John Lennon

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John Lennon (1969)
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John Winston Ono Lennon (born October 9, 1940 as John Winston Lennon in Liverpool , † December 8, 1980 in New York ) was a British musician , composer and peace activist as well as Oscar and multiple Grammy award winner. He became famous around the world as the co-founder, singer and guitarist of the British rock band The Beatles , for whom he  wrote most of the pieces - alongside Paul McCartney . The composer partnership Lennon / McCartney is one of the most famous and successful in the history of pop music.

During the breakup phase of the Beatles, Lennon and his second wife Yoko Ono organized several high- profile happenings (cf. Fluxus ) for world peace from the late 1960s and turned to new artistic areas. After the Beatles split up, Lennon started a successful solo career with albums such as John Lennon / Plastic Ono Band (1970) and Imagine (1971).

Lennon was shot and killed in an assassination attempt by Mark David Chapman in New York City in December 1980 .


Childhood and youth

Early years

Aunt "Mimi's" home at
251 Menlove Avenue

John Winston Lennon was born in Liverpool on October 9, 1940. His parents were the sailor Alfred Lennon (1912-1976) and his wife Julia (née Stanley; 1914-1958). Born during the Second World War , his middle name was "Winston" after the British Prime Minister at the time, Winston Churchill . John Lennon spent the first years of his life mainly with his mother and her family in Liverpool, as his father was often at sea at the time. Because Julia Lennon had a child from another man in 1945, his parents separated. After 1946 he had no more contact with his father until his time as a Beatle.

John Lennon now lived permanently with Julia's sister Mary Smith (1906–1991), called "Mimi", and her husband George (1903–1955) in Mendips in the Liverpool suburb of Woolton and initially had little contact with his mother. His musical talent soon became apparent when he began to play the harmonica and developed an interest in other musical instruments. After moving to the Quarry Bank High School, he impressed his classmates with parodies , small nonsense texts and caricatureshis teacher. However, his academic performance was below average. From 1955, John Lennon's contact with his mother improved again. As a lover of early pop music, Julia taught him to play the banjo and thus got him excited about the music of Buddy Holly and other rock 'n' roll musicians. Julia Lennon was killed in a car accident in 1958 - at a time when John Lennon had developed a more intense relationship with her.

The Quarrymen

The emerging rock 'n' roll had an increasing influence on the young John Lennon, and the appearance of Elvis Presley in particular encouraged his desire to become a rock 'n' roll musician himself.

In late 1956, John Lennon (vocals and guitar) formed his first band, The Quarrymen , with best friend Pete Shotton ( washboard ) , named after the school they attended. The band started out as a skiffle group but also played rock 'n' roll classics by Buddy Holly, Little Richard and Gene Vincent . On July 6, 1957, Ivan Vaughan, who had occasionally helped out with the Quarrymen, brought his school friend Paul McCartneywith to an appearance. Lennon was so impressed with his abilities that he accepted him into the group. In the same year John Lennon began studying at the Liverpool Art School. However, he also devoted himself more to his music during this time and met regularly with the younger McCartney, who attended the Liverpool Institute nearby . During this time, the first compositions of the later famous partnership Lennon / McCartney were written , who met regularly in the McCartney family's living room at 20 Forthlin Road . After McCartney (vocals and guitar), his school friend George Harrison (vocals and guitar) joined the group in February 1958 . In November 1959, Lennon was able to meet his friendStuart Sutcliffe , with whom he attended art school, persuade, the money that he had earned on the sale of a painting in a Hofner President - bass guitar to invest. With Sutcliffe, Lennon came up with the idea of ​​calling the group "Beatals" and later " The Beatles ". In early 1960, Sutcliffe became the group's bassist, although he had never played an instrument. The drummer Pete Best completed the original Beatles in the same year.

The Beatles

Statue of John Lennon in front of the Liverpool Cavern Club


From 1960 to 1962 the Beatles had several engagements in Hamburg in the Indra, the Kaiserkeller , the Top Ten Club and the Star Club . Lennon later claimed to have grown up in Hamburg and not Liverpool. Lennon mostly acted as a band leader and entertained the German audience with small comical interludes. After Paul McCartney and Pete Best were deported from Hamburg to England, Lennon initially played with a different group. When Sutcliffe decided in 1960 to stay with his fiancée Astrid KirchherrStaying in Hamburg, McCartney took over the bass guitar. After returning to Liverpool, the group's popularity grew. From 1961 the Beatles had numerous appearances in the Cavern Club .

In April the Beatles returned to Hamburg. There they accompanied the British musician Tony Sheridan during the recording of his album My Bonnie in June . During this session, the Beatles recorded two pieces, the cover version Ain't She Sweet sung by Lennon and the instrumental piece Cry for a Shadow composed by Harrison and Lennon .

In December, Brian Epstein became the Beatles' manager. He managed to give the Beatles a studio audition in front of the music producer George Martin . During his third stay in Hamburg in 1962, Lennon received the news of the sudden death of his friend Stuart Sutcliffe. Despite the bereavement, the third stay in Hamburg was very successful, the Beatles received their first record deal with Parlophone , a subsidiary of EMI , in the summer .

Under pressure from George Martin, Ringo Starr replaced the previous drummer Pete Best; from then on the Beatles were in their final line-up.

In the same year 1962, Cynthia Powell , Lennon's girlfriend since art school, became pregnant by him. They married on August 23, 1962, manager Brian Epstein was the best man. Lennon's first son Julian was born on April 8, 1963 .


John Lennon, 1964

The Beatles' first single, the Lennon / McCartney composition Love Me Do , was released in September 1962 . The second single Please Please Me , mainly written by Lennon, reached top positions in the British charts. The 1963 album of the same name was just as successful.

With I Want to Hold Your Hand (January 1964) the Beatles managed to musically "conquer" the USA as well . They traveled to the USA for the first time on February 7, 1964 and were greeted enthusiastically in New York .

John Lennon, June 1964 in the Netherlands

After the success of the feature film A Hard Day's Night and the soundtrack of the same name in the summer of 1964, Lennon increasingly devoted himself to the texts of his plays. Inspired by Bob Dylan , he tried to establish himself as a serious songwriter . The album Beatles for Sale (December 1964) also increasingly features more thoughtful pieces by Lennon, such as I'm a Loser or No Reply .

The Beatles also continued to develop artistically. Rubber Soul includes outstanding Lennon tracks such as Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown) , Nowhere Man and Girl . The play In My Life was invented by British music magazine Mojo voted the best song of all time. Lennon's contact with the psychedelic drug LSD was reflected in the follow-up album Revolver (August 1966). It contains psychedelic pieces like Tomorrow Never Knows and is considered one of the strongest of the group.

Another world tour of the Beatles began in June 1966 with three concerts in Germany . In the Philippines , the group was attacked by the angry crowd on their departure because they had refused to accept an invitation from Imelda Marcos . In the US, an interview that Lennon gave to British journalist Maureen Cleave for the Evening Standard in March caused a stir . In it, Lennon commented on Christianity, among other things :

“Christianity wants to go. It will vanish and shrink. [...] We're more popular than Jesus now - I don't know which will go first, rock and roll or Christianity. "

“Christianity will pass. It will go and go. [...] Today we are more popular than Jesus - I don't know which will go first, rock 'n' roll or Christianity. "

In Great Britain these statements received little attention. However, when the interview was published four months after it was first published in the United States, the statement that the Beatles were more popular than Jesus sparked a wave of indignation. Several radio stations boycotted Beatles songs and there were even organized burnings of their records. On the advice of Brian Epstein, John Lennon apologized extensively at a press conference in Chicago . However, the Beatles' performances were overshadowed by the marches of the Ku Klux Klan , and Lennon feared for his life. On August 29th, the Beatles gave their last concert in San Francisco and decided not to tour anymore.

First own projects

John Lennon had written poetry and short stories since childhood. In 1964 and 1965 two collections of bizarre short stories by Lennon were published, which were also illustrated by Lennon. On March 23, 1964 was published In His Own Write (German title: In his own writing ). A year later followed A Spaniard in the Works (German title: A Spaniard does not make a summer ).

In 1966, Lennon took on a supporting role in the antiwar film How I Won the War directed by Richard Lester . This role gave Lennon the opportunity to change his appearance and take off the "Beatles look". The mushroom head was trimmed and Lennon, short-sighted since childhood, began to wear glasses in public. His choice fell on wire-rimmed glasses with round lenses.

Musical highlight with the Beatles

John Lennon, 1967

After the tour ended, the Beatles devoted themselves entirely to working in the studio. Lennon composed the piece Strawberry Fields Forever , which was released as a single in February 1967 with McCartney's Penny Lane . With its thoughtful text, the elaborate studio effects and the complex musical implementation, the piece is considered Lennon's masterpiece and marks the path of the Beatles from pop to art. Lennon contributed significantly to the success of the concept album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band with pieces such as Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds and A Day in the Life . Lennon wrote for the first global television show, Our WorldAll You Need Is Love , the "anthem of the Summer of Love " 1967.

Brian Epstein's sudden death on August 27, 1967, hit Lennon hard after the deaths of his mother and Stuart Sutcliffs. The group decided to continue anyway. This was followed by a trip to India with the other Beatles to meditate with the Guru Maharishi Mahesh Yogi . There Lennon wrote numerous new pieces, which were released on November 22, 1968 on the Beatles' new album simply titled The Beatles , also known as the White Album due to its cover design .

John and Yoko

Lennon and Yoko Ono in Amsterdam, March 31, 1969

John Lennon met the Japanese avant-garde artist Yoko Ono in 1966 at her exhibition in the Indica gallery in London. In May 1968 the two became a couple. In July 1968 Lennon and Ono presented their first joint exhibition under the motto You Are Here in Robert Fraser's gallery . On October 18, 1968, Lennon and Ono were arrested for possession of marijuana , which caused considerable press coverage (reporters from the Daily Mail and Daily Express were on the scene before the police even arrived) and ultimately resulted in a life sentence for Lennon. On November 8, 1968, John and were divorcedCynthia Lennon consummated.

On November 29, 1968 Lennon released the album Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins with Yoko Ono . The couple's first joint work attracted a lot of attention, but less because of the avant-garde sound collages , but rather because of the cover - it showed Lennon and Ono naked. 30,000 copies were confiscated by police on January 3, 1969 at Newark Liberty International Airport , and another 22,000 followed on January 25 in Union County . Furthermore, sales were banned in places, dealers were threatened and record stores were closed, for example in Chicago . On December 11, 1968, John Lennon first performed live outside of the Beatles. The group consisting of Lennon,Eric Clapton , Keith Richards and Mitch Mitchell called themselves The Dirty Mac and played the songs Yer Blues and Her Blues by Yoko Ono, whose title was later changed to Whole Lotta Yoko , on the television special Rock and Roll Circus .

Ono's artistic influence was also reflected in the Beatles' White Album . The experimental sound collage Revolution 9 can be found there . With Revolution 1 , Lennon also took a political position and referred to the May riots in Paris . In May 1969 the couple Lennon and Ono's second album was released under the title Unfinished Music No. 2: Life with the Lions .

Lennon and Yoko Ono at the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel during their " bed-in ", 1969

On March 20, 1969, John Lennon and Yoko Ono were married in Gibraltar . On March 31, 1969, the couple finished their one-week “ bed-in ” in the Apollobuurt in Amsterdam . From March 26th, Lennon and Ono gave daily interviews from their bed in the Hilton Hotel to send a visible sign of peace. Lennon later commented on this:

“When we got married, we knew our honeymoon was going to be public anyway, so we decided to take advantage of it. Our life is our art. That was the bed-in. We sat in bed and talked to the reporters. It was hilarious. In the end, we made a commercial for peace [...]. "

Another week followed in Montreal , while the third bed-in failed due to a missing entry permit for the Bahamas . As part of their peace campaign, Lennon and Ono also gave an interview in a sack in Vienna and called the action “ Bagism ”. The song The Ballad of John and Yoko is about the events of the honeymoon. The third and final part of the Unfinished Music series, which documents the life together of John Lennon and Yoko Ono, was released under the name Wedding Album in October 1969.

New ways and the end of the Beatles

Lennon rehearsing Give Peace a Chance , 1969
Recording of Give Peace a Chance with Lennon and Yoko Ono; in the foreground Timothy Leary
Peace campaign poster from 1969

The couple formed the Plastic Ono Band in 1969 , whose first single - Give Peace a Chance , recorded while Bed-In in Montreal - made it into the top 20 of the charts worldwide in July of that year. In October, the single was followed by Cold Turkey (German: Cold withdrawal ), which sold itself however comparatively poor. Cold turkey describes the suffering during a heroin withdrawal . Lennon struggled against his addiction to the drug for the next five years. The fall of Cold Turkey in the charts gave Lennon as an additional reason for being the Order Member of the British Empireto return that he had received in 1965 with the other Beatles. The main reason he cited in the written justification was Britain's participation in the two wars in Biafra and Vietnam .

In December 1969, Lennon and Ono organized the poster and poster campaign War Is Over to promote peace. The posters were shown in several major cities around the world, including New York , Los Angeles , Toronto , Tokyo , Rome and Berlin . The inscription read:

Happy Christmas from John & Yoko

On December 23, 1969, John Lennon and Yoko Ono met with Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau for a 50-minute talk.

In the course of these projects with Yoko Ono, Lennon moved more and more away from the Beatles. The project of a documentary about the Beatles under the title Get Back was marked by increasing conflicts within the group and was only released in 1970 under the title Let It Be . The Beatles' last joint project was their Abbey Road album , which was released in September 1969. Lennon later often criticized the album in interviews. Even so, it became one of the most successful of the group.

Solo career

1970–1971: Plastic Ono Band and Imagine

On February 6, 1970, John Lennon recorded his new single Instant Karma! with the American music producer Phil Spector . Lennon said in an interview: "I wrote it for breakfast, recorded it for lunch and we're putting it out for dinner." ( German : "I wrote it for breakfast, recorded it for lunch and we publish it for dinner.") Instant Karma became an international top ten hit.

On April 10, 1970, Paul McCartney announced the official dissolution of the Beatles, thus pre-empting Lennon, who claimed it for himself, since John Lennon had announced to the other members of the Beatles on September 20, 1969 during a meeting that he would " Divorce ”from the Beatles.

From the beginning of 1970 Lennon heard about the "primal scream" therapy developed by the American psychologist Arthur Janov . Lennon and Ono invited Janov to their titshurst Park estate in Ascot in April 1970 and underwent treatment. This was followed by four more months in Los Angeles , California . During this time, Lennon wrote several titles that reflected his personal situation, anger, fears and problems. The result was Lennon's first solo album, John Lennon / Plastic Ono Band (December 1970), on which Lennon openly describes his personal feelings. It was produced by himself, Yoko Ono and Phil Spector. At the songGod he sings at the end “I don't believe in Beatles; I just believe in me. Yoko and me. And that's reality ”. (German: "I don't believe in the Beatles, I only believe in myself. Yoko and me. And that's the reality.") The accompanying part of the song begins with the statement that the dream is over, but that you can now go on must.

In March 1971, the successful single Power to the People followed , which was politically motivated, so John Lennon wrote the song after an interview by Tariq Ali , the editor of the left-wing British magazine Red Mole, conducted. The single God Save Us / Do the OZ was recorded in May 1971, the A-side was sung by Bill Elliot and the B-side by Lennon. The publication took place under the pseudonym Elastic Oz Band .

Entrance gate from Tittenhurst Park

His second album Imagine (September 1971) recorded Lennon with old companions like George Harrison and Klaus Voormann in May 1971 in Lennon's own studio, the Ascot Sound Studios in Tittenhurst Park. It was the only John Lennon album that was made there. In contrast to the album John Lennon / Plastic Ono Band , the musical influence of Phil Spector was clearly visible. John Lennon said about the album Imagine in comparison to the previous album : “… it's a bit cleaner looking, but the basic message is the same, just more acceptable to people” (German: Es [ Imagine] looks a bit cleaner, but the basic message is the same, only more acceptable to people). Imagine was very successful commercially and reached top positions in the charts worldwide . The title track of the same name is Lennon's most famous solo piece and describes the vision of a better and fairer world. With his remarks regarding religion in the song Imagine , Lennon allegedly offended the religious feelings of his later murderer, which probably mainly led to the assassination attempt. 2012 was Imagine one of the songs at the closing ceremony of the Summer Olympic Games in Londonplayed with a video never seen before. The song Imagine reached the UK singles charts in 1975 (No. 6), 1980 (No. 1) and 1999 (No. 3).

In 1971, the relationship with Paul McCartney was at a low point, so is the song How Do You Sleep? a settlement with McCartney and a response to his Ram album from May 1971. The McCartney song Too Many People is one of three songs on the album that John Lennon found addressed to himself. The line of text from How Do You Sleep? "... those freaks was right when they said you was dead" is an allusion to Paul-is-dead-Conspiracy Theory. The song contains other claims, including that Paul McCartney was surrounded by "yes-men" and that John Lennon thought his music was inferior and that his career would only last a year or two. George Harrison played on the song How Do You Sleep? Guitar. In response to Paul McCartney, the song Dear Friend was viewed from his Wild Life album.

The cover of the McCartney album Ram shows Paul McCartney holding a ram by its horns on the front. John Lennon had a photo of himself and a pig in a similar pose taken on the cover as a parody and included it as a photo imagine .

1971-1973: New York

In September 1971 John Lennon and Yoko Ono left Great Britain, flew to New York and checked into the "St Regis Hotel", from where they began several artistic projects. By November 1971 the company moved to Greenwich Village at 105 Bank Street.

Yoko Ono, John Lennon and Chuck Berry on the Mike Douglas Show , January 1972

As their first musical project they recorded the Christmas single Happy Xmas (War Is Over) in October 1971 , which was released in December in the USA and in November 1972 in Great Britain. The song established itself as one of the most played Christmas carols in the following years.

Document with portions of text blacked out, dated 1972.
Censored letter from J. Edgar Hoover regarding FBI surveillance of John Lennon

The album Some Time in New York City (June 1972), recorded with the Elephant's Memory Band , was filled with political protest songs as John Lennon and Yoko Ono faced various political problems in the United States. As a result, the couple dealt intensively with it and processed these influences in their texts. The Lennons allowed themselves to be politically influenced by Jerry Rubin and David Peel, among others . During this time John Lennon had problems with the residence permit in the USA, he was threatened with expulsion, the reason was the growing fears of Richard Nixon- Administration before a “radicalizing” artist John Lennon. During this time Lennon was under surveillance by the FBI .

In their songs, Lennon and Ono addressed the uprising in the Attica Correctional Facility , the Northern Ireland conflict and the poet and anarchist John Sinclair , who was sentenced to ten years imprisonment in the USA in 1969 for possession of two marijuana cigarettes. Lennon and Ono had already taken part in a benefit concert for Sinclair on December 10, 1971. With the single Woman Is the Nigger of the World , Lennon protested against the role of women in society at the time and addressed feminist ways of thinking. The album also contains a live recording of a joint appearance on June 6, 1971 by John Lennon, Yoko Ono andFrank Zappa's Mothers of Invention at Fillmore East in New York, as well as a further concert recording of the Plastic Ono Band in the “Lyceum Ballroom” in London on December 15, 1969, with the motto “peace for christmas” (Benefit for UNICEF ). Some Time in New York City was John Lennon's most commercially unsuccessful studio album during his lifetime.

Lennon's apartment in the Dakota building in New York

On August 30, 1972, Lennon and Ono performed the "One to One" benefit concert at Madison Square Garden for the benefit of children with disabilities. A recording of the concert was released posthumously in 1986 as John Lennon: Live in New York City . The performance was Lennon's last major concert.

At the end of 1972 John Lennon ended the collaboration with the Elephant's Memory Band .

On March 13, 1973 the Lennon composition I'm the Greatest was recorded, John Lennon played the piano and took over the backing vocals, George Harrison played the guitar, Ringo Starr sang and played drums. Only Paul McCartney was missing for a Beatles reunion. The bass played on the song Klaus Voormann, the organ Billy Preston , the song was published on the Ringo Starr album Ringo . A version of the song with John Lennon singing was released on the 1998 album John Lennon Anthology .

In February 1973, Lennon and Ono began moving to a luxurious apartment in the Dakota Building on 72nd Street in New York, their former UK residence, the 30-acre Titshurst Park property , was sold to Ringo Starr on September 15, 1973. On April 1st, Lennon and Ono proclaimed the fictional state "NUTOPIA", a country that knows neither borders nor passports. The national anthem "NUTOPIAs" consisted of three seconds of silence and was featured on the Mind Games albumpublished in November. The album was first produced by Lennon himself, it is musically and lyrically more commercially oriented than the previous album. John Lennon did not continue the political path of 1972, political engagements and contact with Jerry Rubin and David Peel were discontinued.

1973–1975: Lost Weekend

During the recordings for the album Mind Games in July / August 1973, Lennon got involved in a temporary separation from Yoko Ono due to marital problems. Yoko Ono then asked May Pang to accompany her secretary and press agent, John Lennon. John Lennon and May Pang had an affair during the so-called "Lost Weekend" (German: "Lost weekend"), which was supposed to last 18 months. In September 1973, John Lennon and May Pang left New York for Los Angeles. This time was marked by self-destructive excessive alcoholism, which Lennon undertook with Harry Nilsson and Keith Moon , among others .

May Pang in 2002

Lennon began working on the album Rock 'n' Roll with Phil Spector from October to December 1973 . The work on the album stagnated due to a lack of commitment on the part of those involved. Eventually things escalated when Spector fired his revolver in the studio. The recordings were then finally canceled.

In March 1974 there was a reprimand from the Troubador Club of John Lennon and Harry Nilsson, who had disrupted a performance of the Smothers Brothers while drunk ; this incident and the relationship with May Pang were made public through the press. Then John Lennon decided to become musically active again, in which he wanted to produce Harry Nilsson's new album Pussy Cats . The recordings extended from the end of March 1974 to April 1974. During these recordings, on March 28, 1974, the only known musical collaboration with Paul McCartney after the separation of the Beatles took place. McCartney, who briefly visited Los Angeles with his wife Linda , went from Lennon to a full-time oneJam session invited, attended by Stevie Wonder among others . During the recordings, Lennon sang the lead voice and played guitar. McCartney sang the secondary voice and played the drums. Another musical collaboration with Paul McCartney that John Lennon had planned was not realized.

Lennon (right) during a radio interview, 1975

John Lennon returned to New York for the recordings of Walls and Bridges (October 1974), which took place in July / August 1974, and as at Mind Games John Lennon produced the album himself again. In Los Angeles, Lennon had the British musician Elton John met Lennon who supported Lennon on the album on the songs Whatever Gets You Thru the Night and Surprise, Surprise (Sweet Bird of Paradox) . In addition to the single Whatever Gets You Thru the NightThe album also reached number one position on the US Billboard charts, making it the second and last number one solo album during John Lennon's lifetime. Due to a losing bet with Elton John (Lennon didn't think Whatever Gets You Thru the Night would reach the top of the charts), he appeared on November 28, 1974 as a surprise guest at a concert by John at Madison Square Garden. In addition to Whatever Gets You thru the Night , Lennon and John played the Beatles songs Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds and I Saw Her Standing There . In late August 1974, Elton John recorded the song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds with John Lennon at Caribou RanchStudios in Colorado . John Lennon sang the background vocals for the chorus, and he continued to play guitar. Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds was released in November 1974 as an Elton John single and reached number one on the US charts. Also in August 1974, following the recordings for the album Walls and Bridges , John Lennon sang the song Only You (And You Alone) during the recordings for the album Goodnight Vienna by Ringo Starr, in April the Lennon composition (It's All Da-Da-Down To) Goodnight Vienna recorded as a demo, both songs were also included on the compilation album John Lennon Anthology in November 1998 released.

In October 1974, John Lennon decided to go back to the studio with the studio musicians of the recordings for Walls and Bridges to complete the album Rock 'n' Roll , begun with Phil Spector , which was released in February 1975. The album contained cover versions of well-known pieces from Lennon's youth.

In January 1975 Lennon took part in the recording of David Bowie's album Young Americans in the New York Sigma Sound Studios with two songs, on which he played guitar and sang. The single Fame is a collaboration between the two and reached first place in the US charts .

At the end of January / beginning of February 1975, John Lennon moved back together with Yoko Ono in the apartment in the Dakota Building . On April 8, 1975 John Lennon was interviewed by Tom Snyder on his television program Tomorrow , which was televised on April 28, 1975 in the United States. In later years the interview was published on VHS cassette in May 1981 and on DVD in April 2008. On April 18, 1975 John Lennon had his last live appearance on the television show Salute to Sir Lew - The Master Showman , where he slippin ' the songs 'and Slidin' , Stand by Me and Imagine sang, on June 13, 1975 it was broadcast on television in the USA.

1975–1980: Retreat into private life and comeback

Lennon's Green Card , 1976
Lennon and Yoko Ono 1980, portrayed by Jack Mitchell

On October 9, 1975, Lennon's 35th birthday, Lennon and Ono became the parents of their son, Sean Taro Ono Lennon . On the same day, John Lennon received the green card after four years of fighting the US authorities . Ono took care of the family's business from now on, while Lennon stayed at home to look after his son. Lennon increasingly distanced himself from his role as a "rock star" and put his son at the center of his life. While Lennon mainly took care of the household, Yoko Ono took over Lennon's management, which, due to the lack of new publications, mostly managed the rights to old songs.

On October 24, 1975, the first compilation album by John Lennon was released with the title Shaved Fish .

On April 24, 1976 Paul McCartney visited John Lennon in New York, it was the last meeting of the two ex-Beatles. John Lennon had his last studio assignment for the time being during the recording of the Ringo Starr album Ringo's Rotogravure on June 12, 1976. Lennon contributed the not yet published original composition Cookin '(In the Kitchen Of Love) along with piano accompaniment.

The couple gave an interview at the Okura Hotel in Tokyo on October 4, 1977 , in which they stated that their current priorities are family life and raising their child and that they will retire from the music business until their son Sean is five . According to George Harrison, he was visiting John Lennon in the Dakota Building (in the second half of the 1970s), their last meeting. (According to Keith Badman's book The Beatles Diary Volume 2: After the Break-Up 1970–2001 , their last meeting was on September 28, 1980 in Los Angeles)

Between 1975 and 1980 John Lennon recorded several demos of his new compositions at home, some of which are available on bootlegs or have been published legally. According to his own statements, it was in Bermuda where Lennon made the decision to record an album again. The trigger was the song Rock Lobster by the American band The B-52s , which he heard while visiting a dance club and reminded him of Ono's music. The time seemed ripe to get active again - or as Lennon put it in an interview with Rolling Stone : "It's time to get out the old ax and wake the wife up!". This was followed from August 1980 recordings by John Lennon and Yoko Ono for their last album togetherDouble Fantasy , which was released on November 17, 1980. On November 15, 1980, John Lennon met Ringo Starr for the last time at the Plaza Hotel in New York, where he presented Starr with a music cassette containing four songs. It was planned joint recordings in January 1981 for the Ringo Starr album Stop and Smell the Roses . John Lennon also plannedto go on tourwith the studio musicians of Double Fantasy after the completion of the next album Milk and Honey , which was not completed by Yoko Ono until 1983. The tour was to begin in Japan in spring 1981, followed by Europe and the USA.

Assassination and death

Lennon was murdered in front of the entrance to the Dakota building in 1980
Parade in memory of John Lennon on December 12, 1980 in Amsterdam

On the evening of December 8, 1980, John Lennon and Yoko were working on the final mixing of the Ono composition Walking on Thin Ice at Record Plant East . They didn't return to the Dakota Building until 10:48 p.m. Contrary to his custom, Lennon instructed his driver not to drive into the courtyard of the building, but to let him and Yoko Ono get off in front of the house. After walking past the archway of the Dakota building, mentally confused assassin Mark David Chapman shot John Lennon with a revolver from about six meters away. Lennon was still conscious when he was driven to Roosevelt General Hospital but died from his serious injuries at 11:07 p.m.

When John Lennon had left the Dakota Building a few hours before the murder, Chapman had him signed a record and was photographed at that moment by photographer Paul Goresh together with Lennon. Chapman is represented with this in the last photo that shows the artist alive. Lennon's murder sparked a wave of horror. On the night of the murder, several thousand people gathered in front of the Dakota Building to sing Lennon's songs together. Yoko Ono received numerous condolences in the days that followed. Lennon's music reached top positions in the charts worldwide. The album Double Fantasy rose from number 11 to number 1 in the USA and lasted eight weeks, the single release(Just Like) Starting Over became a number one hit. The following single woman also reached number one in the UK and number two in the US. In Great Britain, Imagine posthumously reached the top of the singles chart for the first time in 1971, Happy Xmas (War Is Over) there at number two. Watching the Wheels , the third single from the album Double Fantasy , also reached the top ten in the US charts, Give Peace a Chance was again listed at number nine in the German charts.

Chapman pleaded "guilty" on the murder charges, against the advice of his attorney and despite the fact that six out of nine psychiatric experts confirmed that he was psychotic . He was finally sentenced in 1981 to a term of 20 years to life imprisonment. Yoko Ono has asked the parole commission every two years since 2000 that Chapman should never be released because they felt at risk, the perpetrator did not deserve a normal life and violence in turn creates violence (violence begets violence) . In August 2020, Chapman's eleventh application for dismissal was rejected.

Effect and afterlife

Posthumous publications

Liverpool Airport named after Lennon
Lennon statue in Havana , Cuba
John Lennon Wall in Prague, August 1981
Strawberry Fields in Central Park ; the Dakota building in the background
Memorial plaque in Strawberry Fields

Since Lennon's death, Yoko Ono has dedicated herself to the preservation and dissemination of his artistic work by continuously publishing more material by the ex-Beatle. At the beginning of 1984 Milk and Honey was released , which was planned as a follow-up album to Double Fantasy during Lennon's lifetime . This was followed in 1986 by the live album Live in New York City and Menlove Ave. which contains excerpts from the recording sessions of previous albums. The single Nobody Told Me from the album Milk and Honey became the last top ten hit in the USA and Great Britain.

In November 1985 the 60-minute video film Imagine was released on VHS video cassette, which contains all titles by Imagine , the single title Power to the People , as well as the two Yoko Ono titles Don't Count the Waves and Mrs. Lennon .

In 1988 the Deutsche Bundespost issued a John Lennon postage stamp. In October 1988 the documentary about John Lennon called imagine: john lennon premiered at Canon Cinema in London in the presence of Yoko Ono, Sean Lennon and Cynthia Lennon. The director of the 100-minute film was Andrew Solt, who also wrote the script with Sam Egan. Andrew Solt was able to put together this cross-career documentary about John Lennon from over 200 hours of footage. Audio commentary by John Lennon, mostly from interviews, underpins the film. At the same time, the soundtrack album Imagine: John Lennon (Music from the Motion Picture) was released .

Between January 1988 and March 1992, 218 programs under the title the lost lennon tapes were broadcast on US radio. The programs included outtakes, demos and live performances by John Lennon.

From May 1992, the song Instant Karma! Was used for a Nike advertisement . used, thereby the single again reached a top ten position in the German charts. In October 1992 the 80-minute video collection The John Lennon Video Collection , which contains 19 music videos by John Lennon, was released. In October 2003, a 100-minute video collection Lennon Legend: The Very Best of John Lennon was released , which contains 20 music videos by John Lennon.

15 years after Lennon's death, the Beatles Anthology triggered a renewed revival of Beatlemania . For this, the three Beatles, who were still alive in 1995, edited two demo recordings of Lennon. In 1995 the single Free as a Bird was released , followed by Real Love the following year . The special thing about these singles was that Lennon's voice came from tapes he recorded in his New York apartment in the late 1970s.

After the great success of the Beatles Anthology , the John Lennon Anthology was published in 1998 , which contains alternative versions of well-known Lennon pieces similar to that of the Beatles, followed in 2004 by the album Acoustic , which contains further partially unreleased versions of Lennon songs.

John Lennon remastered studio albums between 2000 and 2005, and some albums were remixed and included bonus material.

In April 2000 the DVD John Lennon - Gimme Some Truth: Making of the Album “Imagine” was released, which documents the creation of the 1971 album Imagine . Other documentaries about albums or appearances by John Lennon appeared as follows: John Lennon and The Plastic Ono Band: Sweet Toronto (April 1989), John & Yoko the Bed-in All We Are Saying Is Give Peace a Chance (December 1990), Wie I Won the War (feature film, April 1995), John & Yoko's Year of Peace (September 2002), The Dick Cavett Show - John & Yoko Collection (November 2005), John & Yoko - Give Peace a Song (October 2006) andJohn Lennon / Plastic Ono Band… the Definitive Authorized Story of the Album (May 2008).

In 2005, Yoko Ono granted Amnesty International the editing rights for all of John Lennon's solo titles. “John's music was always designed to bring about change, and so is ' Make Some Noise '. If we stand up for human rights, we can change the world for the better, ”said Ono.

In September 2006, the John Lennon film called The US vs. John Lennon at the Venice International Film Festival premiere. The 96-minute film was directed by David Leaf and John Scheinfeld. The film deals with the political activities and peace campaigns of John Lennon and Yoko Ono. The soundtrack album of the same name The US vs. John Lennon was also released in September. Another documentary, LENNONYC , was released in September 2010, depicting Lennon's life between 1971 and 1980. The director of the 115-minute film was Michael Epstein. Another film by director Epstein was released in September 2019 with the titleAbove Us Only Sky , this reflects the genesis of the album Imagine and the artistic collaboration of the Lennon couple.

By October 2010, John Lennon's EMI released four more "best-of" compilation albums internationally: The John Lennon Collection (November 1982), Lennon Legend: The Very Best of John Lennon (October 1997), Working Class Hero: The Definitive Lennon (October 2005) and Power to the People: The Hits (October 2010). In October 2010, two CD boxes were released, Gimme Some Truth , which contains four thematically structured CDs; the signature boxContains the eight original studio albums as well as two bonus CDs, which were only remastered again in 2010 based on the respective original mixes. The bonus tracks from the first re-releases were omitted this time, so the track lists of the original releases were restored. Other compilation albums were only released regionally: Instant Karma: All-Time Greatest Hits (February 2002), Peace, Love & Truth (August 2005), Remember (November 2006), John Lennon Collector's Edition (November 2008) and ICON (September 2014) , or were intended for specific consumers: Lennon (4-CD box, October 1990) and Wonsaponatime (1998 songs from the John Lennon Anthology album , November 1998).

In October 2010 the double CD Double Fantasy Stripped Down was released . While the second CD contains the remastered version of the album, Stripped Down is a complete remix by Jack Douglas and Yoko Ono. The main musical difference to the original mix is ​​that the voices of John Lennon and Yoko Ono can be heard more clearly and various instrumental accompaniments and choirs have been omitted.

John Lennon was seen in 2010 television commercials for a new small car from the car manufacturer Citroën , which led to criticism, especially from fans, as they saw it as a sale of John Lennon. Sean Lennon defended Yoko Ono's decision to make the material available for advertising.

On June 4, 2014, 89 manuscripts and drawings by John Lennon were sold for a total of $ 2,899,000. The auction house Sotheby’s published a video of the collection on their website. On October 5, 2018, the most extensive re-release of the Imagine recordings to date was released .

On the occasion of John Lennon's 80th birthday, on October 9th, 2020, the “best of” compilation album GIMME SOME TRUTH was released. ; all songs on the album were remixed.

Honors and tributes

Lennon's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Postage stamp with Lennon's portrait from Azerbaijan (1995)
John Lennon Drive in Liverpool
  • Double Fantasy received the 1982 Grammy for "Album of the Year". In 1987 Lennon was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame . She was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame seven years later .
  • In 2002, John Lennon was voted one of the ten most important Britons by BBC viewers on the television show 100 Greatest Britons . He landed in front of icons like Horatio Nelson and Oliver Cromwell .
  • In 2008, the music magazine Rolling Stone voted Lennon fifth of the 100 best singers of all time . The same magazine listed him 38th of the 100 greatest musicians , 55th of the 100 best guitarists, and third of the 100 best songwriters of all time (one position behind Paul McCartney).
  • Imagine came third in the " 500 best songs of all time ".
  • Lennon received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame .
  • Forty years after the Beatles' White Album was released , the Vatican officially awarded John Lennon on November 22, 2008. His statement "The Beatles are more famous than Jesus Christ " had angered some representatives of the Catholic Church in the year of publication.
  • Since John Lennon often preferred acoustic guitars from Gibson when he was alive , this American manufacturer brought out signature guitars in his honor several times . The last two models released are the 70th Anniversary John Lennon J-160E and the John Lennon J-160E Peace .
  • In 2014, the tarantula species Bumba lennoni was named after Lennon.
  • The unveiling of the John Lennon Monument in Verden took place in April 2008. The idea for this arose during the special exhibition "John Lennon - a Beatle in Verden", which was on view in 2006 at the German Horse Museum . The occasion of this exhibition was the 40th anniversary of the shooting of the anti-war film How I won the war with John Lennon. The film was directed by Richard Lester in 1966 over several days in Verden, in the district of Verden , in the Lüneburg Heath and in Spainturned. A prominent point is the mill gate in the old town. The row of houses seen in the film still exists and residents who saw the filming at the time still fondly remember it today. Exactly in this street (Mühlentor) with the branch path to Aller is now the monument that commemorates this important event for Verden. Years ago, many enthusiastic visitors to the special exhibition, private individuals and companies that feel connected to John Lennon, donated to the monument.
  • On the cover picture of Perry Rhodan's booklet No. 525, Das große Dieben, (1971), created by Johnny Bruck , a character from a novel is depicted. She bears the features of John Lennon.


There is no grave of John Lennon. His body was cremated in the crematorium of Ferncliff Cemetery in Greenburgh and the ashes were given to the widow. The whereabouts of Lennon's remains have not been publicly disclosed.

In 1985, an area in Central Park across from the Dakota Building was named Strawberry Fields after one of Lennon's songs . The round mosaic with the word Imagine has served as a place of remembrance for Lennon ever since. In 2002, Liverpool Speke Airport was renamed Liverpool John Lennon Airport . The airport's motto is a quote from the song Imagine : "Above Us Only Sky". Today there are numerous monuments in memory of Lennon worldwide (including in Liverpool , Havana and Almería ).

There is also commemoration of Lennon in Germany: In 1994 the former August-Bebel-Oberschule in Berlin's Mitte district was renamed the John-Lennon-Gymnasium under the motto “Beatle instead of Bebel” . In Oberhausen ( North Rhine-Westphalia ) there is John-Lennon-Platz and in Essen and Steinheim an der Murr there is a John-Lennon-Straße. The first John Lennon memorial in Germany was unveiled in Verden (Aller) in 2008 , exactly where he played a scene in the 1966 film How I won the war . Another was built in 2012 in Liverpool's twin city, Cologne.

On the island of Viðey near the Icelandic capital Reykjavík , the Imagine Peace Tower , donated by Yoko Ono, was inaugurated on October 9, 2007 in the presence of Ringo Starr. The monument essentially consists of 15 spotlights which - fed by geothermally generated electricity - can generate a column of light up to 4000 meters high. In the base of the monument, “Imagine Peace” is written in 24 languages.

For the 80th birthday on October 9, 2020, the top of the Empire State Building in New York is to be illuminated in blue and with a peace sign on the night of the following day .

Musical keepsake

After Lennon's death, a multitude of tribute songs followed: In 1981 Roxy Music released the single Jealous Guy , a cover version of the Lennon classic. The single reached number 1 in Great Britain. In 1981, the homage He, John the Puhdys also became number 1 in the GDR annual hit parade.

In March 1982, Lennon's friend Elton John released Empty Garden (Hey Hey Johnny) . In the same year Paul McCartney remembered his former musical partner with Here Today . This piece is to be understood as an imaginary conversation between the two friends. Together with Ringo Starr , McCartney was also involved in George Harrison's tribute song All Those Years Ago . With George Martin as producer, there was a small Beatles reunion in 1981. Paul Simon's The Late Great Johnny Ace is just as concerned with the murder of Lennon as the playLife Is Real by Queen . The Pink Floyd guitarist David Gilmour processed the attack in the play Murder , that on his second solo album About Face was released in March 1984th

In July 2005, the musical Lennon started on Broadway in New York . It tells the story of John Lennon using quotes and songs by the ex-Beatles. The piece was created in collaboration with Yoko Ono and contains three unpublished compositions by Lennon: India, India , I Don't Want to Lose You and Cookin '(in the Kitchen of Love) . The musical, in which the stages of John Lennon's life are documented by three different actors of different ages, was taken off the program in October 2005 due to a lack of response.

Numerous other musicians such as Bono from U2 , Liam Gallagher from Oasis and Billie Joe Armstrong from Green Day count Lennon among their role models. Lennon's sons Julian and Sean also work as musicians to this day.



The asteroid (4147) Lennon , discovered on January 12, 1983, was named after him in 1990.


The following listing only covers the LP / CD releases of John Lennon, more comprehensive listings can be found under John Lennon / Discography and the list of songs by John Lennon . For publications with the Beatles: see The Beatles / Discography

Studio albums

year title Top ranking, total weeks / months, awardChart placementsChart placementsTemplate: chart table / maintenance / monthly data
(Year, title, rankings, weeks / months, awards, notes)
DE DE AT AT CH CH UK UK US USTemplate: chart table / maintenance / charts non-existent
1968 Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins - - - - US124 (8 weeks)
with Yoko Ono
First published: November 29, 1968
1969 Unfinished Music No. 2: Life with the Lions - - - - US174 (8 weeks)
with Yoko Ono
First published: May 9, 1969
Wedding album - - - - US178 (3 weeks)
with Yoko Ono
First published: November 7, 1969
1970 John Lennon / Plastic Ono Band DE39 (1 month)
- - UK8 (11 weeks)

(33 weeks)US
with the Plastic Ono Band
First published: December 11, 1970
Sales: + 500,000
1971 Imagine DE10 (27 weeks)
AT39 (2018) (1 week)
CH41 (2018) (1 week)

(101 weeks)UK
Double platinum
× 2
Double platinum

(47 weeks)US
with the Plastic Ono Band
First published: September 9, 1971
Sales: + 2,160,000
1972 Some Time in New York City - - - UK11 (6 weeks)
US48 (17 weeks)
with Yoko Ono, the Plastic Ono Band and Elephants Memory
First published: June 12, 1972
1973 Mind Games - - - UK13th

(12 weeks)UK

(31 weeks)US
First published: November 16, 1973
Sales: + 600,000
1974 Walls and Bridges DE41 (2 months)
- - UK6th

(10 weeks)UK

(35 weeks)US
First published: October 4, 1974 <
Sales: + 560,000
1975 Rock and roll DE37 (6 months)
- - UK6th

(28 weeks)UK

(15 weeks)US
First published: February 21, 1975
Sales: + 600,000
1980 Double fantasy DE2

(44 weeks)DE
AT1 (4½ months)
- UK1

(36 weeks)UK
Triple platinum
× 3
Triple platinum

(74 weeks)US
with Yoko Ono
First published: November 17, 1980
Sales: + 3,935,000
1984 Milk and Honey DE20 (7 weeks)
AT12 (1 month)
CH15 (4 weeks)

(13 weeks)UK

(19 weeks)US
with Yoko Ono
First published (posthumous): Jan 27, 1984
Sales: + 650,000

gray hatching : no chart data available for this year


Feature and music films

Films by John Lennon and Yoko Ono

  • 1968: Film No. 5 (Smile) - film length: 50 min.
  • 1968: Two Virgins - length of film: 21 min.
  • 1969: Film No. 6 (Rape) - length of film: 77 min.
  • 1969: Honeymoon - length of the film: around 60 min.
  • 1969: Give Peace a Chance - promotional film
  • 1969: Self Portrait - length of film: 15 min.
  • 1969: Apotheosis - length of film: 16 min.
  • 1969: Cold Turkey - promotional film
  • 1970: Up your legs forever - length of film: 75 min.
  • 1970: Fly - length of film: 50 min.
  • 1971: Erection - length of film: 19 min.
  • 1971: Imagine - length of film: 55 min.
  • 1971: Clock - length of film: 60 min.
  • 1971: Freedom (1 & 2) - film length: 1 min each.

Films about John Lennon


  • In his own writing , Original: In His Own Write , 1964, translated by Helmut Kossodo and Wolf Dieter Rogosky. Kossodo Verlag in Geneva 1965. John Lennon on his book: “As a member of the highly acclaimed Beatles, my (and PG and R's) records may seem funnier to you than this book, but it is my firm creation that this collection of short stories is the most wonderfully lazy laugh that I have ever let go of. ”, after a review in the Spiegel , with excerpts from the German translation.
  • A Spaniard doesn't make a summer yet , Original: A Spaniard in the Works , 1965.
  • Two virgins or crazy in Denmark , works from the estate, edited and provided with an afterword by Jörg Helbig (original title: Skywriting by word of mouth, translated by Alan Posener). Pendragon, Bielefeld 1993, ISBN 3-923306-89-X ; 2nd edition, Econ Taschenbuch, Düsseldorf 1996, ISBN 3-612-27250-0 .
  • Jann S. Wenner: John Lennon and the Beatles - The legendary 'Rolling Stone' interview (original title: Lennon Remembers translated by Ralf Brunkow). Hannibal, Höfen (Tirol) 2002, ISBN 3-85445-204-7 .
  • Hunter Davies (Ed.): The John Lennon Letters: Memories in Letters . Piper, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-492-05523-9 .


  • Barry Miles & Pearce Marchbank (Eds.): John Lennon - as he saw himself . translated by Michael Kubiak. Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1981, ISBN 3-404-60055-X .
  • Albert Goldman: John Lennon. Ein Leben (Original title: The Lives of John Lennon ), Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1992, ISBN 3-499-13158-7 .
  • Barry Miles: John Lennon - In his own words . Translated by Kathrin Razum. Palmyra, Heidelberg 1996, ISBN 3-930378-10-8 .
  • Brian Roylance, Nicky Page: The Beatles Anthology (translated by Giovanni Bandini and others). Ullstein, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-550-07132-9 (German).
  • Ray Coleman: John W. Lennon . [Biography] (translated by Uschi Gnade and Kirsten Borchardt). Extended and updated edition. Hannibal, St. Andrä-Wölker, Lower Austria 2000, ISBN 3-85445-168-7 .
  • Frederic Seaman: John Lennon. Borrowed time. A personal memory. Vgs, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-8025-2224-9 .
  • James Henke: John Lennon. Die Legende (Original title: Lennon Legend, translated by Christian Kennerknecht), Goldmann, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-442-31063-6 (Book and CD: In his own words , original sound John Lennon).
  • Klaus Voormann : “Why don't you play 'Imagine' on the white piano, John?” Memories of the Beatles and many other friends . Heyne, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-453-87313-0 .
  • Cynthia Lennon : John . Goldmann, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-442-15406-5 (biography, translated by Christian Kennerknecht and Andrea Ott).
  • Rolf Berger: The compositional styles of John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Shown with special consideration of "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane" (=  Osnabrück Contributions to Systematic Musicology . Volume 12 ). epOs Musik, Osnabrück 2006, ISBN 3-923486-81-2 ( plus dissertation, University of Osnabrück).
  • Joachim Behl: Washington, we have a problem: Lennon . NWM CW Nordwest Media, Grevesmühlen 2008, ISBN 978-3-937431-54-3 (biography).
  • Philip Norman: John Lennon . Droemer, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-426-27352-4 (biography, translated by Reinhard Kreissl).
  • Nicola Bardola : John Lennon - turning points . Römerhof, Zurich 2010, ISBN 978-3-905894-07-3 (biography; updated and expanded new edition 2020).
  • Thomas Göthel: John Lennon. Music genius and Nowhere Man. Bucher, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7658-1826-4 .
  • James A. Mitchell: The Walrus and the Elephants: John Lennon's Revolutionary Years . Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-89401-816-0 (original title: The Walrus & the Elephants , translated by Ronald Gutberlet).
  • Paul du Noyer: John Lennon. His songs completely from 1969-1980. All songs. All stories. All lyrics . Olms, Zurich 2020, ISBN 978-3-283-01296-0 .

Web links

Commons : John Lennon  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 27.
  2. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 31.
  3. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 55 ff.
  4. James Henke: John Lennon. The legend. P. 7.
  5. James Henke: John Lennon. The legend. P. 9.
  6. James Henke: John Lennon. The legend. P. 10.
  7. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 215.
  8. ^ The Beatles Anthology. P. 45.
  9. ^ Brian Roylance, Nicky Page, Derek Taylor : The Beatles Anthology (Chronicle Books, San Francisco 2000) . Ullstein, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-550-07132-9 , pp. 55 .
  10. ^ Walter Everett: The Beatles as Musicians. The Quarry Men through Rubber Soul. P. 95.
  11. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 331 ff.
  12. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 350.
  13. James Henke: John Lennon. The legend. P. 19.
  14. Maureen Cleave: The John Lennon I Knew., accessed January 6, 2011 .
  15. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 561.
  16. Philip Norman: John Lennon. The biography. P. 566.
  17. John Lennon: In his own writing - summary of both works in one volume. Translation into German by Wolf D. Rogosky and Helmut Kossodo. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg, 1981. ISBN 3-499-14832-3
  18. Philip Norman: John Lennon . Harper, London 2009, ISBN 978-0-00-719742-2 , p. 457.
  19. James Henke: John Lennon. The legend. P. 28.
  22. ^ Brian Roylance, Nicky Page, Derek Taylor (Eds.): The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle Books, San Francisco 2000; as a translation from English: Ullstein, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-550-07132-9 , p. 304.
  23. Peter Doggett: You Never Give Me Your Money: The Battle For The Soul Of The Beatles. Random House, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4090-8664-2 , p. 56.
  24. ^ Meeting of John Lennon & Yoko Ono with the Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
  25. James Henke: John Lennon. The legend. P. 39.
  26. James Henke: “John Lennon. The legend. ”P. 46.
  27. Text: God .
  28. ^ Relationship between Paul McCartney and John Lennon in 1971
  29. ^ Text: Too Many People
  30. Text: How Do You Sleep?
  31. Text: Dear Friend
  32. ^ FBI surveillance of John Lennon
  33. ^ Norman, p. 853.
  34. ^ Norman, p. 872.
  35. ^ John Lennon: Live In New York City. (No longer available online.) Rolling Stone, 2005, archived from the original on June 21, 2008 ; accessed on October 9, 2010 (English).
  36. ^ Keith Badman: The Beatles Diary , p. 92.
  37. "DECLARATION OF NUTOPIA". Retrieved September 17, 2012.
  38. ^ Norman, p. 885.
  40. ^ Norman, p. 898.
  41. ^ Lennon and McCartney recording session March 1974 ( Memento from December 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  42. Pictures John Lennon and Paul McCartney 1974
  43. 7 "single: Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds
  44. Heinz Rudolf Kunze : "David Bowie - The Favorite" in "Idole 8, Rock & Schock", Ullstein Publishing House, 1986, Ed. Siegfried Schmidt-Joos , ISBN 3-548-36529-9 , p. 118.
  45. George Harrison recalls John Lennon, 1990
  46. ^ Last meeting of John Lennon and George Harrison
  47. Interview with Rolling Stone ; U.S. edition dated January 22, 1981.
  48. Lennon's murderer. The catch shot in the rye . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 19, 2010
    John Lennon: His death and the story of his murderer. In: , May 3, 2019, accessed on August 21, 2019.
  49. Last picture of John Lennon, with his later killer, accidental fan shot
  50. 25 years after the Lennon murder . Retrieved September 18, 2009.
  51. ^ Text of Ono's 2000 letter sent to parole hearings, from the BBC
  52. Jump up ↑ New York - John Lennon's murderer remains in custody. Retrieved on August 27, 2020 (German).
  53. ^ John Lennon Citroen car advert defended by ex-Beatle's son Sean Ono Lennon . From: , accessed March 11, 2010.
  54. Sean Ono Lennon defends John Lennon's appearance in Citroen car advert . Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  55. Lennon's drawings auctioned for millions . At: Kreiszeitung .de , accessed on August 21, 2019.
  56. ^ John Lennon Exhibit Home. (No longer available online.) In: The Songwriters Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on December 18, 2010 ; accessed on October 9, 2010 (English).
  57. John Lennon. In: Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved October 9, 2010 .
  58. 100 Greatest Singers of All Time: John Lennon. In: Rolling Stone . Retrieved October 9, 2010 .
  59. 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. In: Rolling Stone . December 2, 2010, accessed August 8, 2017 .
  60. 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. In: Rolling Stone . December 18, 2015, accessed August 8, 2017 .
  61. The 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time. In: Rolling Stone . August 2015, accessed August 8, 2017 .
  62. Stefan Troendle: Vatican awards John Lennon - Papal grace for the Beatles. (No longer available online.) , November 24, 2008, archived from the original on February 7, 2009 ; Retrieved November 27, 2008 .
  63. The 70th Anniversary John Lennon J-160E Signature on , accessed May 11, 2012
  64. The John Lennon J-160E Peace Signature on , accessed May 11, 2012
  65. Fernando Perez-Miles et al .: Bumba, a replacement name for Maraca Pérez-Miles, 2005 and Bumba lennoni, a new tarantula species from western Amazonia (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae). In: ZooKeys. Volume 448: pp. 1-8, October 20, 2014, doi: 10.3897 / zookeys.448.7920
  66. picture of the Verden monument
  67. ^ Cover picture by Johnny Bruck on William Voltz : Das große Dieben, Perry Rhodan No. 525, Moewig, Munich, 1971.
  68. Internet presence of the John Lennon High School in Berlin
  69. It's done: Lennondenkmal in Verden inaugurated . ( Memento from January 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  70. ^ Memorial for John Lennon in the Friedenspark
  71. Empire State Building should glow blue for John Lennon, October 8, 2020, accessed October 9, 2020.
  72. ^ GDR hit parade 1981
  73. ^ IMDb John Lennon
  74. (4147) Lennon = 1983 AY . In: Minor Planet Center (Ed.): Minor Planet Circular . MPC 16107-16290, April 10, 1990, pp. 16107–16290 , here p. 16247 (English, download from Minor Planet Center [PDF; 380 kB ; accessed on December 3, 2020]). Available under MPC / MPO / MPS Archive. Minor Planet Center (English, see "1990/04/10" or "MPC 16107-16290").;
  75. Chart sources: DE AT CH UK US
  76. Lennon: Wunderlaustste Stammlung . In: Der Spiegel . No. 34 , 1965, pp. 80 ( online - August 18, 1965 , when all the other Beatles are asleep, Beatle Lennon is still awake).