by various longer specialist courses. At the end of the two-year legal traineeship, oral and written exams must be taken, after which the graduates are entitled to bear the title of "building assessor".

Some public and private planning agencies, for example city administrations or project development companies, also offer their own trainee programs for the further qualification of spatial planning graduates. Similar to the traineeship, the candidates have the opportunity to get to know administrative processes, to deepen specialist knowledge and to familiarize themselves with practice.

Study of spatial planning in Austria

In Austria, spatial planning and spatial planning can be studied at the Vienna University of Technology ; until 1972 it was a deepening of the architecture study. As a specialization, spatial research and spatial planning is offered in the geography studies at the University of Vienna , as well as spatial planning in the landscape architecture and landscape planning and environmental and bioresource management studies at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna .

Study of spatial planning in Switzerland

In Switzerland, it is possible to study spatial planning at two universities: The ETH Zurich , Transport and Spatial Planning group, offers a master's degree in “Spatial Development and Infrastructure Systems” as well as a part-time Master of Advanced Studies in “Spatial Planning”. Spatial planning can also be studied at the Rapperswil University of Applied Sciences .

Postgraduate programs in spatial planning in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

The ETH Zurich leads since 2007 together with the HafenCity University Hamburg , the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology , the University of Stuttgart , the Technical University of Vienna and the Technical University of Munich , the International Doctorate Program "research laboratory" through which deals with raumplanerischem designing.

Professional associations / interest groups

In Germany, two professional associations represent the interests of urban and spatial planners throughout Germany:

The members of the SRL receive the specialist journal PlanerIn free of charge , the members of the IfR receive the RaumPlanung. Specialist journal for spatial planning and research . Both trade journals enjoy a high reputation among urban and spatial planners.

In Austria, self-employed room planners, i. H. who are not employed exclusively in the university sector, in the sovereign administration or in a spatial planning office, are depending on their authority

membership in both associations is compulsory. The scientific representation is generally the Austrian Geographical Society  (ÖGG), in particular the Austrian Association for Applied Geography  (ÖVAG - organizationally part of the ÖGG).

In Switzerland the professional association is called Fachverband Schweizer Planer (FSU).

See also


  • Academy for spatial research and regional planning - ARL (Hrsg.): Ground plan of spatial planning and spatial development . 2011, ISBN 978-3-88838-554-4 ( ).
  • Academy for spatial research and regional planning - ARL (Hrsg.): Concise dictionary of spatial planning . 2005, ISBN 3-88838-555-5 ( ).
  • Academy for spatial research and regional planning - ARL (Hrsg.): Outline of the state and regional planning . 1999, ISBN 3-88838-527-X .
  • Christian Langhagen-Rohrbach: Spatial planning and spatial planning. WBG, Darmstadt 2005, ISBN 3-534-18792-X .
  • H. Spitzer: Introduction to spatial planning. UTB, Stuttgart 1995, ISBN 3-8252-8106-X .
  • Internationales Doktorandenkolleg Forschungslabor Raum (Ed.): Forschungslabor Raum. The Logbook / Spatial Research Lab. The logbook. 2012, ISBN 978-3-86859-127-9 ( Jovis Verlag ).
  • Internationales Doktorandenkolleg Forschungslabor Raum (Ed.): Urbane Transformationslandschaften / Urban Landscape Transformation. 2016, ISBN 978-3-86859-385-3 ( Jovis Verlag ).
  • Institut Urban Landscape, ZHAW (Ed.): Develop spatial models. A vademecum in 6 phases and in 26 questions. Triest Verlag for Architecture, Design and Typography, Zurich 2016, ISBN 978-3-03863-016-6 ( Triest Verlag ).
  • Christine Bauhardt: Unlimited Spaces: On Theory and Politics of Spatial Planning. Springer-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 3322809285 .

On the history of spatial planning before and after 1945 in Germany (selection)

  • Simone Lässig , Miriam Rürup : Space and spatiality in modern German-Jewish history. Berghahn, New York / Oxford 2017.
  • Hansjörg Gutberger: Spatial development, population and social integration: Research for spatial planning and spatial planning policy 1930-1960. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2017.
  • Ulrike Jureit : The ordering of spaces: Territory and living space in the 19th and 20th centuries. Hamburg 2016.
  • Harald Bodenschatz : Urban architecture, living space design and spatial planning in the Nazi era. In: Forum Stadt: Quarterly magazine for urban history, urban sociology, monument preservation and urban development. Published by Forum Stadt - Network Historic Cities 2016.
  • Wendelin Strubelt / Detlef Briesen: Spatial planning after 1945. Continuities and new beginnings in the Federal Republic of Germany. Frankfurt am Main 2015.
  • Harald Kegler: State planning for Central Germany. Scope: The emergence of scientific spatial planning in Germany - the decentralization paradigm, internationalization, the planning atlas and the democratically based structures in the key years 1925-1932. ARL, Hanover 2015.
  • Karl R. Kegler: German spatial planning. The model of the “central places” between the Nazi state and the Federal Republic. Paderborn 2015.
  • Joachim Nicolas Trezib: The Theory of Central Places in Israel and Germany: on Walter Christaller's reception in the context of Sharonplan and “Generalplan Ost”. Berlin u. a .: De Gruyter Oldenbourg 2014.
  • Sabine Schleiermacher: National Socialist Spatial Planning and Ethnicity Research. In: Rüdiger vom Bruch u. a. (Ed.) Science academies in the age of ideologies. Political upheavals - scientific challenges - institutional adjustments. Working conference of the project on the history of the Leopoldina from November 22nd to 24th, 2012 in Halle (Saale). Stuttgart: Wiss. Verlagsgesellschaft 2014, pp. 395–418.
  • Miroslaw Sikora: The Oberschlesien Gau in the spatial planning of the NS administration 1939-1944. In: Lutz Budraß / Barbara Kalinowska-Wójcik / Andrzej Michalczyk: Industrialization and nationalization. Case studies on the history of the Upper Silesian industrial area in the 19th and 20th centuries. Essen 2013, pp. 249–284.
  • Ariane Leendertz: From the beginning and the end of a scientific-administrative mission: nation-state spatial planning policy in Germany from 1935 to 1975 . From: Archive for Social History Vol. 50, 2010, pp. 69–107.
  • Heinrich Mäding , / Wendelin Strubelt (ed.): From the Third Reich to the Federal Republic. Contributions to a conference on the history of spatial research and spatial planning . Hanover (ARL) 2009.
  • Stefan Grüner: Planned "economic miracle"? Industrial and structural policy in Bavaria 1945 to 1973. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2009.
  • Ariane Leendertz: Order, balance, harmony. Coordinates of spatial planning thinking in Germany, 1920 to 1970 . From: Thomas Etzemüller (Ed.): The order of modernity. Social engineering in the 20th century. Bielefeld 2009, pp. 129–150.
  • Holger Gnest: Development of regional spatial planning in the Federal Republic from 1975 to today . Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning, Hannover 2008.
  • Ariane Leendertz: Creating order. German spatial planning in the 20th century . Göttingen 2008.
  • Andreas Kübler: Chronicle of building and space. History and prehistory of the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning , eds. Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning. Tuebingen 2007.
  • Klaus Becker: The magazine "Raumforschung und Raumordnung" 1936 - 2006. An overview. In: Raumforschung und Raumordnung , Volume 2006, H. 6, P. 512-523.
  • Klaus Fehn: "Conurbations" and "Emergency Areas": Core Areas and Peripheries in National Socialist Spatial Planning , in: "Settlement Research. Archeology - History - Geography “22 (2004), pp. 119–143.
  • Uwe Mai: "Race and Space". Agricultural policy, social and spatial planning in the Nazi state . Paderborn et al. 2002.
  • Peter Heil: On the self-image of spatial planners between National Socialism and the Federal Republic . In: Burkhard Dietz , Helmut Gabel, Ulrich Tiedau: Reach for the West. The "western research" of the national and ethnic sciences on the north-western European area (1919–1960). Münster / W. 2002, pp. 91-105.
  • Michael Venhoff: The Reichsarbeitsgemeinschaft für Raumforschung (RAG) and Reich German spatial planning since their creation until the end of the Second World War in 1945 . Hanover (ARL) 2000.
  • Hans-Peter Waldhoff : one's own and that of others' sociology. Civilization-theoretical experiment on the socio- and psychogenesis of German spatial planning and spatial research . In: “Raumforschung und Raumordnung” (1999), Issue 1, pp. 14–24.
  • Marcel Herzberg: Spatial Planning in National Socialist Germany . plus Dortmund. Univ. Diploma thesis, 1996. Dortmund: Dortmund sales for building and planning literature 1997 (= Dortmund materials for spatial planning. 25).
  • Jörg Gutberger: People, space and social structure. Social structure and social space research in the “Third Reich” . Munster et al. 1996 (2nd edition 1999).
  • Dietmar von Reeken : Science, space and folklore. A contribution to the regional history of science . In: Niedersächsisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte vol. 68 (1996), pp. 43–90.
  • Stefan Sell : The socio-political emptying of regional policy: An investigation of the development history of the regional political discussion and its models in Germany since the 1920s. Peter Lang. Frankfurt am Main u. a. 1995.
  • Mechthild Rössler / Sabine Schleiermacher (eds.) With the assistance of Cordula Tollmien : The “General Plan East”. Main lines of the National Socialist planning and extermination policy. Berlin 1993.
  • Dieter Münk: The organization of space under National Socialism. A sociological investigation of ideologically based models in architecture, town planning and spatial planning of the Third Reich . Bonn 1993.
  • Bruno Wasser: Himmler's spatial planning in the east . Basel 1993.
  • Mechthild Rössler: "Science and living space." Geographical research on the East under National Socialism. A contribution to the history of the discipline of geography . Berlin / Hamburg 1990.
  • Gert Gröning / Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn : The love of the landscape. Part III: The urge to go east: to develop land management during National Socialism and during the Second World War in the 'integrated eastern regions' . Munich 1987.
  • Mechthild Rössler: The institutionalization of a new 'science' under National Socialism. Spatial research and spatial planning 1933 - 1945 . In: Geographische Zeitschrift 75 (1987), pp. 177-193.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Definition according to Brockhaus, streamlined
  2. a b c gives an overview, for example: Spatial Planning: WHAT IS THIS? Selected definitions, or attempts at a definition ... University of Innsbruck, Spatial Planning SS 2012, from, accessed on January 18, 2013.
  3. European Regional / Spatial Planning Charter , - Links to various language versions, but not German (as of 2012).
    also European regional / spatial planning charter - Torremolinos Charter  (
    page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Dead Link /   , ET2050 Virtual Library,
  4. ^ Professor for urban and regional planning at the University of Dortmund
  5. ^ Heinrich Schoof: Changing perspectives in training and occupation of spatial planners. In: Klaus M. Schmals (Ed.): What is spatial planning? , Dortmund 1999.
  6. ^ Art. 1 Objectives , Federal Act on Spatial Planning (as amended by;
    the law is to be revised soon, 10.019 revision of the spatial planning law ( memento of the original dated January 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ,; Revision of the spatial planning law , Federal Office for Spatial Development ARE
  7. Stefan Grüner: Planned "economic miracle"? Industrial and structural policy in Bavaria 1945 to 1973. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2009, p. 266 f .
  8. a b The German-Speaking countries. In: RJ Johnston, P. Claval (Eds.): Geography since the 2nd World War. An International Survey. Croom Helm, London 1984, pp. 156-184. Overview: Germany - Austria. In: A. Buttimer: The Practice of Geography. Longman, London / New York 1983, Appendix B: Highlights of the decades (1900-80) in nine countries pp. 261-274.
  9. R. Musil, Chr. Staudacher (Ed.): The development of geography as a science in the mirror of institutional politics and biography research. From the large state of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy to the small state of the Second Republic. In: Human Space Environment. Developments and perspectives in geography in Austria. Austrian Geogr. Ges. Vienna. 2009, pp. 13-52.
    Geographical Research in Austria at the Universities and the Commission for Regional Research at the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In: Contemporary Essays in Austrian and Hungarian Geography. Proceedings of the First Geographical Symposium Austria - Hungary 1986. Studies in Geography in Hungary 22.
    Mapping as a cultural-geographic working method. In: Mitteilungen der Österreichische Geographische Gesellschaft 109th vol., Vienna 1967, pp. 308–337.
  10. There was also a great Austrian tradition of expedition geography, also in foreign service.
  11. ^ Gerhard L. Fasching: Applied geography in Austria, technical and personal requirement profile for professional geographers. In: Profession and Practice. Innsbruck Annual Report 1999/00, especially Section 4 Areas of activity in applied geography , 4.1 Spatial planning and development , (PDF). Research directions in geography. The Austrian example 1945–1975. In: Austria. Geography, cartography, regional planning 1945–1975 , ed. of the Austrian Geographical Society on the occasion of the 40th German Geographentag Innsbruck, 1975 (= communications of the Austrian Geographical Society 117, 1–2), pp. 1–115.
  12. ^ The institutional situation of Austrian scientific geography at the beginning of the 21st century. In: Communications of the Austrian. Geogr. Gesellschaft vol. 150, 2008, pp. 33–48.
  13. Article in Heimatschutz , No. 4 2010.
  14. Charter of the New Urbanism - German translation of the English-language Charter of the New Urbanism
  15. ( Memento of the original from October 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. International Doctoral College "Research Laboratory Space"
  17. Gerhard L. Fasching: Applied Geography in Austria. In: Profession and Practice. Innsbruck Annual Report 1999/00, Section 10: Representation of interests for members of applied geography , (PDF).