Protected areas in nature and landscape protection
Protected areas in nature and landscape protection are delimited parts of the landscape or sea / sea areas , the development of which should take place in accordance with the objectives of nature and landscape protection considered worthy of protection and whose use is therefore subject to considerable restrictions. The protection should help to secure the special function of these areas - such as the habitat function for endangered animals and plants - in the long term. The national states define protected area categories, which differ mainly according to the respective national law, protection purpose, legal basis and responsible administrative level. The International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN developed an internationally applied system of protected area categories .
An internationally valid definition is that of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN):
"A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values."
"A protected area is a clearly defined geographical area that is provided, dedicated and managed by legal or other effective means to achieve long-term protection of nature and associated ecosystem services and cultural values ."
This definition is considered a modern and precise formulation of the term. States and other territorial powers orient themselves to this in their regional definitions of a protected area .
The definition of the international Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD, which forms the basis of international law for most of the world's protected areas), “ a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives ”, remains somewhat more unspecific includes the designated areas as well as those equipped with effective regulations.
As a nature reserve areas are designated often that for the preservation of animal and plant life , often for scenic and erdkundliche are characteristics of importance. The aim is to put plants and animal species under protection in their area of distribution. Areas are also designated as nature reserves if they are considered worthy of protection for scientific or natural history reasons, because of their uniqueness or special beauty. In addition to protecting the habitats of threatened animal and plant species (habitat protection) , this often also involves biotopes (biotope protection) , such as moorland , heathland , mountainous landscapes or forests . In addition, there is the protection of cultural landscapes and cultural property (insofar as this relates to environmental / nature conservation issues), as well as the protection of natural resources and conditions that prevent natural hazards .
Originally, when creating protected areas, a distinction was made in matters of nature conservation - as essentially: protection of nature from humans - and environmental protection - as: protection of humans from dangers in nature . Modern concepts no longer consider the two as separate, but rather dependent and interconnected ( biosphere concept ). The protection of natural resources, compared to traditional nature reserves, is becoming increasingly important in the declaration of protected areas. This includes, among other things, traditional use by indigenous peoples who have lived in such protected areas for a long time. Today they are seen as “ecosystem people” who have always helped shape the landscape - without destroying it in the process. This presupposes a changed understanding of the concept of nature , which does not fundamentally see humans as an incompatible opposite of wilderness . Today we know, for example, that the ban on nomadic grazing in steppe regions can lead to a reduction in biodiversity . The adapted human use has led to an ecological upgrade. This also applies to many of Europe's old cultural landscapes .
The concept of protected areas includes those based on public law as well as contracts under private law or voluntary self-commitment: The central characteristic according to the IUCN is a protected area management and an effective effect of the protected area designation, as well as - at least intended - sustainability of the measures.
The fact that great importance is attached to a management plan in modern environmental and nature conservation is due to the fact that in the past numerous protected areas were legally enacted, but without any definition of protection goals and measures, so that they do not constitute an effective means of protection in practice. In many less developed countries it is often unclear whether and to what extent a nominal protected area actually exists as such, or is only an expression of will.
While in Europe the protection of the environment and nature is traditionally seen as a sovereign task, and protected areas are usually prescribed by law, or at least based on subsidies and compensation payments from the public sector, private protected areas are widespread in North America, for example. Here, land is bought by patrons and sponsors in the form of specially established foundations (funds), and with the right of the owner, in accordance with the statutes, refrains from development of any kind, without worrying about state programs. For example, in the US there are 1,500 such areas covering nearly 40,000 km².
In Africa, too, the best-functioning protected areas are partly private large estates.
At the national and international level, the numbers and areas of protected areas are continuously increasing. In EU Europe , for example, 23% of the area is designated as protected areas; worldwide (as of 2005) 114,000 areas are recorded by the UN / IUCN, which cover around 13% of the earth's surface.
There are also large-scale protected areas, so 24% of the area of legal reserves are approximately covered in the narrow sense in the Alps, another major shares by non-specific protection ex lege (about glaciers and high alpine regions as such), and the region completely from the Alpine Convention covers which calls for numerous measures. The focus here is increasingly on the networking of the areas in order to avoid isolated locations of individual protected areas, to bundle and harmonize local efforts, and to promote supra-regional and cross-border corridors.
Databases and classification
The UN List of Protected Areas is the world directory of protected areas maintained by the Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA) and the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Center (as part of the United Nations Environment Program , UNEP) .
The IUCN carries out an internationally standardized categorization of protected areas that relates to the nature of the protected area management. It is overseen by the IUCN sub-organization World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). This system is also used when drawing up the UN list of protected areas .
Global 200 is a worldwide classification of the ecoregions by the WWF, these are dividedinto critical, endangered, vulnerable, relatively stable or intactaccording to their condition and protection requirements ( Conservation Risk Index , CRI). In addition, 19 priority places have been identified.
Internationally regulated protected areas
The protected area projects of the UN are under the leadership of UNESCO :
- Biosphere Reserve (BR, International Guidelines for the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, Man and Biosphere - MAB) → List of Biosphere Reserves
- UNESCO World Heritage Sites ( World Heritage Site , WHS in particular the natural heritage) , today various categories; UNESCO World Heritage Committee) → UNESCO World Heritage List
- Important Plant Area (IPA) of the Convention on Biological Diversity , methodological concept of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation , no new protected area category, is applied to other existing protected areas
- Ramsar area (Protected Wetland , RG), for the protection of various forms of coastal and inland waters, based on the Ramsar Convention
The following are part of the environmental program (UNEP) :
- Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area in the High Seas (EBSA), an emerging program
- Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife in the Wider Caribbean Region (SPAW), for the implementation of the Cartagena Convention for the Caribbean (designation of the areas: Protected Area PA and Wildlife Reserve WR)
Other worldwide categories
There are a number of international categories, including certifications, associations, protected areas under contract law or needs assessments by international organizations that are only partially legally binding (protected areas in the sense of the Convention on Biological Diversity definition):
- Key Biodiversity Area (KBA) - international framework concept for assessment and scientific projects (IBA, IPA, EBSA , AZE , etc.)
- Indigenous and community conserved area (ICCA) - established by the IUCN as important habitats of indigenous peoples in the UNEP-WCMC ICCA Registry performed
- Freshwater Key Biodiversity Area (FWKBA) - IUCN-SSC program under development
- Center of Plant Diversity (CPD) - areas identified by IUCN and WWF with special protection needs for plants (nationally often implemented as the core zone of a protected area)
- WWF nature reserve - own protected areas operated directly by WWF, these are subject to contractual nature conservation(voluntary commitment by the landowner).
- Important Bird Areasand Endemic Bird Areas are areas identifiedby BirdLife with no direct legal protective effect due to the Red List of threatened bird species they maintain. They usually serve as the basis for the national designation of formal bird sanctuaries, such as European bird sanctuaries or SPAW in the Caribbean
European programs for protected areas
The Berne Convention follow:
Natura 2000 , a network of protected areas under Community law:
- FFH area according to Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive (BBG / SCI / SAC; RL 92/43 / EEC)
- European bird sanctuary according to the bird protection directive (BSG / SPA, RL 79/409 / EEC)
The two directives oblige the member states to report areas worthy of nature conservation to the European Commission ( area of Community importance or special protection area ) and to keep them in a national Natura 2000 list . The area after the state of its reporting obligation is to comply is considered proposal for the Community list of EU ( Proposed Sites of Community Importance pSCI). After examination and selection by the EU, they appear on the community list and are called the Site of Community Importance (SCI). Subsequently, those areas are identified in which the protective provisions of the EU directives are to be applied, and these are called Special Area of Conservation (SAC, Special Protected Areas of European Interest ). Special Protection Area (SPA, special protection area BSG) are specifically the protected areas according to the bird protection directive.
Other European protected areas (partly contractual nature conservation, framework, assessment, research or award programs):
- European Biogenetic Reserve - European Network of Biogenetic Reserves, a Council of Europe initiative to implement the Bern Convention
- European Diploma for Protected Areas ( European Nature Conservation Diploma, European Diploma ) - Award of the Council of Europe , five years
- EUROPARC Federation - network of common transnational nature parks
- Areas of the European Landscape Convention - Awarding of a landscape prize by the Council of Europe
- Natural forest reserve (NWR) - research network, supervised at the European Forest Institute (EFI), partly nationally binding classes
- Area of the Alpine Convention - unspecific framework concept
With neighboring regions:
- The emerald network ( emerald areas , Area of Special Conservation Interest , ASCI, special protection area ) is, like Natura 2000 obliged by the Bern Convention, an extension of the EU Natura 2000 concept to include EU associates and acceding countries that do not participate the guidelines are bound, but implement their system voluntarily or in preparation.
- Specially Protected Areas of Mediterranean Importance (SPAMI) - association of European bird sanctuaries with analogous areas of non-members in the Mediterranean
- Areas of the Mediterranean Landscape Charter - unspecific framework concept
National regulations for protected areas
The legally binding protected area categories in Germany are primarily defined in the Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG), but also in the Water Management Act (WHG) or the Federal Forest Act (BWaldG). Areas can be categorized on the basis of their protection purpose and their protection goals, for example according to the size of the area, the natural environment or the presence of species worthy of protection. Essentially, there is always a subdivision into nature and species protection and landscape protection. Nature and species protection includes areas with strict protection status, such as B. National parks, nature reserves and the Natura 2000 network, while landscape protection includes protection categories that have a comparatively looser protection status, such as biosphere reserves, landscape protection areas and nature parks.
International protection categories that apply nationally
- Natura 2000 (SPA / bird protection areas and SAC / FFH areas)
- Ramsar areas
- European Landscape Convention / European Landscape Convention
- Convention for the Protection of the Alps
National protection categories
The Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG) identifies the following protection categories:
- Section 23 BNatSchG: nature reserves
- § 24 BNatSchG: National parks and national natural monuments
- § 25 BNatSchG: Biosphere reserves
- Section 26 BNatSchG: Landscape protection areas
- Section 27 BNatSchG: Nature parks
- Section 28 BNatSchG: Natural monuments
- Section 29 BNatSchG: Protected landscape components
- § 30 BNatSchG: Legally protected biotopes
The following classifications can also be found:
- § 12 BWaldG: Protective forest
- § 13 BWaldG: recreational forest
- Section 51 WHG: Protection of water and medicinal springs
- § 25 BbgNatSchG and § 23 NatSchAG MV: Horst protection zones
At the state level, the regulations made in the federal laws are concretized and regional peculiarities are observed. It can, for example, acc. 30 BNatSchG, in addition to the biotope types legally protected under the BNatSchG, other biotope types are placed under nature protection by the federal states. The protection of forest areas is also regulated separately in the state forest laws, for example in the case of protected and protected forests (Section 32 LWaldG Baden-Württemberg, Section 13 ForestG Hesse, Article 11 BayWaldG Bavaria). For the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, due to their geographical location by the sea, a deepening of the regulations made in § 61 BNatSchG on keeping waters and riparian zones free has been made. In addition, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania have supplemented the protection of habitats of particularly and strictly protected animal and plant species (Section 10 BNatSchG) with what is known as “ nest protection ” (Section 25 BbgNatSchG and Section 23 NatSchAG MV). These are separately designated zones to protect the nests of birds of prey and other large birds, for example eagles, peregrine falcons, black storks and eagle owls.
According to their different definitions and objectives, objects of different categories of protected areas can overlap. Often the z. B. in Natura 2000 areas and nature reserves, however, it is uncommon z. B. between nature reserves and area natural monuments. Changes to the status of an object do not automatically affect the status of an object of another category on the same area, e.g. B. After deletion of a nature reserve, the status of its legally protected biotopes is retained.
The size of a protected area largely determines the extent to which the protective function can be fulfilled. Small protected areas are often more influenced by the environment, as the external borders are relatively long in relation to the area. Large protected areas provide connections between different natural areas and are therefore particularly valuable for flora and fauna. In addition, the habitat fragmentation is counteracted by landscape fragmentation .
With regard to the subject of nature and species protection, it is evident that there is a direct connection with the respective hemerobic levels of land use in the selected regional unit. This means that the proportion of areas that are particularly valuable for nature and species protection is greatest where the predominant type of use is most natural or most close to nature. Conversely, this means that the indicator shows lower values, for example in agglomeration areas or areas used intensively for agriculture.
In 2002, with the amendment of the Federal Nature Conservation Act in Germany, the networking of protected parts of nature and landscape was legally stipulated for the first time. Paragraph 20 of the BNatSchG states: A network of connected biotopes (biotope network) is to be created that should cover at least 10 percent of the area of each country.
Distribution of protected areas
Some of the protected parts of nature and landscape listed in the BNatSchG are published annually as geodata by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN). In the monitor of the settlement and open space development (IÖR monitor), these data are processed to give at different spatial scales information about the amount and location of protected areas in Germany. In the indicators offered, a distinction is made between areas with strict protection status (nature reserves, national parks and Natura 2000 areas) and areas with general protection status (nature parks, landscape protection areas and biosphere reserves).
The distribution of the protected areas in Germany is rather irregular. Naturally, urban (large) cities have fewer protected areas than the rural districts. However, there are also counterexamples, for example the cities of Suhl (100%), Jena (66.9%) and Wiesbaden (65.9%) are characterized by a high proportion of protected areas. In general, regions with a diverse range of natural spaces have above-average proportions; in some cases, districts such as the Oberbergische Kreis and the Olpe district in North Rhine-Westphalia and the Cham and Regen districts in the Bavarian Forest achieve full area coverage (proportion of protected areas 100%). The city states of Berlin (17.4%), Hamburg (29.6%) and Bremen (31.9%) as well as the natural areas on the North Sea coast, including the hinterland and in the foothills of the Alps, have low proportions of protected areas. The district with the lowest value is Rottal-Inn (1.6%) in southern Bavaria. The trend development shows, however, that the share of protected areas in Germany has increased in recent years (see table).
|state||total||Areas of nature and species protection ( national parks , nature reserves , fauna-flora-habitat areas, bird sanctuaries )||Areas of landscape protection ( nature parks , landscape protection areas , biosphere reserves )|
|2015 (all figures in%)||Change compared to 2006 (all figures in%)||2015 (all figures in%)||Change compared to 2006 (all figures in%)||2015 (all figures in%)||Change compared to 2006 (all figures in%)|
|Baden-Württemberg||53.9||+ 7.5||17.6||+ 4.3||36.3||+ 0.3|
|Bavaria||47.0||+ 0.6||11.4||+ 0.1||35.6||+ 0.5|
|Berlin||18.7||+ 1.6||7.6||- 0.1||11.1||+ 1.7|
|Brandenburg||52.7||+ 0.4||26.5||-||26.2||+ 0.4|
|Bremen||31.1||+ 0.1||23.9||+ 0.4||7.2||- 0.3|
|Hamburg||29.6||+ 0.6||11.1||+ 0.7||18.5||- 0.2|
|Hesse||55.2||- 3.8||21.3||+ 0.1||33.9||- 3.9|
|Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania||44.8||+ 7.3||30.2||+ 8.9||14.5||- 1.7|
|Lower Saxony||40.2||+ 3.5||11.4||+ 1.1||28.7||+ 2.4|
|North Rhine-Westphalia||66.1||+ 6.3||11.5||+ 0.9||54.6||+ 5.4|
|Rhineland-Palatinate||60.4||+ 4.2||20.0||+ 2.4||40.4||+ 1.7|
|Saarland||72.5||+ 6.6||12.3||+ 0.3||60.2||+ 6.2|
|Saxony||44.6||+ 1.0||15.8||- 0.1||28.9||+ 1.2|
|Saxony-Anhalt||44.1||+ 1.4||11.8||+ 0.2||32.4||+ 1.3|
|Schleswig-Holstein||34.1||+ 1.4||11.2||+ 0.7||22.9||+ 0.7|
|Thuringia||44.5||+ 7.6||17.1||+ 0.1||27.4||+ 7.4|
|Germany||49.2||+ 2.7||16.1||+ 1.5||32.2||+ 1.3|
In 2010 a total of 1293 large and medium-sized protected areas were designated in Austria . At the end of 2000, 1,277 areas with an area of 17,168.28 km² were under protection. The total area of protected areas of all categories was given in a paper in 1998 as 21,441.75 km², and in 2010 by the Federal Environment Agency as 35,840 km², so that one can assume that the total area of the protected area is covered by about two categories on average. The nearly doubling of the designated areas from 1998 to 2010 is primarily due to the increase in the number of European and UNESCO protected areas, which mostly overlap with an already existing national protected area.
In 2001, 20.5%, i.e. a fifth of the Austrian national territory, were nature or landscape protected. In addition, however, two thirds of the country are in the - not object-related - protection zone of the Alpine Convention .
Legal regulations in Austria
In Austria, the federal states are responsible for the regulations in nature conservation. Therefore, there is a separate nature conservation law (including the associated implementing ordinances) for each country, and no nature conservation or nature conservation framework law of the federal government. The accession to international conventions for the protection of nature and landscape takes place - in agreement with the federal states - by the federal government, which also passes the relevant laws. Only the national parks in Austria are regulated by federal law via individual laws and are based on cooperation between the federal government and the respective states involved ( Section 15a contracts ). The geodata are available from the Austrian geodata network Geoland and the GIS departments of the federal states.
The objectives of the nature conservation laws are
- Protection of the native flora and fauna and their habitats
- Protection of an undisturbed and functional ecosystem
- Protection of diversity, uniqueness, beauty and the recreational value of nature and landscape.
The Austrian state nature conservation laws are:
- Burgenland Nature Conservation and Landscape Management Act (NG 1990)
- Carinthian Nature Conservation Act 2002 (K-NSG 2002)
- Lower Austrian Nature Conservation Act 2000 (Lower Austria NSchG 2000)
- Upper Austrian Nature and Landscape Protection Act 2001 (Upper Austrian NSchG 2001)
- Salzburg Nature Conservation Act 1999 (NSchG 1999)
- Styrian Nature Conservation Act (NschG 1976)
- Tyrolean Nature Conservation Act 2005 (TNSchG 2005)
- Law on Nature Conservation and Landscape Development - Vorarlberg (GNL)
- Vienna Nature Conservation Act 1998 (no abbreviation)
In addition, the are planning laws , hunting and fishing laws , plant protection laws and the like relevant to the federal states, as well as numerous federal laws that indirectly intervene in the matter.
In addition, common EU law and an abundance of international and intergovernmental agreements are relevant for expulsion and protection. Some of these are legally effective, some are declarations of intent and needs assessments that are covered by national protection categories. Access and the implementation of the supranational protection of nature and landscape are carried out by the federal government in agreement with the federal states.
- For the legal bases in detail, see the respective forms of protection.
Protected area categories in Austria
Protected area categories in Austria are:
- International obligations:
- European protected areas : Natura 2000 areas (FFH, bird protection, wildlife European protected areas ) , biogenetic reserves , European diploma areas ; Protected area of the Alpine Convention
- UNESCO: world heritage areas (currently only cultural landscapes, no world natural heritage), biosphere reserves , geoparks , Ramsar protected areas ; IUCN: Wilderness Areas , Important Plant Areas .
- Federal law:
- Garden monuments (Monument Protection Act),
- National parks (individual national park laws NP-G),
- Water protection areas and water protection areas (water law),
- Protective forest and spell forest (forest law),
- Spawning sanctuaries (fishing rights),
- Wildlife protection areas and quiet areas (hunting law)
- Protected caves of the cave cadastre ( natural cave , show cave ; natural cave law)
- State law (nature conservation laws):
- European protected area - implementation of the natura 2000 program under state law, now largely a separate protection category in all federal states
- Landscape protection areas
- Nature parks
- Nature reserves
- protected parts of the landscape
- Natural monuments (property protection of individual phenomena)
- Protected biotopes or habitats - habitat protection is not directly object-related. The following are protected: Rough meadows , wetlands , bodies of water and their banks or surroundings, alpine regions and glaciers . This also includes moors, such as the areas of the moor protection catalog or the Austrian glacier inventory
- In addition, there are various specific provincial protection positions under nature conservation law, such as special protection areas (Tyrol, Sbg., Ktn.), Local protected areas (Vlbg.), Protected natural structures / natural monuments of local importance / local natural monuments (Sbg., Vlbg., Ktn.) , Ecological development areas (Vienna), protected area forest and meadow belt (Vienna), tree protection ordinances (Stadt Sbg., Unspecific property protection), protected green areas (Ktn.), Park protection areas (Vienna), plant protection areas (Vlbg.Bgld, Sbg, Styria), special Cave protection
- In addition to the provisions of state law, various areas are also contractually protected: Such contracts are usually used for the maintenance of nature apart from legal regulations. The natural forest reserves are also protected under private law within the framework of prescribed protected areas .
The legal framework for nature reserves is defined at federal level by the Federal Act on Nature Conservation and Heritage Protection (NHG) of July 1, 1966 and its implementation provisions, regulated in the Ordinance on Nature and Heritage Protection (NHV) of January 16, 1991 . In this law, however, the term “nature reserve” is not defined or even mentioned explicitly. In this law it says u. a .:
- (Art 1) The purpose of this law is ...
- (Art 1.a) to preserve and protect the local landscape and townscape, the historical sites as well as the natural and cultural monuments of the country and to promote their preservation and care; ...
- (Art 1.d) to protect the native flora and fauna as well as their biological diversity and their natural habitat; ...
- (Art 13.1) The federal government can support nature conservation, heritage protection and the preservation of monuments by granting contributions of up to 35 percent towards the costs of the conservation, acquisition, maintenance, research and documentation of landscapes, townscapes, historical sites or natural and cultural monuments worthy of protection ...
- (Art 13.3) The ordered protection and maintenance measures form public property restrictions (Art. 702 ZGB37). They bind the respective landowner and must be noted in the land register when the canton is registered ...
From these statements it can be deduced that state nature reserves are those areas with public property restrictions for the preservation of the native flora and fauna, biological diversity and their natural habitat.
Many areas and biotopes worthy of protection have not yet been subject to such public property restrictions. These areas are listed in inventories. Inventory areas include raised bogs , transitional bogs , flat bogs , amphibious spawning areas , floodplains , dry meadows and dry pastures, etc. or entire natural landscapes ( moorland , floodplain landscapes ) and classify these according to certain criteria into objects of national, cantonal, regional or municipal importance. Inventories are usually binding for authorities. There are also a large number of non-governmental nature reserves ( contractual nature conservation ). These are usually areas in which private nature conservation organizations purchase land to protect nature and keep it as owners. So is z. B. Pro Natura is involved in over 600 nature reserves throughout Switzerland.
Nature reserves are mostly marked with the symbol of the owl throughout Switzerland. This symbol is used to signify areas that are nationally and locally important and protected by public law, as well as ProNatura's nature reserves. This means that the green owl symbol has become a common symbol for nature reserves of all species, which is known throughout Switzerland.
Slovenia is an EU member and also represented in the important international bodies, therefore all international and EU protected areas can be found: UNESCO World Heritage ( Svetovna dediščina , of which the Škocjan Caves are a World Heritage Site), Biosphere Reserve ( Biosferni rezervat, Biosferno območje , UNESCO Man and Biosphere, MAB - 3 areas), Ramsar area ( Ramsarska lokiteta / območje , → list ), wilderness area ( Divjino območje , IUCN), Natura 2000 areas (EU: FFH Spomenik oblikovane narave and bird protection Posebno varstveno obmocje ), European diploma areas ( Evropska diploma , EK, Triglav National Park ).
In Slovenia, the nature reserve (Zavarovano območje) includes those in section 3.3. Section 53 ff Law for the Conservation of Nature ( Zakon o ohranjanju narave - ZON) regulated areas together:
- (Information on number as of March 2012)
There are also the following protection categories:
Naravne vrednot (NV, natural value ): ex lege protection § 4 and Section III ZON and decreed RS 111/2004; it includes geotopes, mineral and fossil sites, karst phenomena, caves, canyons, glaciers and glacial forms, springs, waterfalls, rapids, lakes, moors, streams and rivers, beaches, animal and plant species, habitats, ecosystems, landscapes and landscaped landscapes; around 8000 → overview
- Naravne vrednot so državnega pomena (Natural Value of National Importance)
- Naravne vrednot so local nega pomen (natural value of local importance)
- The natural values, if they are more than 1 km², are referred to as “areas of natural value” ( Območje naravnih vrednot ) and if they are over 1 km they are called “ linear in character” ( Naravnih vrednotah linijskega značaja ) (§ 2 Z. 5 Ul. RS 111 / 2004; addition V)
- Ekološko pomembno obmocje (EPO, Ecologically Significant / Sensitive Area ): Resource management and biodiversity areas according to § 32 ZON and RS 48/2004; approx. 300 (also includes the Natura 2000 areas), → overview
- World Database on Protected Areas , iucn.org
- What is a protected area? , iucn.org → Global Protected Areas Program . accessed March 7, 2014; Literal quote.
- S. Chape, M. Spalding, S. Jenkins: The World's Protected Areas. Status, Values and Prospects in the 21st Century . Ed .: UNEP-WCMC. UNEP-WCMC, 2008, ISBN 978-0-520-24660-7 , section Definitions of protected areas and Table 1.2: Old and new paradigms of protected areas , p. 7th f. resp. 12 ( abstract unep-wcmc.org , with link to EReader archiv.org). Abstract unep-wcmc.org ( Memento of the original from November 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- See the definition of ecosystem services from the methodology of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, where, in addition to ensuring food and water and protection from natural hazards, the natural purification mechanisms as well as recreational value or spiritual and religious values are explicitly mentioned.
- Claudia Notzke: Aboriginal Peoples and Natural Resources Canada. Captus Press, Ontario (CA) 1994, ISBN 1-895712-03-3 , pp. 235ff.
- Ashi Hunger: The Tibetan Nomads, from “Brennpunkt” issue 3, 2011 of the Tibet Initiative Germany .
- Reinhard Piechocki: Landscape - Home - Wilderness. Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-54152-0 .
- For example, only 2 ⁄ 3 of all protected areas recorded by the UN / IUCN are noted with an IUCN category, which can only be determined with existing protected area management. UNEP-WCMC (Ed.): The World's Protected Areas. 2008, p. 15, col. 1.
- UNEP-WCMC (Ed.): The World's Protected Areas. North America. 2008, section: Other forms of protection. P. 184 f.
- UNEP-WCMC (Ed.): The World's Protected Areas. 2008, section: The global balance sheet: how many protected areas? P. 8 ff.
- which corresponds to the IUCN's definition of a “ clearly defined geographical space ” only insofar as it is delimited indirectly via an indication of height or the occurrence of certain biotope classes or landscape elements
- UNEP-WCMC (Ed.): The World's Protected Areas. 2008, sections: Strengthening cooperation between international site-based agreements and Transboundary protected areas, biological corridors, and networks p. 30 ff.
- SPAW - Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife , cep.unep.org
- William Darwall, IUCN Species Program: Freshwater Key Biodiversity Areas: work in progress , undated (PDF, unesco.org/mab)
- Natura 2000 Tirol: What does “Natura 2000” mean? In: topics / environment / nature conservation / natura2000. Tyrolean government, March 15, 2010, accessed on May 29, 2010 .
- European Landscape Convention ETS No .: 176
- Federal Agency for Nature Conservation: Nature Reserves ( Memento of the original from October 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed October 4, 2016.
- see also: List of protected landscape components in Berlin
- maps.ioer.de IOER Monitor. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
- ioer-monitor.de ( Memento of the original from October 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ioer-monitor.de ( Memento of the original from October 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Share of protected areas in Germany . IOER Monitor, as of 2015, accessed on October 10, 2016.
- Peter Aubrecht, Karl Christian Petz: Nature conservation major areas in Austria. An overview . (M-134). In: Umweltbundesamt (Ed.): Monographs . tape 134 . Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85457-571-8 ( Umweltbundesamt.at [PDF; accessed on August 25, 2009] link to abstract).
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- Protected areas , naturschutz.at
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