Isle of Wight
|Isle of Wight county|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||South East England|
|status||Ceremonial County and Unitary Authority|
|founded||April 1, 1995|
|Administrative authority||Isle of Wight Council|
|was standing||June 30, 2018|
The Isle of Wight [ ˌaɪləvˈwaɪt ] (German Insel Wight ) is an offshore island on the south coast of Great Britain - opposite the city of Southampton . It is around 35 km long and up to around 20 km wide. Around 138,700 people (2012) live in an area of 381 km². The island used to belong to the county of Hampshire , but has been independent since 1974. The capital is Newport .
The island is roughly shaped like a diamond . Today it is separated from the British mainland by the Solent , an inlet of the English Channel . Until 6000 BC It was part of the mainland and the Solent was a river. Geologically, the island belongs to the southern English chalk formation . The landscape features are the chalk hills that stretch across the entire island in the center, but at the western end of Wight in front of The Needles , three limestone cliffs protruding up to 30 m from the sea, drop steeply into the sea. Much of the island is specially protected as the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB).
There are traces of a Mesolithic and Neolithic presence on the island, which is reflected in artifacts . From the Bronze Age are burial mounds present, the findings in the form of daggers and axes provided. The hill fort on the "Chillerton Down" is regarded as an Iron Age settlement . Celtic Belgae came to the island when they evaded the Roman conquest of Gaul . Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus , called Suetonius , describes the conquest of the island, which the Romans called Vectis, in AD 43 by Vespasian . The foundations of eight country houses have been preserved from Roman times, the best at Brading and Newport.
After the Romans withdrew, the island and southern Hampshire on the opposite side of the British main island were settled by Jutes . The Isle of Wight had close cultural ties with the Kingdom of Kent, which was also Jutland . According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , the island fell to the West Saxons Cerdic around 530 , is an unhistorical legend.
The jütische settlement in the Dark Ages (Dark Ages) was confirmed by archaeological finds of the excavated in the 19th century cemeteries "Chessell Down" and "Bowcombe Down". In addition to skeletons, iron swords, knives and jewelry such as brooches and buckles were found.
Wulfhere of Mercia took to 660 the successful campaign against the Isle of Wight and in the meantime to Wessex belonging Meonwara (valley of the River Meon, southeastern Hampshire). Both provinciae (provinces), which previously formed a "buffer zone" between the kingdoms of Sussex and Wessex, he subordinated to his subordinate King Æthelwalh of Sussex.
In 686, the West Saxon King Caedwalla conquered the pagan small kingdom under King Arualdus (Arwald). He was powerless against the overwhelming strength of the troops from Wessex and, like his two younger brothers, died in the fighting in which a large part of the island's inhabitants were slaughtered. Caedwalla had the island repopulated by West Saxony and gave a quarter of the conquered land to the church. From then on, the Isle of Wight was a "province" of the Kingdom of Wessex. In the Viking Age , the island was the target of raids several times and also served the Vikings as a base for a time.
The enfeoffment of William the Conqueror to the FitzOsberns was followed by a quiet period that ended in 1293 with the island falling back to the Crown. During the Hundred Years War the island was devastated several times by French troops.
Most important cities
The Isle of Wight is crossed by two rivers that have their source in the southern part of the island. The River Medina flows north through the capital Newport in the Solent near Cowes . The Yar River runs parallel to the medina to the center of the island and then flows east into the sea at St. Helens. There is also the smaller Blackbridge Brook with its confluence with the Wooton Creek between Wooton and Fishbourne .
Simply called " the island " by the inhabitants , there are various boat connections to / from it.
- Catamaran ("CAT"), Ryde Pierkopf - Portsmouth Harbor Station , Operator: Wightlink , Travel time: 15 minutes, Carries: Passengers.
- Hovercraft , Ryde seafront - Southsea Clarence Esplanade, operator: Hovertravel, travel time: 10 min, carries: passengers.
- Car ferry, Fishbourne - Portsmouth Gunwharf, operator: Wightlink, carries: passengers and vehicles.
There is a dense road network on the island itself, which is particularly frequented in the holiday season. Because of its proximity to the mainland, the island is a popular destination for the British who specifically visit the coastal towns of Ryde, Sandown, Shanklin, Ventnor and Freshwater , but also various smaller towns such as B. Enjoy visiting Godshill in various areas.
Local public transport
The island is crossed by a very well developed bus network from Southern Vectis . The so-called Rover Ticket is the cheapest way to explore the island.
The Isle of Wight has one of Britain's shortest railway lines. The Island Line ("Island Line") runs just 13.6 kilometers from Ryde Pier Head to Shanklin in the east of the island. Old trains of the London Underground , some of which were built in 1938, run on this route. Nevertheless, the railway company is said to have the highest reliability of any British railway company.
Marine radio station
The most important event of the year is the world-famous sailing regatta. The Cowes Week attracts every August hundreds of thousands of visitors to the island. Other major sailing events in Cowes include the start of the Admiral's Cup in July and the Commodores Cup in August.
A famous rock festival - the Isle of Wight Festival - took place near Tennyson Down, West Wight in 1970. Here played among other The Doors , The Who , Miles Davis , Leonard Cohen , Jimi Hendrix and Supertramp . This festival was preceded by two smaller events in 1968 and 1969, which were also attended by John Lennon and Yoko Ono . A revival took place in 2002.
It has been a regular event for a number of years now, showcasing bands annually and has become one of the UK's premier festivals.
Another regular festival is the IOW Jazz Festival and the IOW International Scooter Rally, the largest motor scooter meeting in the world.
- Carisbrooke Castle
- Osborne House
- Shanklin Chine
- Blackgang Chine
- Alum Bay
- The Needles (England)
- Brickfields Horsecountry
- Mottistone Manor and Garden, mansion and garden
- Robert Hooke (1635–1703), physicist ( Hooke's law ), mathematician and inventor, b. 1635 in Freshwater
- Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (1809-1892), poet, lived in "Farringford House"
- Queen Victoria (1819-1901)
- Karl Marx (1818–1883), philosopher (lived in "1, St. Boniface Gardens, Ventnor" in 1882 and 1883)
- James Mann Williamson (1849-1901), British physician (Royal National Hospital Ventnor)
- Ludwig Alexander von Battenberg (1854–1921), 1912 First Lord of the Admiralty , lived on the island as a private citizen from 1914, buried in Whippingham's cemetery.
- Heinrich Moritz von Battenberg (1858–1896), Hessian Prince and husband of Victoria's youngest daughter Beatrice, governor and captain of the island from 1889, buried in the church of Whippingham
- Julia Margaret Cameron (1815–1879), photographer, lived and worked at Dimbola Lodge on Freshwater Bay from 1860–1875
- Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937), communications engineer, had a laboratory on the island's chalk cliffs from 1896
- Emma Barton (1872–1938), photographer, lived in Vernon Cottage, Shanklin, from around 1930 until her death in 1938
- Vivian Fuchs (1908–1999), geologist and polar explorer
- Marius Goring (1912–1998), actor
- David Gascoyne (1916–2001), poet and surrealist, died on the island
- Jeremy Irons (born 1948), actor
- Anthony Minghella (1954–2008), director and filmmaker
- Ray Cokes (* 1958), radio and television presenter (among others at MTV )
- Mark King (* 1958), bassist and singer in the funk band Level 42
- Eric Marshall (1879–1963), doctor and polar explorer ( Nimrod expedition )
- Carl Prean (* 1967), table tennis player
- Laura Michelle Kelly (* 1981), actress, musical artist and singer
- Tom Gladdis (* 1991), racing driver
- The island is the main setting in the science fiction novel England, England by Julian Barnes .
- In the song When I'm Sixty-Four, Paul McCartney of the Beatles celebrates the hypothetical rental of a holiday cabin on the Isle of Wight.
- The island is the filming location of the British slapstick comedy Guest House Paradiso .
- The island is an important refuge for the red squirrel , which has been decimated in England by the invasive gray squirrel species .
- Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland
- Simon Keynes: Kings of the Isle of Wight . In: Lapidge et al. (Ed.): The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England . Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford et al. a. 2001, ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1 , p. 512.
- Barbara Yorke : Cerdic (paid registration required). In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed November 13, 2011.
- Barbara Yorke: Wessex in the early Middle Ages , Continuum, 1995, ISBN 978-0-7185-1856-1 , pp. 39-40.
- SE Kelly: Sussex, Kingdom of . In: Lapidge et al. (Ed.): The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England . Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford et al. a. 2001, ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1 , pp. 431-432.
- Bede: HE 4:16
- Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the years 897, 998, 1001, 1006, 1009, 1013 etc.
- WMO: JCOMM: Metarea I. Accessed September 1, 2016.
- Photo by Laurie Asprey ( Memento from March 15, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- See IMDb
- See red squirrels on the Isle of Wight ( October 16, 2015 memento on the Internet Archive ), nationaltrust.org, accessed February 9, 2013