An object or work “that is considered a testimony to a culture” corresponds to a general definition of the term monument . In the case of a cultural monument, there is also the fact that the object has been given a special “historical value”, possibly also an artistic value. The award of such a monument value and public interest usually lead to the property being officially listed as a historical monument . For cultural monuments, the term monument is also used to simplify matters. Further designations are cultural property or heritage (such as world heritage or cultural heritage ).
Cultural monuments are also considered the memory of a community and are therefore particularly endangered today in the context of modern asymmetrical warfare. The cultural heritage of the enemy is to be permanently damaged or even destroyed. In addition to the national protection of cultural monuments, international organizations (see UNESCO World Heritage , Blue Shield International ) are trying to protect cultural monuments.
Historical origin of the term
In the first half of the 19th century, private antiquity associations came together with the aim of “finding, preserving, explaining and depicting historically or artistically important monuments of the patriotic prehistoric era”. For example, the Royal Saxon Association founded in the Kingdom of Saxony in 1825 for the research and preservation of patriotic antiquities (see also Development of Monument Protection in Saxony ).
The concept of (patriotic) antiquities was split up in the course of the inventory made in the second half of the 19th century . The commissioned inventories of the architectural and art monuments differentiated between the buildings worth preserving ( architectural monuments such as churches, castles, mansions) and the art treasures and artistic monuments worth preserving ( art monuments such as church furnishings, statues and equestrian monuments). This division was not mandatory. In 1900, the first day for the preservation of monuments commissioned the art historian Georg Dehio with the task of creating a Germany-wide manual of all objects worthy of protection, the manual of German art monuments .
In 1902, the Grand Duchy of Hesse passed the law on monument protection, the first German codified monument protection law. In addition to the sections dealing with monuments and architectural monuments owned by private individuals , it also introduces the concept of natural monuments . In 1919 the Weimar Constitution described the scope and division of monument protection as follows: "The monuments of art, history and nature as well as the landscape enjoy the protection and care of the state."
The term cultural monument only appears later, for example in the full title of the Saxon Heritage Protection Act , which was passed in 1934 and was created in the Weimar period from 1926: Act for the protection of art, cultural and natural monuments , which means that cultural monument probably covers the conceptual scope of the monument of history from the Weimar constitution assumed.
The GDR anchored the concept of cultural monuments in 1952 with the republic-wide ordinance on the preservation and care of national cultural monuments , but abolished it as early as 1961 with the ordinance on the care and protection of monuments , as this was based on a different national cultural concept after the building of the wall ( see also monument protection in the GDR ).
Use of the generic terms cultural monument and monument
In contrast to the general German usage, which describes evidence of past cultural history all over the world as a monument , cultural monument or cultural asset and distinguishes it from natural objects worth preserving ( natural monument ), the legal German term cultural monument is only defined in ten of the sixteen German state monument protection laws and used while the other six use the term monument . Since the field of culture is not federal law, cultural monuments are not defined throughout Germany by a monument protection law. The sciences in the field of monument preservation use the term in the sense of common parlance, without legal country subtleties.
The term cultural monument connects culture to nature , as in cultural property , with monument . How it can be distinguished from the memorial that was created to commemorate a person or an event without further explanation . In this sense, cultural monument can serve as one of the two generic terms, at least for the material-related evidence of past cultural history.
The Czech Republic still uses the term in National Cultural Monument ( Národní kulturní památka ) , there is also Monument Kulturore in Albania . Many countries use other terms, see Foreign Language Names for Monuments of Past Cultural History .
Conservation use like monument
According to a count by the National Committee for Monument Protection at the beginning of 2008, there were 748,105 architectural monuments and 565,696 ground monuments. Exact figures cannot be given, however, because according to the different laws of the German federal states, objects can certainly be monuments, even if they have not been recorded as such. On the website of the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media , responsible for monument protection and preservation , these figures are given as follows: “Experts estimate that there are around 1.3 million cultural monuments in Germany: from individual monuments to entire historic city centers.” At this point the nationwide funding program " Nationally valuable cultural monuments " is presented: "to support the preservation of architectural monuments, archaeological sites and historical parks and gardens that highlight national events or the development of German cultural landscapes in an outstanding way ." In connection with the National Committee however, the term “architectural heritage” is used and it is pointed out that the measures presented serve to restore “nationally important architectural monuments”.
The German Foundation for Monument Protection uses about half the term cultural monument , the other half monument . Subdividing or classifying types of monument are used independently of state legal provisions, as is appropriate and professional.
According to monument law definition of cultural monument in Germany
Cultural monument as a generic term is used in the long titles of the following German monument protection laws : Law on the Protection of Cultural Monuments (Baden-Württemberg), Law on the Care and Protection of Cultural Monuments (Bremen), Law on the Protection of Cultural Monuments (Hesse), State Law on Protection and Protection Maintenance of cultural monuments (Rhineland-Palatinate), law for the protection and care of cultural monuments in the Free State of Saxony , law for the protection of cultural monuments (Schleswig-Holstein) and Thuringian law for the care and protection of cultural monuments . Four of the 16 German state law titles name the protected object monument , while another five state laws use the term monument protection in the law title .
In the legal texts themselves, the ten monument protection laws of Baden-Württemberg, Bremen, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein and Thuringia use the generic term cultural monument , while the six federal states of Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and North Rhine-Westphalia use the generic term monument .
Austria uses the generic term cultural monument not but lies down in the federal law on the protection of monuments because of their historical, artistic or other cultural significance to Memorial firmly.
The technical terms formed according to the type of monument ( architectural monument , ground monument ) are not used equally in the monument laws in all German federal states. In some cases, the defining subdivision terms of the monument categories are also taken from the corresponding specialist sciences: While no separate monument category is mentioned in Baden-Württemberg, Saxony names nine different object types for the monument objects, all of which come from the corresponding specialist sciences.
Overviews of monuments in German-speaking countries
- Cultural monuments in Germany
- Lists of listed objects in Austria
- Swiss inventory of cultural assets of national and regional importance , collection of cultural assets and listed objects in Switzerland
- Lists of listed objects in East Belgium
- Lists of architectural monuments in South Tyrol
- Bauwacht - Interest group of monument owners
- Federal working group of independent monument and old building inspection services in Germany
- Virtual Library Museums: Museum Law, Protection of Cultural Property, Monument Protection ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- KLEKs - the cultural landscape wiki , geodatabase with touristically significant monuments
- Website of the German Foundation for Monument Protection
- Database " KuLaDig " of the Rhineland Regional Association with information on cultural assets in the Rhineland and Hesse
- LWL-GeodatenKultur , information system on the Westphalian-Lippian cultural landscapes with spatially relevant data on the cultural heritage.
- Kulturdenkmal, das. In: Duden , accessed on October 3, 2012.
- this Isabelle-Constance v. Opalinski: Shots at civilization . In: FAZ from August 20, 2014. Hans Haider: Abuse of cultural goods is punishable . In: Wiener Zeitung of June 29, 2012.
- Rosemarie Pohlack: Diversity and values of the Saxon monument landscape .
- Richard Steche , Cornelius Gurlitt : Descriptive representation of the older architectural and art monuments of the Kingdom of Saxony . 41 vols., Meinhold, Dresden 1882–1923.
- Georg Dehio: Handbook of German Art Monuments. Volume I. Central Germany . Berlin 1905, p. III.
- The constitution of the Weimar Republic
- Message from the German National Committee for Monument Protection in Monument Protection Information 1/2008, p. 5.
- Monument protection and building culture ( Memento of the original from October 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
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