The intellectual, technical, technical and artistic measures that are necessary for the preservation and maintenance of cultural monuments are referred to as monument preservation . Monument protection, on the other hand, encompasses the legal orders, orders, permits, conditions or prohibitions that ensure the preservation of monuments.
The central task is to take stock, view and catalog monuments as evidence of past cultural history , i.e. both protected and protected objects. The monument authorities keep quick entry lists, monument lists or monument registers for this purpose . In addition, there are some monument topographies .
Architectural monuments, ensembles, archaeological sites and parks with which people designed and reflected their environment are part of the cultural heritage of society. Just like artistic creations, inventions and scientific discoveries, monuments are objects of collective memory. It is through them in particular that the political, social and economic developments of the past become clear and can be directly experienced in our living environment. The expressiveness of the monument is linked to its material substance. The buildings to be preserved in their traditional state, together with the historical traces of use and changes, is therefore the first objective of architectural conservation. As historical legacies of human activity, monuments play an identity-creating role in society. The preservation of monuments is dedicated to the task of preserving this legacy of building, soil and garden monuments passed on to the community for future generations and protecting it from damage or destruction. An important prerequisite for the preservation of architectural monuments is that they are used continuously. If a building stands empty for a long time, damage occurs and it is difficult to bring the building back into use. The preservation of monuments advocates such uses and any necessary contemporary structural additions that can be achieved without impairing the historical substance.
From an international perspective, UNESCO and its partner organization Blue Shield are concerned with the definition, inventory, protection and restoration of monuments as evidence of past cultural history. This also applies to military conflicts. For example, "no-strike lists" are created with the support of local experts. It is not enough just to develop international legal norms such as the Second Protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict or the Doha Statement of the “Conference of 'Ulamâ on Islam and Cultural Heritage”. It is necessary to implement and implement these standards effectively globally. It can also be important, despite the partial dissolution of state structures and the very unclear security situation as a result of the wars and unrest, to carry out robust undertakings to protect the monuments and cultural assets.
History of the preservation of monuments
The first country in which a central state authority was established for the preservation of monuments was Sweden . In the founding decree for the Reichsantiquariatsamt of 1630, King Gustav II Adolf decreed that the antiquarians should “ look for and collect all sorts of old monuments and objects that can be used to illustrate the fatherland, primarily all old runic inscriptions [...] both in books and on stones, broken and whole, and note how they are made, carefully research how many there are in each parish, also write down the legends of each stone [...] ”. The first Swedish imperial antiquarian, Johannes Bureus , did not limit himself to recording the runes, but expanded his commission to include historical churches, castle walls and tombs. In 1662 a " decree on old monuments and antiques in the empire " was posted publicly. It is considered to be the first monument protection law in Sweden and perhaps Europe. In 1662, a professorship for antiquities was established at Uppsala University . From 1667 the scientific inventory of cultural monuments began, which was also published. Sweden was at the forefront of monument conservation in Europe.
In 1798 Ferdinand Franz Wallraf became Conservateur des monumens in Cologne under French law , an office that the sub-prefect's circular of April 25, 1807 extended to the protection of monuments in the then Cologne district .
The Athens Charter in 1931 dealt with the basic principles of the restoration and display of architectural monuments. The Venice Charter of 1964 was a milestone in the development of monument preservation .
The "European Architectural Heritage Year" 1975 (officially: European Architectural Heritage Year (EAHY)) is simply the beginning of the socially anchored awareness of monument preservation. Ensemble protection in particular was promoted. In the 1970s, many countries introduced new monument protection laws. In the same year, a monument preservation law was also passed in the GDR. (see monument protection in the GDR )
Since the 1990s, economization seems to have found its way into the preservation of monuments and thus possibly a paradigm shift. This is reflected, among other things, in public opinion and especially in politics. The qualitative discussion of the archaeological and architectural heritage is hardly of any importance.
Preservation of monuments assesses the condition of cultural monuments and decides on any measures to be taken to maintain or maintain them. As a rule, the relevant scientific and technical competence and the financial support are concentrated in the responsible monument authority . The legal framework conditions are the monument protection laws of the federal states. For each cultural monument , it must be decided individually how it can be preserved in the long term. The main procedures are set out in the Venice Charter . However, there is a wide scope for interpretation. The monument conservator and architect Hermann Wirth from the Bauhaus University Weimar says: "The term redevelopment, which is also used in this context, usually has nothing to do with monument conservation."
Renovation is not a monument-specific term and is not mentioned in any of the monument protection laws. Refurbishment does not mean a specific measure. The term has undergone a fundamental change and today generally stands for modernization that goes beyond the preservation of historical monuments.
The main measures of monument preservation are:
Let old age
No or only very little intervention. A common concept around 1800 and 1900, especially for castle ruins, currently mainly used in large industrial plants as controlled decay .
Cleaning and maintenance work on the monument. This includes fastening bricks, grouting, painting windows, etc. This care concept gave the monument preservation its name.
Preservation and securing of the historical and material inventory. The aim of conservation is to preserve the original condition and appearance at the time of the measure and is achieved through cleaning, care or careful consolidation of the historical material (see for example stone conservation ). Another possibility to achieve the conservation of cultural monuments is to protect ground monuments or architectural monuments from decay by means of protective structures. One example of this is the protective structure above the golden gate of Freiberg Cathedral in Saxony.
Measures that serve to secure and maintain the original substance and to restore its original condition and practical value or to renew an original appearance:
- Restoration of the original usability while preserving the original substance. The return to an "original state" is not the aim of a restoration.
- Restoration of a previously existing appearance, based on the original findings.
Recovering a lost appearance of components or entire buildings, sometimes without original findings, on the basis of written and pictorial sources and results of building research. Reconstructed objects are considered new creations and represent an absolutely exceptional situation for the preservation of monuments. They are often no longer cultural monuments (depending on the entry status in the monument lists), but over time they can gain a monument value . In the parlance of the GDR under reconstruction the repair or modernization (regardless of the monument value) was understood.
Relocation - building relocation
Relocation is a building relocation process. During the relocation, the building will be documented, dismantled and then rebuilt in a different location as true to the original as possible. This reconstruction at another point is often an emergency measure in the event of impending total loss. Since a cultural monument derives its monument value to a certain extent from the - also local - historical context in which it was created, the relocated object can lose its official monument protection ; As a rule, it does not lose its monument status as a testimony to a bygone culture .
In some countries, the maintenance of some selected cultural monuments - mostly in public ownership - is the responsibility of the monument authority. This can include long-term planning to restore an approximate historical inventory.
Preservation of monuments usually burdens the owner of the monument and can lead to significant financial obligations. In Germany, for example, the special burden on the monument owner is based on Article 14, Paragraph 2, Clause 2 of the Basic Law, the social commitment of property. This is a restriction on his property.
Soil monument maintenance
The Bodendenkmalpflege deals with archaeological monuments , so immovable or movable monuments that are located in the ground or were, d. i.e. it is the task of special authorities . The preservation of monuments is divided into archaeological preservation and paleontological preservation .
The tasks of the preservation of monuments range from the systematic inventory and inventory (by means of inspections, aerial photo interpretation, building survey , etc.), review of planned construction measures for relevance to the preservation of historical monuments , preliminary investigation ( prospection ), excavations (planned or as emergency excavation in case of destruction by construction measures), restoration and cataloging of salvaged Objects, the scientific processing and publication of the results found up to their presentation.
Building and art monument maintenance
The building and art monument maintenance is based on art history and architectural studies. It occupies a very large area within the preservation of monuments.
The architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel demanded protection authorities for art monuments in the early 19th century. In France , Viollet-le-Duc is considered to be the founder of the stylistic restoration that began around 1830. In Prussia there was the first curator, also known as the monument conservator , in 1843 . In 1850 the Austrian Kk Central Commission for the research and preservation of architectural monuments was founded. It was subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
Baron Charles de Graimberg (1774–1864 / 65?), The “savior” of Heidelberg Castle , is considered to be the first officially commissioned curator, at least in Germany. Thanks to his image publications, further state efforts began in Baden to protect the ruins from further overexploitation.
In 1911, the Central Commission for Research and Conservation of Architectural Monuments in Prussia was converted into the State Monuments Office . This was divided into two areas: an art-historical-technical area, which dealt with the preservation of monuments and a legal-administrative area, which was responsible for the legal basis.
Garden monument maintenance
The garden monuments has been established as a separate field of historic preservation for only a few decades. Legally, like landscape architecture, it is counted as part of the preservation of historical monuments.
Urban preservation of monuments
The monument or the monument ensemble is in a spatial context. The urban development should be considerate of monuments and their surroundings, not to impair its value and effect. This is why cities with large historical buildings have often developed statutes and plans to protect the silhouette, roof and facade design. This can also include the preservation of historical squares and streets. The definition of the course of the building fronts also secures the historical street spaces. One of the instruments for the historical analysis of the city plan is city morphology . In the case of particularly important historical buildings and ensembles, protection zones are required that limit and regulate building in the area. So has z. For example, UNESCO has demanded protection zones for the Cologne Cathedral World Heritage Site from the city of Cologne , or Dresden revokes its status due to certain construction activities.
Urban monument protection serves to protect historical city centers. Through the urban monument protection program , areas in Germany are funded by the federal and state governments in order to bring about the unity between building and urban renovation in selected cities with particularly significant city centers.
Historical building research
The building research is the study of architectural history and the substance of a building. In addition, it provides data for documentation that is independent of the substance. Its goals are to assess the historical value and to gain knowledge for appropriate measures of monument preservation, also in the case of renovation.
Building research is a step-by-step approach, usually starting with a true-to-scale, usually accurate deformation drawing, the so-called building survey . This provides knowledge about the morphology of the building and conservation problems. Another step is the room book , a graphic, photographic and descriptive documentation of the building and its parts. It is important to have a systematic structure that no longer deviates from a level of precision that has once been defined - or is enforced over time, i.e. no longer selects subjectively. Together with the evaluation of archive materials, building research achieves a precise knowledge of the historical value of a building, which is used for upcoming measures and for the pure documentation of data in the archive.
Current situation of the preservation of monuments
The monument authorities in Germany are currently reaching the limits of their ability to act and resilience due to the financially tense financial situation and their staffing levels. Numerous specialist authorities have lost their academic autonomy and their associated independent position in recent years, and some specialist offices have been dissolved. The more civic engagement is required and promoted.
26 resolutions of the Council of Europe deal with various aspects of monument preservation. Implementing the resolutions is proving difficult. Work is currently underway on a common European platform, as the cross-border professional cooperation still leaves a lot to be desired. In April 2006 a European Heritage Heads Forum (EHHF for short) was set up in London at the invitation of English Heritage by heads of monument offices from 23 European countries . It is supposed to meet annually as a common lobby to exchange ideas, organize joint workshops and actions and strengthen and expand existing networks between monument preservation and tourism.
Promotion of the monument preservation idea
The European Heritage Days introduced by the European Union are held every September in order to anchor the cultural significance of monuments in the sense of “living history” in the minds of the citizens. There is a different topic every year.
At the European level there is also a cross-national association with Europa Nostra for the dissemination of the monument protection idea, which organizes the “ European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage / Europa Nostra Awards ” and thus awards the highest distinction for monument protection at European level.
“Every monument is tied to the material substance of which it is made and which makes its existence possible in the first place. It allows us to understand the process of creation and processing of the monument, but also shows the traces of time that has passed since its completion, reports on conversions, changes and functional changes, the fate of the residents and users, and good and bad phases. "
Training, research and teaching in German-speaking countries
Preservation of monuments is the subject of various trades, such as stonemasons and especially in Bavaria the so-called church painters . The profession of restorer is not protected in all federal states, meanwhile an independent chair has been set up in Munich. The profession of self-employed window craftsman specializes in monument- compliant window repairs and only came to Germany from Sweden in the late 1990s. This still young job description is not legally protected in Germany and is passed on from window craftsmen to self-employed craftsmen in related professions. A number of interdisciplinary postgraduate courses have been set up specifically for monument preservation, for example in Bamberg, Hildesheim and Potsdam. The courses in Munich and Dresden have since been abandoned.
- Anhalt University of Applied Sciences : Master's degree in Heritage Management (in German) and Master's degree in Monumental Heritage (in English)
- University of Bamberg : Master's degree in monument conservation
- Technical University of Berlin : Master's degree in monument conservation
- BTU Cottbus : Master's degree in Building and Maintenance and Master's degree in World Heritage Studies
- Technical University of Dresden : Master's degree in monument preservation and urban development
- European University Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder) : Protection of European cultural assets
- Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg : Master's degree in monument conservation
- HAWK Hildesheim : specialization in building in existing buildings / monument preservation
- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT): Master's degree in the restoration of old buildings
- Technical University of Munich : Chair of Building History, Historical Building Research and Monument Preservation
- RheinMain Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences: Bachelor's degree in Building Heritage
- RheinMain Wiesbaden University of Applied Sciences: Master's degree in Building Heritage (from winter semester 2020)
- University of Wismar : Distance learning course, Master Building with Existing Buildings
- Potsdam University of Applied Sciences in the Architecture and Urban Development course in the City | Construction | Culture: Master's degree in building conservation
The preservation of monuments has the status of a minor subject in the German university landscape . According to the Small Subjects Department, there are (as of June 2019) nine independent chairs for monument preservation at eight German universities. In 1997 there were still seven professorships at seven locations.
- Architectural and cultural monuments in Germany
- Building research
- denkmal - fair in Leipzig
- German Foundation for Monument Protection
- German National Committee for Monument Protection
- Europa Nostra Prize
- urban planning
in alphabetical order by authors / editors
- Office of the Lower Austrian Provincial Government Department of Art and Culture (Ed.): On the value of old buildings (Preservation of monuments in Lower Austria, Volume 46; Communications from Lower Austria No. 3/2011). Berger printing company, Horn 2011, OCLC 773014992
- Adrian von Buttlar u. a. (Ed.): Preservation of monuments instead of dummy cult. Against the reconstruction of monuments - an anthology . Bauverlag, Birkhäuser, Gütersloh / Berlin / Basel 2010, ISBN 978-3-0346-0705-6 , p. 146.
- German National Committee for Monument Protection (Ed.): Monuments in Germany - Preservation and restoration of immovable cultural monuments of national importance by the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media. 1st edition. 2003, ISBN 3-922153-14-3
- Hannes Eckert, Joachim Kleinmanns, Holger Reimers: Monument preservation and building research. Tasks, goals, methods. Karlsruhe 2000
- Achim Hubel: Monument Preservation . Reclam, Stuttgart 2006/2011, ISBN 978-3-15-018813-2
- Norbert Huse (Ed.): Preservation of monuments. German texts from three centuries. 3. Edition. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-40544-4
- Burkhard Kunkel: Work and Reformation. Between tradition, preservation and mediation - a challenge for historians, preservationists and restorers . In: Association of Restorers, ed., Reformation works of art researched and restored , Keynote lecture, Wittenberg 2015, Petersberg 2017, ISBN 978-3-7319-0501-1 , pp. 9-14.
- Gert Th. Mader , Michael Petzet : Practical preservation of monuments . Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Berlin / Cologne 1993
- Dieter J. Martin, Michael Krautzberger (eds.): Handbook of monument protection and preservation - including archeology, law, technical principles, procedures, financing . Edited in cooperation with the German Foundation for Monument Protection, CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51778-1 ; detailed review by Jürgen Klebs in: Die Denkmalpflege Volume 63, 2005, Issue 1, pp. 91–95 “Reviews”; 3rd, revised and significantly expanded edition. Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60924-4
- Hans-Rudolf Meier , Ingrid Scheurmann (ed.): DENKmalWERTE. In: Contributions to the theory and topicality of monument preservation. Georg Mörsch on his 70th birthday. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin / Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-422-06903-9
- Hans-Rudolf Meier , Ingrid Scheurmann , Wolfgang Sonne, Ulrike Wendland (eds.): VALUES. - Reasons for the preservation of monuments in the past and present. JOVIS Verlag, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-86859-162-0
- Guenther Ruffert: renovation of architectural monuments . Beton-Verlag, 1981
- Ingrid Scheurmann , Hans-Rudolf Meier (ed.): Real - old - beautiful - true. Time layers of monument preservation . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-422-06653-5
- Erika Schmidt: “Everything stays different. Everything will be as it used to be ” . In: Die Gartenkunst 20 (1/2008), pp. 225–227.
- Urban Design - Visions Alliances Ways = Series of publications Urban Development and Monument Preservation 12. JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2009. ISBN 978-3-939633-74-7
- Clemens Alexander Wimmer : The creative in the preservation of monuments . In: Die Gartenkunst 19 (2/2007), pp. 363–373.
History of the preservation of monuments
in alphabetical order by authors / editors
- Felicitas Buch: Studies on the Prussian preservation of monuments using the example of Ferdinand von Quast's conservation work (= manuscripts on art history 30). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1990, ISBN 3-88462-929-8 . (At the same time: Dissertation at the Technical University of Darmstadt 1989)
- Gabriele Dolff-Bonekämper: The Discovery of the Middle Ages. Studies on the history of the registration of monuments and the protection of monuments in Hessen-Kassel and Kurhessen in the 18th and 19th centuries. Dissertation . Hessian Historical Commission Darmstadt , and Historical Commission for Hesse , Marburg 1985, ISBN 3-88443-149-8
- Michael Falser: Between identity and authenticity. On the political history of monument preservation in Germany . Thelem Verlag, Dresden 2008, ISBN 978-3-939888-41-3
- Wolfgang Götz: Contributions to the prehistory of the preservation of monuments (The development of the preservation of monuments in Germany before 1800) . Dissertation, Leipzig 1956.
- Burkhard Kunkel: "How necessary it is now to pay attention to monuments and their protection" - from collections of antiquities and world cultural heritage: Stralsund's contribution to the preservation of Pomeranian history . In: Pomorze wczoraj - dzis - jutro: Miasta i miasteczka pomorskie. Stargard 2010, pp. 115-131.
- Rita Mohr de Perez: The beginnings of the state preservation of monuments in Prussia: determination and preservation of ancient peculiarities (= research and contributions to the preservation of monuments in the state of Brandenburg 4). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 2001, ISBN 978-3-88462-180-6
sorted by epoch
- Ingrid Scheurmann: Art protection and war memorial maintenance in the First World War . In: Susanne Kähler / Wolfgang Krogel (ed.): The Bear of Berlin. Yearbook of the Association for the History of Berlin . 65th year, Berlin 2016, pp. 87–100
- Adrian von Buttlar, Christoph Heuter (ed.): Denkmal! Modern architecture of the 60s - rediscovery of an era . JOVIS, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-939633-40-2
- Michael Hecker, Ulrich Krings (eds.): Buildings and systems from the 1960s and 1970s - an unpopular legacy? Klartext Verlag, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0679-2
arranged alphabetically according to individual topics
- Werner Coblenz (Hrsg.): Work and research reports on the Saxon soil monument preservation . Volume 14/15, Berlin 1966.
- Empty spaces - dealing with monuments as a process of creating meaning using the example of castles and mansions in Brandenburg = series urban development and monument preservation 14. JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2009. ISBN 978-3-86859-081-4
- Cityscape and monument preservation, construction and reception of images of the city change = series of publications on urban development and monument preservation 11. JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-939633-73-0
- City, space and time, urban development between continuity and change = series of publications on urban development and preservation of monuments 10. JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2008. ISBN 978-3-939633-72-3
in alphabetical order by state
- August Gebeßler , Wolfgang Eberl: Protection and maintenance of architectural monuments in the Federal Republic of Germany . Cologne 1980
- Gottfried Kiesow : Monument preservation in Germany . An introduction . 4th, revised edition. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2000. (1st edition 1982; 2nd, improved edition 1989; 3rd, compared to the 2nd unchanged edition 1995)
- Memorial East -Modern - acquisition and preservation of the built heritage of postwar modernism = Series urban development and heritage conservation 16. JOVIS Verlag, Berlin JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-86859-143-9
sorted alphabetically by title
- Association of state monument preservationists in the Federal Republic of Germany (ed.): The preservation of monuments .
- Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg, Esslingen (Hrsg.): Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg .
- Office of the German National Committee for Monument Protection at the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (Ed.): DENKMALSCHUTZ information. .
- Bundesdenkmalamt (Ed.): Austrian magazine for art and monument preservation . ISSN 0029-9626 ( verlag-berger.at - quarterly; 1947 ff.).
- Bundesdenkmalamt (Ed.): Restorer sheets . (yearly).
- Restoration and archeology. Conservation, Restoration, Technology, Archaeometry (multilingual), appears annually, Volume 1 was published in 2008, Verlag des Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseums - Research Institute for Prehistory and Early History Mainz.
- Restauro - specialist publication for restorers, conservators and preservationists, Callwey Verlag Munich, , restauro.de
- Bundesdenkmalamt (Ed.): Studies on monument protection and preservation . (irregular).
- VDR contributions to the preservation of art and cultural assets: Die Fachzeitschrift des VDR , ed. from the Association of Restorers (VDR) - appears twice a year, as well as other monographs on special topics, restauratoren.de .
- Journal for Art Technology and Conservation (ZKK) has been published since 1987, 2 issues per year, Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, , page from the publisher
- The specialist offices for archaeological monument preservation (Federal Republic of Germany)
- The regional archaeologists in the Federal Republic of Germany
- Federal Monuments Office Austria
- Nike Bulletin - National Information Center for the Preservation of Cultural Assets, Bern, Swiss Federal Office for Culture
- German National Committee for Monument Protection
- ICOMOS International Council for Monument Preservation
- Monument Debates - Background on historical and current debates on the preservation of monuments
- The Heidelberg monument dispute and the historicist design of the Friedrichsbau of the Heidelberg Castle
- Documentation of cross-border German-Czech projects in the field of monument preservation
- KLEKs - the cultural landscape wiki - open geodatabase about monuments a. a. Cultural landscape elements
- Preservation of monuments in Switzerland - useful information about preservation of monuments in Switzerland.
- Venice Charter. (PDF) Retrieved November 20, 2014 .
- Mission Statement Monument Preservation ( Memento of the original from January 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Cf. u. a. Eden Stiffman “Cultural Preservation in Disasters, War Zones. Presents Big Challenges ”in The Chronicle Of Philanthropy, May 11, 2015; Hans Haider in an interview with Karl Habsburg "Abuse of cultural goods is punishable" in Wiener Zeitung on June 29, 2012; Aisling Irwin “A no-strike list may shield Yemen`s ancient treasures from war” in Daily News of January 23, 2017; Rüdiger Heimlich "Desert City Palmyra: Protecting Cultural Heritage Before It Is Destroyed" in the Berliner Zeitung on March 28, 2016.
- Friedrich Schipper: Iconoclasm: The global norms for the protection of cultural property do not apply. In: The Standard of March 6, 2015.
- Corine Wegener, Marjan Otter "Cultural Property at War: Protecting Heritage during Armed Conflict" in The Getty Conservation Institute, Newsletter 23.1, Spring 2008.
- Quoted from: Dolff-Bonekämper: The discovery of the Middle Ages. P. 17, note 28.
- Dolff-Bonekämper: The discovery of the Middle Ages. P. 17, note 28.
- Dolff-Bonekämper: The discovery of the Middle Ages. P. 17.
- Cornelius Steckner: Wallraf as Conservateur des Monumens de Cologne, Wallraf in focus . In: Wallraf's legacy. A citizen saves Cologne . Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud, Cologne 2018, ISBN 978-3-9819709-0-6 , p. 166-176 (258 pp.).
- Eckhart Franz: “Have awe of the old and have the courage to dare to try something new!” The preservation of monuments in the cultural and political concept of Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig . In: 100 Years of the Monument Protection Act in Hesse. History - meaning - effect . Stuttgart 2003, pp. 23-28, ISBN 3-8062-1855-2 . Winfried Speitkamp: Origin and significance of the Monument Protection Act for the Grand Duchy of Hesse from 1902 . In: 100 Years of the Monument Protection Act in Hesse. History - meaning - effect . Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8062-1855-2 . Jan Nikolaus Viebrock: Hessian monument protection law . (= Municipal writings for Hesse ). 3. Edition. W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 2007. ISBN 978-3-555-40310-6 , p. 9, marginal no. 18th
- Kerstin Odendahl : Protection of cultural goods: Development, structure and dogmatics of a cross-level system of standards. Tübingen 2005, p. 395
- "The European Year of Monument Protection in 1975 is still the initial spark for monument preservation in Europe." Europe's building culture is threatened @ nzz.ch, June 4, 2016; “… A broad social trend succeeded in positively turning to historicism, which is a matter of course today.” The European Year of Monument Protection 1975. @ kunsthistorikertag.uni-mainz.de, (33rd German Art Historians' Day 2015); “... the European Monument Protection Year changed the public perception of our architectural heritage.” The legacy of the European Monument Protection Year 1975. Expansion of the combat zone @ db-bauzeitung.de, March 9, 2015; The European Year of Monument Protection begins on January 19: The future of the past @ zeit.de, January 17, 1975; German Association of Cities. Recommendations on the European Monument Protection Year 1975. Cologne, January 1974 (PDF 46.1 kB) @ dnk.de, website of the German National Committee for Monument Protection, accessed on January 21, 2018
- Discussion on the economization of monument preservation (PDF; 0.2 MB)
- Fundamental terms of monument preservation . ( Memento of the original from October 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) Information brochures from the Deutsche Burgenvereinigung e. V., Advisory Board for Monument Preservation 2003
- Dieter J. Martin, Michael Krautzberger: Handbuch Denkmalschutz und Denkmalpflege, Munich 2006, p. 729.
- Karl-Jürgen Krause: Lexicon of monument protection and preservation . Essen 2011, p. 289.
- Karl-Jürgen Krause: Lexicon of monument protection and preservation . Essen 2011, p. 290.
- Michael Petzet: Principles of the preservation of monuments . In: ICOMOS, booklets of the German National Committee , Volume X, Munich 1992, p. 3.
- Dieter J. Martin, Michael Krautzberger: Handbook of monument protection and preservation of monuments . Munich 2006, p. 535.
- denkmalpflege-forum.de ( Memento from January 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 36 kB)
- Bavarian State Office for the Preservation of Monuments: Construction work on monuments. In: Monument preservation information. Munich 2008, p. 7.
- Volker Dittmar: Red card for modern new buildings . In: Fürther Nachrichten , November 1st, 2006. Volker Dittmar: Different view of the house . In: Fürther Nachrichten , November 17, 2006. “Concrete-fogged building constructions?” ( Blog discussion ); Alexander Mayer: Circular Letter from the City Home Guard, No. 15, January 18, 2007. (PDF) p. 5 f.
- special preservation of monuments by the magazine "Das Parlament"
- State Office for the Preservation of Monuments Hesse: Building consultant window in Hesse. Worksheet I maintenance and completion. Wiesbaden 2001/2005.
- Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Rector's Office: Monument Preservation (Master). In: studienangebote.uni-halle.de. Retrieved April 11, 2016 .
- Small subjects: Monument preservation on the Kleine Fächer portal. Retrieved June 11, 2019 .