The regional planning serves as a regional planning of concrete, operational integration, and implement the objectives of the regions . It thus assumes a mediating position between national planning (state development ) and communal community development . By establishing principles and goals for spatial planning, regional planning creates planning security for municipalities and specialist planning agencies. She typically works with planning standards between 1: 100,000 and 1: 150,000. Regional planning is assigned to the legal instruments of regional development.
In the subject of urban and regional planning, which various universities offer as a degree, the contents of both subjects are combined, which anyway overlap. In contrast to urban planning , regional planning also takes into account the development of rural communities or villages and rural non-urbanized areas / regions.
In Germany, the regional planning requirements , which mainly contain textual stipulations, exist at the federal and state level . At the level of countries spatial planning is formulated by the regional spatial plans. This includes the regional planning, which contains textual and graphic planning specifications in the spatial plans for the sub-areas of the states.
In Germany, municipal land-use planning is located below regional planning; it covers the area of a municipality in the form of land use planning . The lowest level of spatial planning is the binding land-use planning in the form of the development plan on the district and neighborhood level. Comparable regulations can also be found in Switzerland and Austria.
Basically, the planning on one level should be based on the planning of the higher level or develop from it. On the other hand, the " countercurrent principle " is anchored in Germany , according to which planning should influence each other vertically in both directions. In any case, the legitimate interests of those affected must be heard and weighed against each other in the event of a conflict.
Regional planning primarily has the following tasks:
- Preparation and updating of the regional plan.
- Integration of the landscape framework plan for the region in the regional plan .
- Advice to those responsible for land-use planning , other public and other (private) planning agencies.
- Participation in the preparation and updating of the state-wide spatial plan and the technical development plans of the state.
- Participation in the specialist planning of the state.
- Regional political initiatives for the promotion and development of the region within the framework of regional management .
- Cooperation with carriers of regional joint tasks.
An example of the task of regional planning is the designation of areas intended for retail (to coordinate the subordinate area and development plans) in accordance with the specifications of the state planning and the central location system . A lack of appropriate regional planning requirements can lead to the undesired proliferation of area designations from the municipal level, as observed in the first years after reunification in the new federal states.
For the country level, see
Regional planning agency
In some federal states, special bodies under public law have been formed to carry out regional planning, i.e. to implement these tasks , which are called regional associations , regional planning associations , planning communities or regions depending on the state .
Regional planning can also be named differently depending on the region, e.g. B. Regional spatial planning plan, regional plan, regional spatial planning program , etc.
According to Section 8 (1) No. 2 ROG , spatial planning plans are to be drawn up in the federal states for the sub-areas of the federal states (regional plans). The regional plans are to be developed from the regional planning plan for the state area. The city-states Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg as well as the Saarland are excluded from this; You can save yourself this planning level and link it directly to the land use planning.
Regional planning in the federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany
In Baden-Württemberg , a total of 12 such regional associations were set up on January 1, 1973 through the “Second Administrative Reform Act (Regional Association Act) of July 26, 1971 (Journal of Laws p. 336)” . The regional association of the Middle Neckar , based in Stuttgart , was later given more extensive responsibilities and was therefore transferred to the Stuttgart Region Association . This region received a representation directly elected by the people, the regional assembly . Two of the regional associations are now responsible beyond the state borders of Baden-Württemberg. All regional associations in Baden-Württemberg are described in the article Regional associations in Baden-Württemberg .
The planning regions in Bavaria were created on April 1, 1973 when Bavaria was divided into a total of 18 regions on the basis of the Bavarian State Planning Act of 1970. A regional planning association was set up for each planning region, an association of the municipalities and districts of the region, which has the legal form of a corporation under public law.
The state of Brandenburg is divided into 5 regional planning communities. There is a joint state planning department for the states of Berlin and Brandenburg .
In Lower Saxony (exceptions: Greater Braunschweig, Hanover region), the districts and urban districts are responsible for regional planning. In 2014, regional representatives were appointed in Lower Saxony who are responsible for the areas of the government districts that existed between 1978 and 2004 and replace the previous government representatives.
The following four planning regions have been created for regional planning in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1992 : West Mecklenburg , Central Mecklenburg / Rostock , Western Pomerania and the Mecklenburg Lake District . They develop their own Regional Spatial Development Program (RREP) and contribute to the country's space development program at (LEP). The Rostock regiopole region has been under development in Germany for the first time in 2007; it is integrated into the Central Mecklenburg / Rostock planning association.
In North Rhine-Westphalia , regional planning is carried out by the five (state) district governments with the regional councils assigned to them (voting members are sent by the independent cities and districts). For the Ruhr area, however, the Ruhr Regional Association (formerly the KVR Municipal Association) has been responsible for regional planning since October 2009 . The areas of the Ruhr area are therefore no longer included in the regional plans of the district governments that affect the Ruhr area.
In the state of Rhineland-Palatinate there are planning communities for the four planning regions: Middle Rhine-Westerwald , Trier , Rheinhessen-Nahe and West Palatinate . The tasks in the area of the Rheinpfalz region were taken over in 2006 by the Verband Region Rhein-Neckar . The city of Worms is located in the Rheinhessen-Nahe region as well as in the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region .
There have been five planning regions in the Free State of Saxony since 1991. There is a regional planning association of the same name for each of these planning regions in Saxony . In the planning regions of West Saxony and Upper Lusatia-Lower Silesia, lignite plans (for open-cast mines) and master renovation plans (for closed open-cast mines) are also drawn up. Since August 2008, due to a merger as a result of the Saxon district reform, only 4 planning regions have existed.
The state of Saxony-Anhalt is divided into the following five planning regions: Altmark , Magdeburg , Anhalt - Bitterfeld - Wittenberg ( Dessau , district of Wittenberg and district of Anhalt-Bitterfeld ), Halle (the city of Halle , the Burgenland district , the Saale district and the former district of Mansfelder Land ) and Harz (Harz district and the former Sangerhausen district ). Regional development plans are drawn up for these planning regions, taking into account their characteristics and their different development requirements.
In the state of Schleswig-Holstein , the state planning authority in the department of the Ministry of the Interior, Rural Areas and Integration draws up regional plans for its three planning regions.
In Thuringia there are 4 planning regions ( North , Central , Southwest and East Thuringia ). For these, the respective regional planning community prepares the regional plan - formerly known as Regional Spatial Planning Plans (RROP). The planning region consists of several districts and, except in Northern Thuringia, 2 independent cities.
The federal states are responsible for regional spatial planning in Austria and work out plans and programs for the state or for certain regions on the basis of the respective state laws. This is known as state and regional planning. Regional planning is carried out in cooperation with the municipalities and / or regional associations. Based on this, the municipalities develop local spatial planning concepts or programs, zoning plans and development plans .
The Austrian Spatial Planning Conference (ÖROK) was set up to coordinate the joint task of spatial planning . The central tool is the Austrian Spatial Development Concept (ÖRK, ÖREK), which combines the interests of the regional authorities (federal, state, cities and municipalities) and the EU in the sense of a recommendation, and offers a guideline for medium-term framework planning as a model (new creation every 10 Yearly interval). ÖROK also oversees supranational programs such as Alpine Space , INTERREG participation ( SOUTH-EAST EUROPE and CADSES ), the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) or the European exchange and learning program URBACT .
Institutions of the countries are:
- Spatial Planning and Housing Subsidy Office, Regional Office Directorate of the Burgenland State Government
- Department 20 - State Planning, Local and Regional Development / EU Program Office, Office of the Carinthian State Government
- Spatial Planning and Regional Policy Department, Office of the Lower Austrian State Government
- Directorate for State Planning, Economic and Rural Development, Office of Upper Austria. State government
- Spatial Planning Department, State of Salzburg - Office of the Salzburg State Government
- Departments A17 State and Regional Development and A13 Environment and Spatial Planning, State of Styria - Office of the Styrian Provincial Government
- Regional Development and Future Strategy Department, Office of the Tyrolean Regional Government
- VII Construction and Spatial Planning, Office of the Vorarlberg State Government
- Urban development Vienna. a cooperation of numerous municipal departments (business group - urban development, traffic ...; municipal administration-urban planning department, planning group; MA 18 urban development and urban planning; MA 19 architecture and urban design; and others)
The majority of the legislative competence lies with the Swiss cantons , which usually leave their municipalities quite a lot of planning leeway. Legislation gives high priority to the interests of private property and the construction industry.
Professional associations / advocacy groups
The regional and state planners are largely united in one of the professional associations:
- Association for Urban, Regional and State Planning e. V. (SRL)
- Information group for spatial planning e. V. (IfR)
- Academy for spatial research and regional planning - ARL (Hrsg.): Ground plan of spatial planning and spatial development . 2011, ISBN 978-3-88838-554-4 .
- Academy for spatial research and regional planning - ARL (Hrsg.): Concise dictionary of spatial planning . 2005, ISBN 3-88838-555-5 .
- Gottfried Schmitz: regional planning. In: Academy for spatial research and regional planning (ed.): Hand dictionary of spatial planning. 4th edition. Hanover 2005, ISBN 3-88838-555-5 .
- Academy for spatial research and regional planning - ARL (Hrsg.): Outline of the state and regional planning . 1999, ISBN 3-88838-527-X .
- Tobias Chilla, Olaf Kühne, Markus Neufeld: Regional development . Stuttgart 2016, ISBN 978-3-8252-4566-5 .
- Dietrich Fürst, Stephan Löb, Ansgar Rudolph, Karsten Zimmermann: Control through regional planning. In: Writings on legal politics. Volume 15, Baden-Baden 2003, ISBN 3-8329-0375-5 .
- Dietrich Fürst, Ernst-Hasso Ritter: State development planning and regional planning. Werner, Düsseldorf 1993, ISBN 3-8041-1583-7 .
- Walter Haas: Regional planning in Austria. Development, state of affairs and strategies of a neglected level of spatial planning. Salzburg 1998, ISBN 3-901343-13-X . (= Materials for spatial planning, booklet 13)
- Volker Seifert: regional planning . Westermann, Braunschweig 1993, ISBN 3-14-160290-5 .
- ÖROK-Atlas - Atlas on the spatial development of Austria
- Spatial Planning and Housing Subsidy Unit, State Office Directorate ( Memento of the original from February 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , burgenland.at
- Section 20 - State Planning , ktn.gv.at
- Land & Zukunft / Spatial Planning »Regional Planning , noe.gv.at
- Village and urban development , land-oberoesterreich.gv.at
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- Urban development Vienna , wien.gv.at
- Chilla, Kühne, Neufeld 2016.
- Austrian spatial development concept , oerok.gv.at