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Luton Town Hall
Luton Town Hall
Coordinates 51 ° 53 ′  N , 0 ° 25 ′  W Coordinates: 51 ° 53 ′  N , 0 ° 25 ′  W
Luton (England)
Residents 214.109 (as of June 30, 2018)
surface 43.35 km² (16.74  mi² )
Population density: 4939 inhabitants per km²
Part of the country England
Ceremonial county Bedfordshire
ONS code 00KA

Luton is a town in England ( United Kingdom , north area) of London and part of the region East of England . London Luton Airport is in the south-east of the city . The main campus of the University of Bedfordshire (formerly University of Luton ) is in the city center. The car manufacturer Vauxhall's plant is nearby . Until 1997 the city was part of Bedfordshire county ; since then Luton has formed an independent city district ( Unitary Authority ).


Settlements existed here as early as the Paleolithic . Luton was founded in the 6th century when a Saxon outpost was built on the River Lea. Luton is listed in the Domesday Book as Loitone with 700 inhabitants. In the city, which was growing slowly but steadily, there was a market for the surrounding villages. In the 14th century, Luton held a fair twice a year.

The former predominantly agricultural economy was transformed in the 16th century by the brick industry in the 17th century, when in Luton with the production of hats began. In the 18th century, the production of straw hats dominated the city; this was also the only industry worth mentioning.

In the 19th century, the city grew rapidly with industrialization : While 3,000 people lived in Luton in 1801, there were 10,000 in 1850 and almost 39,000 in 1901. The first town hall was built in 1847, it was connected to the railroad in 1858, and by the late 1860s, Luton had a complete fresh and sewage system. In 1876 Luton was declared a borough .

In the 20th century, the hat trade disappeared more and more, and new branches of industry took its place. Vauxhall Motors built an automobile factory in 1905; a number of mechanical engineering companies also settled in the first years of the 20th century. The city had a tram network from 1908 to 1932 ; the first cinema opened in 1909. In 1915, Luton had 50,000 residents. In 1919 the old town hall burned down; it was not replaced until 1936. Luton Airport was opened in 1938 ; it belonged to the city administration and was operated by this. During the Second World War, Luton suffered from some air raids . 107 people were killed. The city of Luton was largely destroyed.

Since 1959 the M1 motorway has passed in the west of the city; In 1978 a covered shopping center, the Arndale Center , was opened.

Since the 1960s, the number of takeoffs and landings rose to the airport at considerably because the new charter - airlines rather than from there by the London launched airports. Another terminal was added in 1985; In 1990 the airport was renamed London Luton Airport . A short time later, Ryanair gave up its base at the airport and moved to London Stansted Airport . With the many new low-cost airlines , the number of passengers has increased significantly; it doubled from 1992 to 1998. Another terminal was opened in 1999 and the airport received a new train station, Luton Airport Parkway . In 2000, Vauxhall announced the end of car production in Luton, and the plant closed in March 2002. At peak times, 35,000 people were employed there. Production of the Opel Vivaro will continue in the remaining part of the plant.

Since the 1970s, many immigrants , mainly from Pakistan and Bangladesh, moved to Luton. According to the 2011 census, 25% (Luton South) and 22% (Luton North) of the population were Muslims. In some parts of the city they make up the majority, e.g. B. in Bury Park. Luton is also the city in which the English Defense League (EDL) was founded. Luton-raised journalist Stacey Dooley documented growing tensions in her hometown in her BBC-broadcast My Hometown Fanatics (2012).


Luton Town football club plays in Football League One .

Famous people from Luton

Town twinning

Individual evidence

  1. Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
  2. Timothy Peace, Parveen Akhtar: Muslims and political participation in Britain . Routledge, London 2015, ISBN 978-0-415-72531-6 , p. 49.
  3. ^ My Hometown Fanatics: Stacey Dooley Investigates , accessed December 16, 2015.
  4. My Hometown Fanatics

Web links

Commons : Luton  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files