Landscape protection

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The conservation is a task field of landscape design . He takes care of the issues of nature conservation , environmental protection , the use of natural resources, recreational provision and issues relating to the preservation of monuments . Landscape protection also deals with the preservation of cultural assets such as chapels, with recreational infrastructure (e.g. hiking trails, riding facilities) and with concepts for “ gentle tourism ”.


Mostly for recreational purposes, landscape protection usually focuses on the human use of a landscape. Landscape protection should make this use less harmful to nature and the landscape and continue to guarantee it. Nature conservation, on the other hand, focuses on the preservation of certain threatened species or biotopes.

The protection of a cultural landscape often aims at one or more of the following points:

  • long-term securing of the usability of natural resources,
  • Preservation, development and restoration of performance (including a damaged) natural balance,
  • Preservation or restoration of the landscape ,
  • Preservation and promotion of the recreational suitability of nature and landscape
  • Preservation of cultural and historical features of a landscape including its settlements,
  • Preservation of land use forms, individual monuments, natural monuments , etc.

Landscape protection area

The most important instrument is the landscape protection area . In accordance with the tasks of landscape protection, the protection purposes can be very diverse and require differently strict prohibitions and commands. They are passed in a statute and can range from mere recommendations for agriculture to concrete measures such as reforestation, rewetting and the like. Ä., up to absolute building bans.

Landscape protection areas are mostly designated in landscapes that do not meet the requirements of a nature reserve .


In 1902, Wilhelm II, as King of Prussia, passed the “ Law against the Defacing of Scenic Areas ”. The landscape protection thus had a legal basis. Under the term Heimatschutz there was a broad movement with goals such as protection of the land, folk culture and natural monuments . B. organized in the federal homeland security . The establishment of nature reserves and more "land care" were required, beyond conservation, it was about design through afforestation, plant construction and the like. a. m. This term was coined by Robert Mielke in 1907 .

In the Weimar Constitution of 1919 it was stated in Article 150: "The monuments of art, history and nature as well as the landscape enjoy the protection and care of the state." Since 1920 the Prussian Field and Forest Police Act made it possible to designate nature reserves , which first happened in 1921 in the Neandertal near Düsseldorf. The Lüneburg Heath and the Siebengebirge followed. There were conflicts over the accessibility of private properties (forest, riverside properties) for those seeking relaxation. In 1922 the Prussian Landtag passed the " Law on the Preservation of Trees and the Preservation and Clearance of Riverside Paths in the Interest of Public Health ". The castle park in Berlin light field was under this law for the first protected area in Berlin. By 1933 there were over 400 protected areas in Prussia. In the Nazi state, all landscape protection associations in the Reichsbund Volkstum und Heimat were brought into line . The Reich Nature Conservation Act of 1935 was a big step , even if it was hardly implemented. In the “Proclamation of the Reich Nature Conservation Authority” of 1942 it was stated: “In the Reich Forestry Office , the Nature Conservation Department (Supreme Nature Conservation Authority) will be expanded into a 'Nature Conservation and Landscape Management Department'. Landscape maintenance includes landscaping and landscape protection. "

After the reconstruction, there were new initiatives in landscape protection. The Mainau Green Charter manifesto was signed on April 20, 1961 by 16 people who at that time had a name in the field of nature and landscape protection in the Federal Republic of Germany. The resulting German Council for Land Care is under the patronage of the Federal President. Many local environmental policy initiatives emerged around 1970 .

The landscape protection area as an independent protected area category has only existed since the introduction of § 15 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act 1976. In the international category system of the IUCN , the landscape protection area generally corresponds to category V (protected landscape). Compared to other protected area categories, it has a rather low protection intensity. Because of their number and sometimes considerable size of up to 231,000 hectares (LSG " Bavarian Forest "), landscape protection areas have an important function in the German protection system.

An example of landscape protection was the Alpine Plan adopted in 1972 as a section of the Bavarian State Development Program (LEP), which was adopted as the Recreational Landscape Alps section when it came into force in 1976. The Alpine Plan was drawn up as a preventive concept to prevent over-development, to secure the natural area, to reduce the potential danger from avalanches and erosion and to secure the area for recreation. To achieve these goals, the Bavarian Alpine region is divided into three zones, which, depending on the type, allow or prohibit different infrastructure measures.

See also


  • Kurt Mantel: Landscape protection law in western Europe: the legal possibilities of placing parts of landscape under protection and their effects in states of western Europe. In: Series of publications of the forestry department of the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Volume 10, Bayerischer Landwirtschaftsverlag, 1969.

Web links

Wiktionary: Landscape protection  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. BfN: Landscape Protection Areas. Retrieved May 1, 2020 .
  2. Wettengel, Michael: State and Nature Conservation 1906–1945: on the history of the State Agency for the Preservation of Natural Monuments in Prussia and the Reich Agency for Nature Conservation . In: HZ . No. 257 , 1993, pp. 355-399 .
  3. ^ Gert Gröning / Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn: Landscape and nature protection . In: Diethart Krebs / Jürgen Reulecke (ed.): Handbook of German Reform Movements 1880–1933 . Peter Hammer, Wuppertal 1998, ISBN 3-87294-787-7 , p. 23-34 .
  4. BfN: Landscape Protection Areas. Retrieved May 1, 2020 .