|Part of the country||England|
|region||South East England|
|status||Ceremonial County and Unitary Authority|
|First mention||12th Century|
|was standing||June 30, 2018|
|founded||April 1, 2020|
|was standing||April 2, 2020|
Districts / Unitary Authorities
Buckinghamshire [ ˈbʌkɪŋəmʃə ] (abbreviation Bucks ) is a traditional and ceremonial county named after the university town of Buckingham , as well as a unitary authority in central southern England . The main town is Aylesbury , about 60 kilometers north-west of London .
Buckinghamshire was a non-metropolitan county until April 1, 2020 , which was divided into four districts : Aylesbury Vale , Chiltern , South Bucks, and Wycombe . The Borough of Milton Keynes used to be a district of Buckinghamshire, since 1997 the borough has been an independent urban district ( Unitary Authority ) together with the city of Milton Keynes .
The traditional county bordered Oxfordshire , Northamptonshire , Bedfordshire , Hertfordshire , Berkshire and Greater London . As part of the 1974 local government reform, Slough and Eton became part of Berkshire.
Buckinghamshire is dominated by agriculture ; an industrial focus is on furniture production and pharmaceutical articles.
The name Buckinghamshire comes from Anglo-Saxon and means "The district (scire) of Bucca's home ". Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, which is named after the name of an Anglo-Saxon landlord. The county has been called Buckinghamshire since the 12th century, before that it was part of the Kingdom of Mercia (585–919).
Some of the settlements in Buckinghamshire date back to well before the Anglo-Saxons. Aylesbury, for example, has existed since at least 1500 BC. Some places still bear their name derived from the British language ( Penn , Wendover ) or have a name derived from a mixture of the British and Anglo-Saxon languages (Brill, Chetwode , Great Brickhill ). Evidence of pre-Roman cultures can be found everywhere.
The Roman influence in Buckinghamshire is most evident in the Roman roads felt that cross the county. Running east to west through Buckinghamshire, Watling Street and Akeman Street were important trade routes connecting London to other parts of the Roman Empire in Britain . The Icknield Way along the Chiltern Hills was used by the Romans as a line of defense; presumably it is the expansion of a much older road.
The Angles and Saxons are the ethnic groups that have arguably had the greatest influence on Buckinghamshire. They not only gave the county and many of the towns within it their names; the current extent also goes back largely to the Anglo-Saxon period. One of the great battles mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was fought between Cerdic of Wessex and the British at Chearsley . Three of the saints of this time were born in Quarrendon . In the late phase of the Anglo-Saxon period, a royal palace was built in Brill. The county's great prosperity was well worth a mention in the Domesday Book .
The House of Plantagenet also took advantage of the country's wealth. William the Conqueror annexed most of the manors for himself and his family. Wilhelm's half-brother, Odo von Bayeux , became the largest landowner. Many old hunting grounds became the property of the king. One of the ancient Buckinghamshire traditions is raising swans for the king, as evidenced by the county's coat of arms (see below).
There were further annexes in favor of the crown in connection with the dissolution of the monasteries (1536) when almost a third of the county became the personal property of King Henry VIII . It was also Henry VIII who made Aylesbury the county capital instead of Buckingham in order to improve his relations with Thomas Boleyn and so be able to marry his daughter Anne .
In the English Civil War (1642–1649) Buckinghamshire was mostly set up in parliament. Parliamentarian hero John Hampden was from Buckinghamshire and helped defend Aylesbury in the battle of 1642. Some places in the west of the county ( e.g. Brill and Boarstall ) have been in an ongoing conflict because of their equidistant distance from parliamentary Aylesbury and royalist Oxford . Many places disappeared from the map as a result of this conflict, but have been rebuilt.
The Industrial Revolution and the construction of the railroad changed the landscape in different parts of the county. Wolverton to the north (now part of Milton Keynes) became the national center of wagon construction ; Furniture and paper industry settled in the south. In the center of the county, lace- making businesses sprang up, which grew rapidly and offered work for the women and children of poor families. Buckingham still has good rail connections to London, Birmingham and Manchester ; furniture making is still one of the main industries in the south of the county.
In the early Victorian era rife severe cholera - epidemic ; agriculture suffered from severe crop failures. At that time, many residents left Buckinghamshire and settled in the surrounding towns. Landowners seize the opportunity to purchase the land left behind cheaply. As a result, the Rothschilds , one of the most influential families in the country, gained considerable importance in Buckinghamshire.
The Buckinghamshire coat of arms
Buckinghamshire's coat of arms shows a white swan in chains. This dates back to the Anglo-Saxon times when swans were bred for the king in Buckinghamshire. The swan is in chains to show that it belongs to the king - an ancient law that still applies to the wild swans in the UK today. The coat of arms was first used by Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham at the Battle of Azincourt .
There is a golden ribbon above the swan with the Whiteleaf cross in the middle. Above the shield is a beech tree representing the Chiltern Forest, which once covered almost half of the county. There is a deer on the right and a swan on the left.
The Latin inscription reads: Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum (no traces lead back).
Larger places in Buckinghamshire
|Unitary Authority||Bigger places||Area in km²||Population
|Buckinghamshire||Amersham , Aylesbury , Beaconsfield , Buckingham , Chesham , Farnham Royal , Great Missenden , High Wycombe , Marlow , Princes Risborough , Wendover , Winslow||1,564.95||540.059|
|Milton Keynes||Bletchley , Fenny Stratford , Milton Keynes , Newport Pagnell , Olney , Stony Stratford , Wolverton||308.63||268,607|
No longer part of the county as a result of several municipal reforms:
- All Saints Church (Wing) , Anglo-Saxon church
- Ashridge Estate
- Bletchley Park
- Boarstall Tower
- Bradenham Village
- Buckingham Chantry Chapel
- Buckinghamshire Railway Center in Quainton
- Checkers Court
- Claydon House
- Eton College
- Halton Hall
- Hartwell House
- Hughenden Manor
- King's Head Inn, Aylesbury
- Long Crendon Courthouse
- Mentmore Towers
- Pitstone Windmill
- Princes Risborough Manor House
- Stowe Park
- Waddesdon Manor
- West Wycombe Caves
- West Wycombe Park
- West Wycombe Village
- Whiteleaf Cross
- Winslow Hall
- Wycombe Abbey
The English village shown in the first episode of the Band of Brothers miniseries is Hambleden, Buckinghamshire.
- Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
- The Buckinghamshire (Structural Changes) Order 2019