Motto : For no enemy eroberbar
(Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti)
|Form of government||British overseas territory|
|Head of state||
Queen Elizabeth II
Governor Edward Davis
|Head of government||Chief Minister Fabian Picardo|
|Population density||5,319 inhabitants per km²|
|gross domestic product||$ 1.837 billion (2011/2012)|
|currency||Gibraltar Pound (GIP)|
God Save the Queen
|National holiday||September 10|
UTC + 1 CET
UTC + 2 CEST (March to October)
|ISO 3166||GI , GIB, 292|
Gibraltar (German [ɡiˈbʁaltaʁ], English [ dʒɪˈbɹɒltə ], Spanish [ xiβɾalˈtaɾ ]) is a British overseas territory on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula . After the War of the Spanish Succession, it has been under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Great Britain or the United Kingdom since 1704 and was officially ceded by Spain in the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 , but has since been claimed by Spain.
Gibraltar is a peninsula bordering the Bay of Algeciras to the east and is located on the north side of the Strait of Gibraltar , where Europe and Africa are closest. The territory covers a land area of 6.5 km², with the border between Gibraltar and Spain being only 1.2 kilometers long. On the Spanish side of the border is the town of La Línea de la Concepción . The sea area claimed by Gibraltar extends up to three nautical miles from the coast.
Gibraltar consists of a flat, mostly sandy area and the Rock of Gibraltar . The spectacular towering on the eastern side of the sea limestone cliffs ( Engl. Upper Rock, span. Peñón) falls from afar over the Bay of Algeciras in the eye. It is about 4 kilometers long from north to south and up to 1.2 kilometers wide. The top of the rock reaches a height of 426 m. It consists mainly of the limestone formed in the Jura and is therefore older than the neighboring rocks in southern Spain. The flat part of Gibraltar could be enlarged somewhat by reclamation . Most of the material comes from inside the rock, where it was obtained during the construction of the approximately 50 kilometers of tunnel. In addition to the artificial cavities, the rock has a number of naturally formed caves.
The weather in Gibraltar is largely determined by the Levante (east wind) and the Poniente (west wind). These local winds are caused by the Atlas Mountains in the south and the Sierra Nevada in the north.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Gibraltar
Land and land use
The nature reserve was established on April 1, 1993 and is now open to tourists for a fee.
The city of Gibraltar extends on the narrow strip of the west side, on which the rock slopes more gently to the sea. While the west side is heavily populated, only a few people live on the east side in the two villages of Catalan Bay and Sandy Bay . In the north of the peninsula on the border with Spain there is the airport, some military facilities and a cemetery for those who died in the world wars. In the northwest, a modern, high-rise district has emerged, in which a marina and terminals for ferries have also been built. To the south of it there is the military port and an industrial area, in which, for example, some dry docks can be found. The tourist center in the west is Main Street and the surrounding streets and squares, some of which are car-free .
In the absence of natural freshwater resources, rainwater has long been captured and, where possible, salt water has been used. In 1908, for example, a 130,000 m² catchment basin for rainwater was built on the east side of the peninsula, which has since been dismantled. Today the fresh water required is produced by seawater desalination .
fauna and Flora
In addition to the Upper Rock nature reserve , the entire marine area of Gibraltar has been under protection since January 1, 1996.
Gibraltar is the only place in Europe where is monkey ( species : Barbary or Magot, Macaca silvanus ) occur free living. That is why Gibraltar is also called the "monkey rock". While the monkeys are commonly referred to as wild, they tend to lead a kind of wildlife park life where they are regularly human-fed.
- The Rock of Gibraltar with its viewpoints
- The Barbary macaques : The origin of these animals is not exactly known, they were probably introduced by humans from Morocco at some point. However, Barbary macaques used to be native to southern and central Europe, so the Gibraltar monkeys could also descend from European ancestors. Legend has it that British rule in Gibraltar would end as soon as the last monkey left the rock. The background to this legend is a story from the time of the siege of Gibraltar from 1779 to 1783 (during the American War of Independence ): At that time, the English are said to have been warned by the animals of a night attack by the Spanish and French. The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had Barbary macaques imported from Morocco in order to strengthen the monkey tribe, which was probably ailing because of inbreeding, and was successful.
- The cave St. Michael's Cave
- The Gorham Cave with Neanderthal finds.
- The defenses carved into the rock for the siege from 1779 to 1783 (Great Siege Tunnels)
- The tunnel system and gun emplacements from World War II.
- The "Main Street" for buying largely tax-free alcohol and inexpensive tobacco products; on the street the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Gibraltar
- In the south of the city is the small Trafalgar cemetery
- At the southern tip of the rock, the Europa Point - the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula is not located here, but around 25 km southwest (→ Punta de Tarifa ) - are the Gibraltar Trinity Lighthouse, opened in 1841, and the Sanctuary of Ours Dear Lady of Europe . In the 1990s, the Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque , one of the largest mosques in a non-Islamic country, was built here.
- Four orthodox synagogues , one with a bell.
- the Gibraltar North Mole Lighthouse
Gibraltar is one of the most densely populated areas on earth. 32,577 people live in Gibraltar. The population density is 5012 people per square kilometer (2012), including the unpopulated areas of Upper Rock . By land reclamation is trying to be the lack of space Mr.
Aging has been an increasing problem since the 1990s. The life expectancy of the residents is 78.5 years for men and 83.3 years for women. The birth rate is 10.67 births per 1000 inhabitants annually. There are an average of 1.65 newborns per woman. Child mortality is 0.483%. Population growth is very low at 0.11% per year.
Most of Gibraltar's residents are of British, Spanish, Italian or Portuguese origin. All Gibraltarians have a British passport. The Immigration Service issues immigrants with a British passport for Gibraltar in addition to their old citizenship . According to an analysis of family names on the electoral roll in 1995, 27% were British , 26% Spanish (mostly Andalusian but 2% Menorcan ), 19% Italian , 11% Portuguese , 8% Maltese , 3% Israeli ancestry. Another 4% came from other countries, while the origin of 2% could not be determined.
The majority of the population is Catholic at over 78 percent. The territory of Gibraltar forms the diocese of Gibraltar ; as national shrines are Cathedral of St Mary the Crowned and the Shrine of Our Lady of Europe viewed. In second place is the Anglican Church with around seven percent of the population. The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity is the Episcopal Church of the Diocese in Europe of the Church of England for all of continental Europe. For the four percent Muslims, the Ibrahim-al-Ibrahim Mosque, one of the largest mosques in Europe, is available as a meeting room. Members of other Christian denominations (3%), Jews (2%), Hindus (2%) and followers of several other religions also live in Gibraltar .
The only official language in Gibraltar is English , most of the residents also speak Spanish . Although only English has an official character, many traffic, road and information signs are also written in Spanish. In addition, many residents speak Llanito as a colloquial language , a dialect that is largely based on Andalusian Spanish , but also contains some elements of English and various southern European languages.
In ancient times, Gibraltar was considered one of the pillars of Heracles . Roman traces in Gibraltar (lat. Mons Calpe ) are not known. The Romans were followed by the Visigoths who took control of the Iberian Peninsula.
In 711 Gibraltar was conquered by the Muslim Arabs and Berbers . The name Gibraltar comes from the Arabic (جبل طارق Jabal Ṭāriq , "Mountain of Tarik "), after Tāriq ibn Ziyād , a Moorish general who recognized the strategic importance of Gibraltar for the conquest of Spain. Around 1160, a first fortress was built in Gibraltar, which was expanded in the following centuries and is now known as Moorish Castle . The Muslims ruled Gibraltar until the Reconquista in 1462 (from 1309 to 1333 first Castilian by Ferdinand IV. ).
After the Spanish Habsburgs lost supremacy in Europe at the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648, the Dutch and English fought for control of the oceans. This was the time of the four Anglo-Dutch Sea Wars that took place between 1652 and 1784. For example, the Second Anglo-Dutch Sea War was triggered when a Dutch convoy was attacked by the English in December 1664 in the Strait of Gibraltar . Between these disputes there were repeated peace agreements and joint actions against third parties. One of these joint actions was the conquest of Gibraltar on August 4, 1704 by Prince Georg von Hessen-Darmstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession on board the Anglo-Dutch fleet under Admiral Sir George Rooke . Using a variant of military tactics, the Spanish occupation was not surprised at dawn, but rather during the afternoon siesta . The subsequent siege of Gibraltar by Spain was unsuccessful. In 1713 the area was formally assigned to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht and has been a British crown colony since 1830 . During the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727-1729 troops of Philip V besieged Gibraltar in vain. Between 1779 and 1783, Spanish and French troops tried again to capture the fortress ( Great Siege ). During this time the first tunnels, the so-called Great Siege Tunnels , were dug.
During the Second World War , the civilian population of Gibraltar was relocated to Madeira . During this time the rock was converted into an underground fortress for up to 15,000 soldiers. The tunnels, the so-called World War II Tunnels , can be viewed in parts today. The aim of this fortification was to be able to counter a possible attack by the German Wehrmacht . This had planned the capture of the base with a first operational draft of August 20, 1940. However, the Felix operation was never carried out as Spain remained neutral. In a retaliatory strike for the British Operation Catapult, air forces of the rest of France's Vichy regime bombed Gibraltar on September 24 and 25, 1940, and sank an auxiliary cruiser in the port. Before the start of the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa, Operation Torch , the American General Dwight D. Eisenhower set up his headquarters on November 5, 1942 in Gibraltar. Three days later, the invasion of Morocco began with 300,000 soldiers. In the end, Gibraltar remained the only part of the non-neutral Western European mainland that was never occupied by Nazi Germany or its allies.
Tensions have long been rising between the United Kingdom and Spain as Spain seeks regain sovereignty over Gibraltar. The border to Spain was closed from 1969 to 1985. The territory has been on the UN list of sovereign territories without self-government since 1946 . In a referendum on November 7, 2002 (turnout: almost 90%), 99% of the voters voted to remain under British rule. Only 187 residents were in favor of shared sovereignty.
On September 18, 2006, the Foreign Minister of Spain and the European Minister of the United Kingdom and the Chief Minister of Gibraltar Peter Caruana signed a cooperation agreement in Cordoba . It stipulates that a new terminal will be built for Gibraltar Airport so that the airport can also be used by the Spanish side. Spain's foreign minister at the time was Miguel Ángel Moratinos ( Zapatero I cabinet ), while the United Kingdom's European minister was Geoff Hoon ( Blair III cabinet ). From December 16, 2006 there was (for the first time in decades) a scheduled flight from Spain to Gibraltar (details here ). In addition, regulations were made on the telephone network, compensation for Spanish workers who had lost their jobs after the border was closed in 1969, and border controls on the land side were made easier. Furthermore, a branch of the Instituto Cervantes is to be opened in Gibraltar. Foreign Minister Moratinos made an official visit to Gibraltar on July 21, 2009 as the first representative of the Spanish government since the beginning of British sovereignty over Gibraltar.
Relationship with the United Kingdom
Gibraltar is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom . It has its own government that performs the tasks of self-government. It covers all areas except defense, foreign policy and homeland security, which will be taken over by the UK. The head of state is the British Queen; it is represented in Gibraltar by a governor . The governor is also the commander in chief of the army and the police . Acting Governor Edward Davis was appointed in January 2016.
In November 2006, over 60 percent of the Gibraltar population voted for a new constitution that provides for greater independence, especially in the judiciary.
Relationship with Spain
Spain has been trying to regain the British colony since 1704, when the English Crown took control of the peninsula and was assured in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. In the 18th century this was attempted by military means, namely in the three sieges of 1704, 1727 and 1779–1783 , all of which were unsuccessful. In the 19th century further military actions against Great Britain were futile due to its worldwide political and military dominance and therefore did not take place. Although Spain had recognized and confirmed British rule in the Cartagena Agreement (1907) , the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco made new attempts to annex Gibraltar in the 1950s , with the exiled President of Spain, Claudio Sánchez Albornoz , on his side . Since then, several rounds of negotiations have taken place, but they have not led to a final solution. In two referendums in which Gibraltar decided on a move to Spain, the proposals were very clearly rejected: on September 10, 1967 with 12,138 to 44 votes and on November 7, 2002 with 17,900 to 187 votes. In 2002, only a joint British-Spanish exercise of sovereign rights over Gibraltar was voted on. Spain had made itself unpopular with the inhabitants of Gibraltar through various repressions, including the complete closure of the border for many years (from June 9, 1969 to February 4, 1985), even after that there were often long waiting times at the border crossing, restrictions on access to telecommunications equipment or Attempts to exclude Gibraltar's population from participating in international sporting events. Between 2009 and 2011 there were also minor border incidents in the territorial waters.
Although Spain was initially supported by the United Nations in its endeavors to gain sovereignty over Gibraltar, since Gibraltar is still officially a colony to be dissolved, after these votes Jim Murphy , British minister, made it clear that the United Kingdom would do nothing without it the explicit consent of the Gibraltarians would do. In addition, the legal status of Gibraltar is controversial and thus its status as a colony. Meanwhile, the UN regards Gibraltar as a purely bilateral problem between Great Britain and Spain and leaves it to these states to find a solution.
Despite the improved cooperation between Spain and the British overseas territory, there is still disagreement about the respective sovereign rights off the coast of Gibraltar. Spain recognizes only a small area around the port as British, relying on the Treaty of Utrecht , whereas the United Kingdom claims a three-mile zone , relying on the same document , which has led to repeated clashes between the Spanish Guardia Civil and led British patrol boats. On November 18, 2009, the Guardia Civil observed a British Navy speedboat, seven nautical miles south of Gibraltar, performing target practice on a buoy bearing the Spanish flag; the British ambassador Giles Paxman apologized shortly afterwards for “lack of judgment and sensitivity” of the ship's crew. On 7 December 2009, a Civil Guard boat drove into the port of Gibraltar in pursuit of suspected drug smugglers. The Spanish security forces arrested the two inmates of the fleeing speedboat there, but were in turn arrested by the Gibraltar Squadron . The Spanish Interior Minister Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba apologized a little later to Gibraltar's Chief Minister Peter Caruana for the "incorrect behavior" of his officials. They were released on the same day.
At the end of July 2013 the government of Gibraltar had 70 iron-reinforced concrete blocks, each weighing three tons, sunk into the sea. Fishermen protested against the logs. About three weeks later, Prime Minister David Cameron in a telephone conversation with EU Commission President José Manuel Barroso "urgently" asked for EU observers to be sent to the border.
The course of the land border is also legally controversial. In fact , the fence, erected by Great Britain in 1909 and running some 800 meters north of the north slope of the Rock of Gibraltar, forms the border. This border course is not officially recognized by Spain, since according to the Treaty of Utrecht only "the city and the castle of Gibraltar together with the associated port and the associated defenses and fortifications" were ceded. The disputed area is now largely occupied by Gibraltar Airport. Unlike the question of coastal waters, however, the land border has not given rise to any actual disputes in recent decades. On the Spanish side, however, the de facto border is not referred to as the “border”, but as la verja (“the fence”).
In November 2018, the Spanish government threatened to boycott the EU summit on November 25, 2018. The background was Spain's concern that the signing of the Brexit agreement would fix the UK's borders in their current course. Since the Spanish government continues to insist on its territorial claim, it absolutely wanted to avoid consolidating a claim of the United Kingdom through the agreement. After diplomatic negotiations, the contract was specified on November 24, 2018 in such a way that the Brexit agreement did not create any obligations with regard to the scope. The future agreements between the EU and the United Kingdom would not necessarily have to apply to the areas named in the Withdrawal Agreement. As a result, Spain abandoned concerns about the agreement.
The people of Gibraltar elect the seventeen-member Gibraltar Parliament . Each voter has ten votes. There is no division into constituencies. Since there is an election, the representation of the parties is not necessarily proportional. There are currently three parties in Parliament.
The candidate, supported by a majority, is appointed by the governor as chief minister . In addition to this, the executive also consists of the finance minister and the justice minister.
In the parliamentary elections on December 8, 2011, the Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party (GSLP) received seven seats, while the Gibraltar Social Democrats (GSD) of former Chief Minister Peter Caruana received only seven seats, despite a considerably higher number of votes. The Gibraltar Liberal Party (Libs) has three seats and forms a coalition with the GSLP, so that the GSD is currently in opposition.
The GSLP provides the Chief Minister with Fabian Picardo . All parties are for Gibraltar's self-government. Both GSD and GSLP refuse to enter into agreements with Spain, with the GSLP traditionally being more radical.
Until 2006, the body was called the House of Assembly . The name change in the course of the new constitution should also express the higher degree of independence, as House of Assembly was a name repeatedly used in British colonies. It also had 17 members, but only 15 were popularly elected. Each voter had eight votes, which often resulted in the parties nominating eight candidates asking them to vote. This usually gave the strongest parliamentary group eight seats and the losing party seven seats.
Relationship with the EU
From the perspective of the European Union, residents are not nationals of the United Kingdom (ECJ C-145/04, 2006). There are some special regulations:
- Gibraltar is not part of the EU internal market with regard to the free movement of goods .
- In principle, Schengen law does not apply in Gibraltar as no separate application for application has been made.
- The EU VAT regulations do not apply in Gibraltar.
- Gibraltar does not participate in the common agricultural policy and fisheries policy .
In 2003, the European Parliament (Representation) Act 2003 gave the residents of Gibraltar the right to vote for the European Parliament , even though the citizens were not Union citizens within the meaning of Article 20 TFEU. The ECJ justified this with the close connection between Gibraltar and the United Kingdom. In the European elections, Gibraltar was part of the European constituency of South West England , which had seven representatives (it consisted of the region of South West England and Gibraltar). In the 2004 European elections , 57.5% of Gibraltar’s eligible voters used their new right at the time. This put voter turnout 18.6 percentage points above the UK average.
In the 2016 referendum on whether the United Kingdom would remain in the European Union , 95.9% voted to remain in the European Union (19,322 votes), 4.1% for Brexit (823 votes) - with a turnout of 83.5% . Gibraltar was thus the electoral district with the highest percentage of votes to remain in the EU.
In mid-2014, José Manuel García-Margallo , then Spain’s Foreign Minister in the Rajoy I cabinet , proposed “a British-Spanish co-sovereignty” for the peninsula . This status should apply for a limited period until the British territory is returned to Spain. During this transition period, residents of Gibraltar could remain British citizens and receive a special tax regime. The idea of shared sovereignty was already examined during negotiations between London and Madrid in 2001 and 2002. In a referendum, however, it was rejected by the citizens of Gibraltar. Joseph García, Gibraltar's deputy chief minister, said Gibraltar's position on Spain had not changed after the EU referendum. Think of yourself as British; but the future of Gibraltar lies in the EU.
Gibraltar is considering joining the Schengen area .
The economy of Gibraltar is mainly determined by tourism . In 2017 there were 7.7 million arrivals. In addition to many day tourists, more and more tourists are also staying in the numerous hotels. In addition, offshore finance as well as shipbuilding and ship repair each contribute around 25 percent to the gross domestic product . In fourth place is the telecommunications sector , which accounts for around 10 percent of GDP. A growing part of the economy, the growing number of resettled in Gibraltar international provider of online - Sports Betting - and casinos are in financial year 2011/2012, the gross domestic product amounted to 1,169.37 million £, which corresponded to mid-2012, about US $ 1.837 billion..
The state budget has regularly generated surpluses since 2004, each amounting to between 1.1% and 4.1% of GDP. In the 2011/2012 financial year, revenue of £ 454.6m was set against expenditure of £ 420.3m, which corresponds to a budget surplus of 2.93% of GDP.
In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Gibraltar took 66th place (as of 2018).
From 1886 the “Gibraltar Post Office” was responsible for postal services in Gibraltar. In 2005 the British Queen Elizabeth II awarded him the title "Royal", so that the postal system in Gibraltar is now in the hands of the " Royal Gibraltar Post Office ". This makes the Gibraltar Postal Company the only postal company outside of the UK that has been awarded the title “Royal”.
The Royal Gibraltar Post Office issues its own postage stamps with nominal values in Gibraltar pounds (GIP). Due to their geographical limitations, the “Royal Gibraltar Post Office” stamps are very popular with tourists and collectors. The stamps often have the motif of the British Queen Elizabeth II .
Mail from Gibraltar to other countries (with the exception of Spain) is first flown to London and transported from there to the country of destination. Mail for Spain, however, is handed over to the Spanish post office at the national border . The same procedure also applies in reverse for mail from abroad to Gibraltar. The main post office is at 104 Main-Street.
Gibraltar has its own airport, Gibraltar Airport . It is the only airport in the world whose runway crosses a (four-lane) road at the same level.
Gibraltar is a very important, but in any case the most profitable supply point for marine diesel in the Mediterranean. In 2005, 6,662 ocean-going ships called at the port, 90% of them for refueling.
A total of nine bus routes operate in Gibraltar (lines 1 to 4 and 7 to 9, operated by the Gibraltar Bus Company, and lines 5 and 10, operated by Calypso Transport). Transportation on the Gibraltar Bus Company lines is free for holders of certain ID cards, others pay 2.50 Gibraltar pounds or 3.30 euros for a day ticket. A day ticket on the Calypso Transport lines costs 6 Gibraltar pounds or 9 euros, single trips cost 1.40 Gibraltar pounds or 2.10 euros.
Although Gibraltar is under British sovereignty, due to its small size and its proximity to Spain, right-hand traffic has been in effect here since 1929 .
There is a regular cable car with a stopover from the city center to the Upper Rock .
Winston Churchill Avenue is the only connection to Spain.
Gibraltar culture is strongly influenced by British, Spanish and also Moroccan cultures.
Music bands from Gibraltar include Breed 77 , The SoulMates and No Direction .
The Gibraltar national holiday is September 10th. He is reminiscent of the referendum on September 10, 1967, in which an overwhelming majority of citizens decided to remain with Great Britain. Many houses are decorated with the flag of Gibraltar and red and white balloons. From 1992 to 2015, a balloon was "released into the air" for every citizen on this day; this ritual was banned in 2016 due to nature conservation concerns.
- Henry Francis Cary (1772–1844), British writer and translator
- Michael George Bowen (1930–2019), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Southwark
- Charles Caruana (1932–2010), Roman Catholic Bishop of Gibraltar
- Albert Hammond (* 1944), singer-songwriter and music producer
- John Galliano (* 1960), British fashion designer
- Karel Mark Chichon (* 1971), conductor
- Ava Addams (born 1979), porn actress
- Misha Verollet (* 1981), writer
- Kaiane Aldorino (* 1986), Miss World 2009
- Maroua Kharbouch (* 1990), beauty queen
Gibraltar has its own football stadium, in which all league and international matches are played. On December 8, 2006, the Gibraltar Football Association was provisionally accepted as a UEFA member. A final vote took place on January 26, 2007 in Düsseldorf - there, Gibraltar's application for UEFA membership was rejected. Following a ruling by the International Court of Justice for Sports ( CAS) in August 2011, the decision had to be revised and Gibraltar was re-admitted as a provisional member from October 1, 2012. As a result, Gibraltar was considered as an independent national association in the draws for the U-17 European Championship, the U-19 and the UEFA Futsal Cup . The final admission was decided at the 37th UEFA Congress on May 24, 2013 in London. A meeting of teams from Spain and Gibraltar in group matches is not permitted by executive decision, even as a full member. On November 19, 2013, the national team played their first official international match against another UEFA member in Faro, Portugal . The game against Slovakia ended 0-0. Qualifying for the European Football Championship in 2016 was the first tournament in which Gibraltar played for participation. The first game against Germany took place on November 14, 2014 in Nuremberg and ended 4-0 for Germany.
Similar to the development of the UEFA admission of Gibraltar, the CAS had to decide on the admission of Gibraltar to FIFA . Spain, in particular, resisted membership of Gibraltar, as it did before when it was accepted into UEFA. At the same time, it was argued that Gibraltar was not a free country in itself and that the requirements for admission to FIFA were not met. The CAS ruled that FIFA would have to create all the conditions as soon as possible to allow Gibraltar to become a full member.
Gibraltar's national teams are also fighting for international recognition in other sports. Rugby and cricket have established themselves based on the history of Gibraltar. In cricket, it takes part in the European competition.
The Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) operates its own radio and television station for Gibraltar. The local variant of the British soldiers broadcaster British Forces Broadcasting Service can be received both online and via Eutelsat 10A . There are also various daily newspapers in English and Spanish. The main Gibraltar newspapers are the Gibraltar Chronicle and Panorama .
Gibraltar currently has two twinning partnerships :
- Roy and Lesley Adkins: Gibraltar. The greatest siege in British history , Penguin, New York 2019, ISBN 978-0-7352-2164-2 ,
- Tito Benady: Guide to Gibraltar. 3rd edition, Gibraltar Books, Grendon, Northants 1991, ISBN 0-948466-19-7 .
- Gundolf Fahl: The Gibraltar question - development and legal situation. In: Journal for Foreign Public Law and International Law , Vol. 30 No. 2/3. Beck, Munich 1970, online ; PDF; 5.1 MB). (
- Peter Gold: Gibraltar. British or Spanish? , Routledge, London 2005 (Routledge advances in European Politics, Volume 19), ISBN 0-415-34795-5 .
- Chris Grocott / Gareth Stockey: Gibraltar. A modern history , Univ. of Wales Press, Cardiff 2012, ISBN 978-0-7083-2481-3 .
- Dieter Haller : Living Border Gibraltar - Transnationalism, Locality and Identity from a Cultural Anthropological Perspective. Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag, Wiesbaden 2000, ISBN 3-8244-4407-0 (also habilitation thesis at the University of Frankfurt (Oder) 1999).
- Johannes Kramer: English and Spanish in Gibraltar . Buske, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-87118-815-8 .
- Andrea Neidig: English and Spanish in contact - The Yanito in Gibraltar. A sociolinguistic study. Herrmann, Gießen 2008, ISBN 978-3-937983-14-1 (= Cologne works on language and culture , vol. 1).
- The Gibraltar Government website (English)
- Collection of legislation of Gibraltar (English)
- Website of the Tourist Office of Gibraltar (English)
- Website Gibraltar Museum (English)
- Full account of Gibraltar's history and its monkeys
- Time signal : 04/08/1704 - Occupation of Gibraltar
- Statistical data from the Gibraltar Government of Gibraltar (English), accessed on April 26, 2015 (PDF; 14.12 MB).
- Census of Gibraltar 2001. (PDF; 810 kB) In: gibraltar.gov.gi. Government of Gibraltar, 2001, accessed December 2, 2010 .
- World Guide - Gibraltar. In: intute.ac.uk. Intute, 2009, archived from the original on April 10, 2014 ; accessed on December 2, 2010 .
- Source: UN: World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 28, 2017 .
- Edward G. Archer: Gibraltar, identity and empire . Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0-415-34796-3 , pp. 36 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Gabriel Chow: International and National Shrines. In: gcatholic.org. Retrieved March 10, 2013 .
- Culture of Gibraltar. In: everyculture.com. World Culture Encyclopedia, accessed December 2, 2010 .
- Ulrich Heyn : How Mohammed's heirs created a world empire , PM History # 6/2009, pp. 44–51.
- Data on the history of Gibraltar. In: worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- Peter Gold: Gibraltar: British or Spanish? Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-415-34795-5 , pp. 326 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Peter Gold: Gibraltar: British or Spanish? Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-415-34795-5 , pp. 26 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Antonio Cassese: Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal . Cambridge University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-521-48187-2 , pp. 208 ( Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal in Google Book Search).
- Ben Cahoon: Gibraltar - Chronology. In: worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved December 1, 2010 .
- Gibraltar border delays end amid Spain row. In: bbc.co.uk. BBC , July 29, 2013, accessed August 1, 2013 .
- Agence France-Presse: Gibraltar Slams New 'Incursion' By Spanish Navy. In: DefenseNews. Sightline Media Group, May 3, 2011, archived from the original on July 23, 2012 ; accessed on May 4, 2011 .
- UK Foreign Affairs Committee proceedings.
- La Marina inglesa acosa a naves de la Guardia Civil en aguas de Gibraltar. ( Memento of November 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) on November 16, 2009 in El Mundo , accessed on December 19, 2009. (Spanish)
- theater in front of Gibraltar is expanding ( Memento from August 4, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ), November 23, 2009 in the Kleine Zeitung , accessed on December 19, 2009.
- British arrest Spanish border guards in Gibraltar. Neue Zürcher Zeitung , December 8, 2009, accessed December 19, 2009.
- Leo Wieland: Dispute about Gibraltar: Rajoy and Cameron call EU. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, August 18, 2013, accessed on September 2, 2013 .
- Dispute over British exclave: Spain continues to threaten with Brexit veto because of Gibraltar . In: faz.net . ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed November 24, 2018]).
- Brexit: Spain and EU agree on Gibraltar dispute . In: Spiegel Online . November 24, 2018 ( spiegel.de [accessed November 24, 2018]).
- see: The official UK Yearbook 2005, p. 79 (right column, middle paragraph): "The Territory is within the EU, as part of the United Kingdom Member State, although it is outside the common customs system and does not participate in the Common Agricultural or Fisheries Policies or the EU VAT arrangements. " (PDF; 5.3 MB)
- see also:
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