from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Xanten
Map of Germany, position of the city of Xanten highlighted

Coordinates: 51 ° 40 ′  N , 6 ° 27 ′  E

Basic data
State : North Rhine-Westphalia
Administrative region : Dusseldorf
Circle : Wesel
Height : 22 m above sea level NHN
Area : 72.43 km 2
Residents: 21,607 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 298 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 46509
Primaries : 02801, 02802, 02804
License plate : WES, DIN, MO
Community key : 05 1 70 052
City structure: 6 boroughs

City administration address :
Karthaus 2
46509 Xanten
Website : www.xanten.de
Mayor : Thomas Görtz ( CDU )
Location of the city of Xanten in the Wesel district
Bottrop Duisburg Essen Krefeld Kreis Borken Kreis Kleve Kreis Recklinghausen Kreis Viersen Mülheim an der Ruhr Oberhausen Alpen (Niederrhein) Dinslaken Hamminkeln Hünxe Kamp-Lintfort Moers Neukirchen-Vluyn Rheinberg Schermbeck Sonsbeck Voerde (Niederrhein) Wesel Xantenmap
About this picture

Xanten [ ˈksantən ] is a middle district town in the district of Wesel . It is located in the northwest of North Rhine-Westphalia on the Lower Rhine . In the immediate vicinity of the city center there was a Roman legion camp, Vetera and the Colonia Ulpia Traiana about 2000 years ago . The Colonia , however, was destroyed around 275 AD.

In the early Middle Ages a new settlement was built above the old Roman cemetery, later Xanten with the monastery and then the St. Viktor Cathedral (8th century). The legendary origin of the settlement is a martyr's grave. So it was ad Sanctos , Latin for “with the saints”. This explains the name. In the Nibelungenlied , Santen is mentioned as the alleged birthplace of the hero Siegfried. That is why Xanten markets itself as a Roman , Cathedral and Siegfried City .

In 1977, the Xanten Archaeological Park (APX) opened on part of the former Colonia. In the meantime it has been greatly expanded and now also houses the LVR Roman Museum . In addition, two quarry ponds between the park and the Rhine became the Xanten leisure center (Xanten North Sea and Xanten South Sea). In 1988, Xanten became the first state-approved resort in the Düsseldorf administrative region and, from 2014, a climatic health resort .


Location of the districts of Xanten

Xanten is located at 51 ° 39 '44 "north latitude and 6 ° 27' 14" east longitude in the Lower Rhine Plain 35 km northwest of Duisburg .

The localities belonging to the city of Xanten are divided into the six city districts of Birten , Lüttingen , Marienbaum , Vynen / Obermörmter , Wardt (with Mörmter and Willich ) and Xanten (with Beek and Ursel ). The village of Xanten itself is further divided into the three districts of Hochbruch, Niederbruch and the actual town center of Xanten, the village of Birten in Ober- and Unterbirten.

In the northeast, the urban area is bounded by the Rhine . Between this and the village of Birten, the Xanten Old Rhine , a meander only connected to the Rhine via the Göt moat , separates the Bislicher Insel nature reserve from the rest of the city and forms the basis of the floodplain landscape there . Located between Birten and Xanten, the Fürstenberg , which is partly under nature protection, is one of the few elevations in the otherwise mostly flat urban area. This continues over a narrow, partly wooded chain of hills over the Hees forest and the Grenzdyck nature reserve to what is known as Sonsbeck Switzerland, southwest of Xanten. This ridge was created, a section of the Lower Rhine ridge as a terminal moraine in the Saale Ice Age .

Northwest of Xanten, only separated from the city center by the city park, is the Xanten Archaeological Park , and to the north is the village of Lüttingen. To the northeast, bordering the Rhine, it lies directly on the Xanten South Sea , a lake created by gravel excavation. This is connected to the Xanten North Sea via a narrow canal , which was also created by excavating gravel. The village of Wardt is located on an "island" between the Rhine on the northeast and the two lakes including the canal on the southwest, and thus in direct proximity to the Xanten leisure center . To the northwest of the Xanten North Sea lies the village of Vynen. Following the course of the Rhine to the north are the village of Obermörmter and the nature reserves Gut Grindt and Rheinaue as well as Reeser Schanz . Located west of Vynen, the Uedemer Hochwald begins in the vicinity of Marienbaum . The farmers Mörmter , Ursel and Willich lie between Marienbaum and Xanten .

Xanten is the only city in Germany whose name begins with an X.

Neighboring communities

The Xanten urban area is bounded by the city of Rees ( Kleve district ) in the north, the city of Wesel in the east, the communities of Alpen and Sonsbeck in the south and the cities of Uedem and Kalkar (both Kleve district) in the west.


Early history

The first evidence of human life in the urban area are antler hooks found in the Obermörmter area, which date from the end of the Mesolithic period. Neolithic graves, stone tools and pottery products were found in the city ​​center, and Neolithic axes in the villages of Wardt and Vynen. Bronze Age swords, daggers and decorative needles were discovered in Lüttingen, Wardt and Vynen. The earliest traces of permanent settlement can be found on the site of the Archaeological Park and come from the Iron Age .

Roman settlement


Location of the Vetera legionary camp and the Colonia Ulpia Traiana

13/12 BC The Roman legionary camp Vetera was founded on the Fürstenberg near Birten . It was supposed to serve as a starting point for campaigns into Germania on the right bank of the Rhine and was occupied by 8,000 to 10,000 legionaries until it was destroyed during the Batavian Uprising in AD 70. After camp Vetera I was destroyed, a second camp, Vetera II , was built near it .

The first civilian population in the Xanten area that can be identified by name were those in the year 8 BC. Sugambrians resettled to the left bank of the Rhine . Their settlement not far northwest of the Vetera I was later to develop into a town inhabited by 10,000 to 15,000 Romanized Gauls and Teutons as well as former legionaries and their relatives. The Roman Emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus raised it to Colonia around 110 AD and gave it the name Colonia Ulpia Traiana . The branch developed into the second most important trading post in the province of Germania inferior after Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (the city of Cologne ). According to a Latin inscription, visitors from the Netherlands also came to the city for festivals. In 275, Ulpia Traiana was almost completely destroyed by the Franks . Around 310 a new town called Tricensimae was built in the area of Ulpia Traiana , which was smaller but better fortified and easier to defend. At the beginning of the 5th century, however, the incursions of Germanic tribes increased so much that the settlement was finally abandoned. The youngest Roman coin found in the area of ​​the ancient city was dated around 426.


Roman arena, in the background the cathedral of Xanten

Creation of the Viktorstift and the city of Xanten

In the 5th century, Chattuarian Franks began to settle in the area.

In 590, Gregor von Tours mentioned in his work “Liber in gloria martyrum” the establishment of an oratory by the Cologne bishop Everigisil near the village “Bertuna” in honor of St. Mallosus . Although "Bertuna" can be equated with the district of Birten, the chapel does not necessarily have to have been built in Birten, so that it was erected over the burial ground south of the former Colonia in the city center, where the construction of several cellae memoriae until the 4th century can be proven could, appears most likely. Gregory of Tours also reported that the bones of Mallosus were only recovered after the chapel was built and buried inside, and that the bones of Viktor von Xanten were also buried near Bertuna, but have not yet been found.

The Viktorstift within Xanten in the 15th century

From 752 a Carolingian church can be found in the city center, around which a monastery in honor of Victor was laid in the second half of the 8th century , whose presumed bones were therefore already recovered and buried within the previous buildings. In the belief that the monastery would be erected over the grave of Viktor and his legionaries, the church and monastery were called ad Sanctos (German: with the saints ). Only after the founding of the monastery did the town center develop to the south, which was particularly populated by Franconian and Frisian traders and to which the name of the monastery was transferred to Sanctos . Already 967 was from Xanctum become, 1144 Xantum , although also Santen has retained as the name of the city until the 18th century as well as the Rhineland dialect word still to this day. Since Xanten was built above the former Colonia cemetery, the ruins of the former city remained undeveloped, but were almost completely removed and used or sold for the construction of new buildings.

At the end of the 9th century, Xanten was hit several times by the raids of the Vikings in the Rhineland with its Viktorstift, which is important for its property and church treasures . In 863 they wintered on Bislicher Insel , destroyed the Carolingian church, which had meanwhile been replaced by a three-aisled church, and in 880 pillaged the village of Birten.

In 939 troops under King Otto I defeated Franconian , Saxon and Lorraine troops under Henry I in the Battle of Birten . Together with the Battle of Andernach in the same year, this sealed the affiliation of the Rhineland to the Empire of Otto I.

At least since the appointment of the Archbishop of Cologne Brun as Duke of Lorraine in 953, Xanten was under the authority of Cologne. At the end of the 10th century, a fortified residence for the Archbishops of Cologne, the Bishop's Castle, was established in the west of the Stiftsimmunität, of which only the foundation walls remained. In 1096, Archbishop Hermann III. von Hochstaden took refuge in the bishop's castle for some Jews during the German Crusade , but ultimately preferred suicide to avoid the crusaders.

Coins were minted in Xanten by the beginning of the term of office of Cologne Archbishop Hermann II . The oldest surviving coins from the years 1036 to 1056 bear the legend SCA TROIA , justified by the place name Troiae Minoris , which was also used at that time , which probably goes back to the Colonia Ulpia Traiana, but also gives rise to a legend about the founding of Xanten by the Trojans gave. Between 1216 and 1225 coins with the inscriptions SANTUS VICTOR and MON [ETA] DE SANTEN were made . Coins minted around 1260 finally bore the legend SANTEN CIVI [TATIS] .

Xanten was mentioned in 1122 as part of a commercial network on the Lower Rhine , shortly afterwards the Hagenbusch monastery was founded as one of seven monasteries that existed in the city until secularization .

On July 15, 1228 Archbishop Heinrich von Molenark granted Xanten city ​​rights one day after Rees as the oldest city in the Lower Rhine , primarily to underline his territorial claims against the Counts of Kleve . On August 29, 1263, Friedrich von Hochstaden laid the foundation stone for the construction of the Gothic St. Viktor Cathedral , which was finally completed after 281 years and became the center of the Lower Rhine archdeaconate .

Development of the medieval city

The Kriemhildmühle in Xanten

In contrast to the monastery, which had long been fortified with walls and ditches, Xanten was largely unfortified; the wooden palisades initially laid out could not prevent the occupation of Xanten in the War of the Geldr Succession in 1372. After Xanten had been pledged from 1322 to 1331 to the Counts of Kleve , who also had bailiff's rights over the monastery and the Fürstenberg monastery founded in 1116, Xanten , in addition to Rees , the rule of Linn and Rheinberg in particular, was the reason for three leading to the end of the 14th century Wars between Count Adolf I of Kleve and Cologne Bishop Friedrich III. von Saar Werden , who tried to consolidate and expand his worldly influence on the Lower Rhine. Only now, starting in 1389, was Xanten fortified on an almost rectangular area of ​​almost 25 hectares with a wall up to eight meters high (construction time around 60 years), four double gates as well as 18 towers and small gates. While the Rhine in the northeast and marshy terrain in the south and west offered additional protection, the northern fortification was reinforced with the Klever Tor and a round tower used as a Kriemhildmühle . During the Linner feud , Friedrich III. In 1392 Linn and Rheinberg finally won over, but lost Rees and the northern part of Xanten to Adolf I. The central gate , which was built in 1392 and connected to the sea gate via a battlement, testifies to the division of the city .

After the Agnetenkloster Xanten was founded by Franciscan nuns in 1402 , the Marienbaum district rose to become the oldest pilgrimage site in the Lower Rhine between 1430 and 1441. In 1460 a Birgitten monastery was built there , whose abbey church of St. Mary of the Assumption serves as the parish church.

With the beginning of the Soest feud in 1444, the southern part of Xanten also fell to the dukes of Cleves. In the following period the population of Xanten sank due to multiple wars and bad harvests from 5000 at the beginning of the 16th century to the end of the 18th century to about 2000. The relocation of the Rhine, on which the city had been located until then and which was the basis of the Xantener Handels, destroyed the village of Birten several times . It also led to a deterioration in the economic situation of the city, which at the beginning of the 14th century still had 14 guilds and now gradually sank into economic insignificance.

Modern development

The Protestant church on the market

In 1572 a Protestant congregation was established in Xanten , which, however, until the 20th century belonged to just under five percent of the population; by the beginning of the 21st century the community had grown to 20 percent. In 1547 an evangelical congregation had already emerged in the Mörmter district , which led to two separate Reformed parishes by 1811. When Xanten fell to the Electors of Brandenburg after the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute as part of the Duchy of Kleve with the Treaty of Xanten , the Evangelical Church was put on an equal footing with the Catholic Church , in 1647 a church was built on the Great Market and in 1662 with a steeple expanded. The Jesuit monastery in Xanten was founded in 1609, and in 1628 Carthusians moved their monastery from Wesel to Xanten and founded the Xanten Charterhouse . On the east side of the market, today the location of the town hall, originally stood the Capuchin monastery , built after 1629. After the secularization , the buildings were used for school purposes, parts of them fell into disrepair or were demolished. In 1877, the Royal Teachers' Seminar was opened in the converted rooms of the former monastery . From 1923 to 1934, the "Kriemhildschule", a state advanced school for girls, was housed here.

During the Eighty and Thirty Years' War , Xanten was occupied by Spanish troops in 1598 and again in 1614 , and by Hessian troops in 1641 , and some of it was defused. During the Franco-Dutch War , French troops conquered the city in 1672, and during the War of the Spanish Succession , Xanten was occupied again and partially destroyed.

In 1794 French revolutionary troops conquered the city, which was then annexed by France along with the entire left bank of the Rhine . From 1798 Xanten became the administrative seat of a canton in the Arrondissement de Clèves of the Département de la Roer , which in addition to Xanten also included the Mairien Büderich , Labbeck , Marienbaum , Sonsbeck , Veen and Wardt . In 1802 Napoléon Bonaparte had the Viktorstift secularized and the libraries of the abolished monasteries combined with the Xanten Abbey Library . When the former members of the monastery ceased to be wealthy buyers, the economic situation deteriorated again. For cost reasons, 1821 was Marstor , 1825 Scharntor and much of the city walls demolished.

As a result of the Congress of Vienna , Xanten came back to Prussia from 1814/15 , where the city was assigned to the Rheinberg district on April 23, 1816 as part of the Prussian administrative organization , which was merged with the Geldern district in 1823 . From 1857 to 1975 Xanten was finally affiliated to the newly founded Moers district. The ruins of Colonia Ulpia Traiana first aroused the interest of archaeologists at this time, so that excavations were carried out between 1819 and 1844 and again at the beginning of the 20th century. The former Roman military sites of Vetera were also examined during this period.

Although 45 percent of the population worked in the manufacturing industry in the 19th century and the settlement of smaller textile manufacturers, schnapps distilleries and beer breweries ensured a modest economic upswing, Xanten remained largely agricultural. Tradespeople in Xanten limited themselves primarily to the further processing of agricultural products, as evidenced by the Kriemhildmühle, originally used as an oil mill, now as a grain mill, and the steam grain distillery built in 1853. In 1885 there were 3,621 residents in Xanten.

The Xanten ritual murder accusation caused a sensation throughout Germany in 1891/92 and led to a lasting downsizing of the Jewish community of Xantens. After the body of a boy with a severed throat was found on June 29, 1891 and the Jewish butcher Adolf Buschhoff was suspected and later charged with the criminally untenable charge of anti-Christian ritual murder , there were serious anti-Semitic attacks in the city. As a result, the number of members of the Xantens Jewish community decreased from 80 in 1890 to 46 in 1895 and 14 in 1925.

From 1922 there was another monastery in the city, the Mörmter monastery , which existed until 2007. In September 1927 the Catholic parish celebrated its 1,600th anniversary. At the same time, Walter Bader , among others, carried out excavations under the Xanten Cathedral , during which two martyrs' graves were finally discovered and integrated into the newly constructed crypt . 1937 awarded Pope Pius XI. the St. Viktor Cathedral the title of a minor basilica .

National Socialism in Xanten

The time of National Socialism began in Xanten in 1933, when the then mayor Heinrich Wegenaer was charged with alleged nepotism in credit transactions and locked up in the sea ​​tower . His successor was Friedrich Karl Schöneborn, while the post of deputy mayor was from now on by Heinrich Prang jr. should be clothed. Prang had founded the Xanten local group of the NSDAP as early as 1925 . When the local faction of the Center Party was subsequently dissolved, three of the former eight faction members of the NSDAP joined them. This made the remaining opposition unable to act.

In the following the history of the city was increasingly instrumentalized as the birthplace of Siegfried from the Nibelungenlied in the sense of the national socialist ideology. In the post-war period, the planned erection of a Siegfried memorial was rejected, particularly with regard to this claim.

The unsolved murder of 1891 had already led to ongoing anti-Jewish legends before 1933 and was taken up again in a special issue in 1934 by the anti-Semitic newspaper Der Stürmer ; At that time, the Jewish community of Xantens only had eight members, which in turn was exposed to attacks. The destruction of the prayer room on Scharnstrasse and the devastation of several apartments in the area of ​​Orkstrasse and Scharnstrasse during the Reichspogromnacht should be emphasized . After these events, the entire Jewish population fled Xanten. The Xanten Jewish cemetery in front of the city remained largely unscathed.

Xanten in World War II

Soldiers of the 15th (Scottish) Division crossing the Rhine during Operation Plunder

During the Second World War , the Luftwaffe set up the Luftmunitionsanstalt 2 / VI in a wooded area near the city, the Hees , which also produced torpedoes for use by the Luftwaffe in the Mediterranean. Initially almost exclusively citizens of Xanten worked there, but in the course of the war more women and children, but above all foreigners, were used for forced labor . On November 20, 1942, 43 people, including two women, were killed in an accident in workhouse 4. A memorial service for these victims was held on November 25, 1942. 23 of them, including one of the women, were buried in the war cemetery in Xanten, the others were transferred to their hometowns. A memorial stone for these dead is located in the Hees on the former site of the ammunition plant. Another explosion in the Hees Air Force Ammunition Plant on October 6, 1944 killed 35 soldiers. The dead were buried in three collective graves. The pressure wave is said to have been felt in the city center. In May 1940 the 256th Infantry Division was relocated to Xanten in order to take part in the impending invasion of the Netherlands .

When Allied troops approached Xanten in February 1945 , Mayor Schöneborn left the city; Almost the entire city administration fled with him to Herbede . The Xanten cathedral builder Johann Schüller was also killed in the bombing raid on February 10 and February 13, 1945. Whole families were wiped out in the bombing raids. Ten members of the Merissen family died in the attack on February 13. On February 21, a bright winter day, the Xanten Cathedral sank into ruins, the north tower collapsed. A bombing raid on February 25 resulted in further casualties and destruction. On March 8, 1945, Xanten was taken by Canadian troops . The Canadian military claims to have lost 400 soldiers in the fight against the defending paratroopers of the Wehrmacht . The city, 85 percent of which had already been destroyed by this point, was then occupied by British troops and the population evacuated to Bedburg-Hau in preparation for crossing the Rhine near Wesel . Artillery shells fired by Wehrmacht units on the right bank of the Rhine also devastated Xanten during this time. When the Rhine crossing and the conquest of Wesel in the course of Operation Plunder on 23/24. March 1945 succeeded, the Second World War in Xanten was over. The population had fallen from 5,030 in November 1939 to around 2,500. In April, the British appointed a provisional mayor, who began to set up a provisional administration.

Xanten since 1945

The reconstruction of Xanten and the detailed reconstruction of the cathedral, which could only be realized by the archaeologist and monument protector Walter Bader , lasted until 1966. Due to refugees from the eastern regions , the population rose by almost 40 percent during this time.

On July 1, 1969, as part of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia, the municipality of Birten of the Alpen-Veen office and the previously independent municipalities of Marienbaum and Wardt were incorporated into the city of Xanten. The area of ​​the city increased from 8 km² to 72 km², the population from around 7,000 to 16,000 inhabitants. In addition to the poorly developed industry, agriculture remained the economic basis. After the dissolution of the district of Moers , Xanten was assigned to the newly founded district of Wesel in 1975 .

From September 1971 to November 1989, the Belgian 59th Squadron of the 9th Missile Wing was stationed as part of the NATO air defense in a barracks built on the edge of the Hees forest . The associated launching area was in the ridge of Sonsbeck Switzerland, a radar station was located at Marienbaum. In 1997 the former barracks was converted into a residential complex with 43 publicly funded rental apartments.

Since Xanten was the only former Roman settlement north of the Alps that was not built on the site of the Colonia , but rather over its cemetery, the Archaeological Park Xanten was opened in 1977 as a partial reconstruction of the Roman Colonia Ulpia Traiana and made accessible for tourism. Various historical buildings in the Xanten town center were also restored and the Xanten leisure center was opened in 1982 on the Xanten South Sea and Xanten North Sea , two lakes connected by a canal near the villages of Wardt and Vynen . On November 28, 1988, Xanten, which was visited by around 800,000 tourists in the same year, was the first city in the Düsseldorf administrative region to receive the title of a state-recognized resort .

On January 1, 2010, Xanten was elevated to a middle district city . It has also been a state-approved climatic health resort since 2014 .


In 2002 the city in 6276 living in Xanten counted compulsory insurance 699 unemployed and employed 3708 in Xanten to social security, of which 104 (2.8%) in agriculture, 1,269 (34.2%) in manufacturing and 2,335 (62.9 %) worked in the service sector.

Population structure

(As of December 31, 2004)

Age   Residents
<6 1,118
6-14 2.411
15-17 838
18-24 1,486
25-44 5,941
45-65 5,710
> 65 3,863
 Total population
Male 10,363
Female 11.004
 including foreigners
Male 633
Female 512
(5.4% of the population)
Catholic 63.77%
evangelical 19.98%
other 16.25%

Population development

Population development of Xanten.svgPopulation development of Xanten - from 1871
Population development of Xanten according to the adjacent table. Above from 1500 to 2018. Below an excerpt from 1871

Official population on December 31:

year   population
1500¹ about 5,000
1721 1,716
1765 1,672
1784 1,984
1817 2,505
1828 3,040
1885 3,621
1939 5,030
1945¹ about 2,500
1968¹ about 7,000
1969¹ about 16,000
year   population
1987 16,013
1988 16.097
1989 16,497
1990 16,930
1991 17,041
1992 17,504
1993 17,798
1994 18,691
1995 18,902
1996 19,319
1997 19,868
1998 20.199
1999 20,443
year   population
2000 20,575
2001 20,841
2002 20,979
2003 21,281
2004 21,367
2005 21,477
2006 21,586
2007 21,571
2012 21,273
2013 21,186
2016 21,551
2018 21,690
2019 21,607

¹ unofficial information

Myths and Legends

Xanten in the Nibelungen saga

Relief Siegfried in Xanten on the north wall

The Nibelung saga to be Siegfried of Xanten on the task of Colonia Ulpia Traiana was born in the ruins of the city and ruled as king of Xanten, the Netherlands .

Middle High German
There where in nider land
a noble royal chint
of the father of hiez Sigemvnt
sin mvter Sigelint
in a rich castle
witen wol bechant
nidene bi dem Rine
div what ze santen called
Translation ( Karl Joseph Simrock )
Since grew up in the Netherlands
child of a noble king.
Siegmund was his father's name
the mother Siegelind.
In a mighty fortress
well known,
Down on the Rhine
She was called Xanten.

Also Hagen von Tronje was the name of "Colonia Ulpia Traiana " and the Lower Rhine Troy myth associated with Xanten in association.

Xanten in the Troy mythology on the Lower Rhine

Justified by the name of the former Colonia Ulpia Traiana, the terms Troia Minor (Little Troia) and Troia Francorum (Franconian Troia) for Xanten were established well into the Middle Ages . Around 1100 the Annolied finally told of the founding of Xanten by the Troians who were defeated in the Troian War :

Middle High German
Free of charge with the sînin
vili verre nidir bî Rîni.
dâ worhtin si duo with vroudin
a luzzele Troii.
den bach hîzin si Sante
nâ demi wazzere in iri lante;
the Rîn havitin si vure diz meri.
then wuohsin sint Vreinkischiu heri.
Translation (Eberhard Nellmann, Reclam )
Franko got along with his own
in the distance on the Rhine.
They were happy to build there back then
a little Troy.
They called the stream Sante
according to the river of their homeland.
They took the Rhine instead of the sea.
The Franconian people grew there ever since.

Even when Xanten fell to the Duchy of Kleve in 1444 , coins with the inscription “Joannes Troianorum Rex” (“John, King of the Troians”) were minted in the same year .

Christian saints

Depiction of Viktor at St. Viktor's Cathedral , created in 1468 by Master Blankenbyl

The Christian legionary Viktor von Xanten is said to have been executed together with 330 other members of the Theban Legion in the 4th century in the Veteras amphitheater . Since then, Viktor von Xanten has been considered the martyr and later patron saint of St. Viktor Cathedral, which was built above his presumed burial site . Similar to the legend of Gereon of Cologne , the legend of Viktor also includes the Empress Helena of Constantinople , who is said to have recovered the bones of St. Viktor and his legionaries and built a chapel for them.

St. Mallosus was one of Viktor's companions and was therefore also venerated in Xanten. From the High Middle Ages on, Mallosus was also considered a saint in Bonn, where he is said to have shared the fate of Cassius and Florentius in the wake of the Theban Legion .

According to tradition, the bones of St. Gerebernus came to Sonsbeck through "robbers from Xanten" and founded the pilgrimage there that lasted until 1945.


City Councilor and Mayor

The distribution of seats in the city ​​council according to the results of the past local elections :

Party / list 1999 2004 2009 2014
Seats Election result Seats Election result Seats Election result Seats Election result
Christian Democratic Union of Germany 21st 54.2% 19th 50.18% 15th 48.30% 16 43.1%
Social Democratic Party of Germany 10 26.0% 9 23.64% 7th 21.41% 8th 22.9%
Free citizens' initiative 4th 11.9% 5 13.80% 4th 13.03% 5 14.4%
Alliance 90 / The Greens 2 5.6% 3 8.49% 3 8.21% 3 7.9%
Free Democratic Party 1 2.3% 2 3.90% 2 5.87% 1 3.1%
The left - - - - 1 3.17% 1 3.5%
BBX - - - - - - 2 5.0%
Total (shares of votes rounded) 38 100% 38 100% 32 100% 36 100%

For mayor of the city in 1999 the vote was 53.1% Christian Strunk ( CDU ) or 46.7% of the votes re-elected elected and 2004 and 2009 with 53.8%. In the 2014 local elections, Thomas Görtz (CDU) was elected the new mayor with 53.8% of the valid votes.

Community finances

In 2003, the city had € 33.852 million in gross income and € 32.027 million in gross expenditure and debts of € 9.579 million.

Town twinning

There have been town twinning with Geel in Belgium since May 19, 1990, with Saintes in France since May 11, 2002 and with Salisbury in England since April 23, 2006, Salisbury also has a partnership with Saintes.

The partnerships with Geel and Saintes are based on a common or at least similar history of the cities. Traces of Roman settlement can be found in both Saintes and Xanten, and the place names each claim to be a “place of saints” - although the name of Saintes (Latin Mediolanum Santonum ) comes from the Celtic tribe of Santons back. Xanten is linked to Geel by the legend of St. Gerebernus , whose bones are said to have been stolen from Geel by “robbers from Xanten” and thus established the pilgrimage in neighboring Sonsbeck .

In December 2010, the Xanten city council passed the resolution to establish further partnerships with the city of Beit Sahour in Palestine , with which there was already lively contact in previous years. A city partner city in Israel is sought.

In 1953, the interior minister of North Rhine-Westphalia granted the city of Xanten permission to display a coat of arms, a flag (banner) and a seal as described below. The city also uses a logo.

coat of arms

Blazon of the Xanten city ​​coat of arms : "In silver within a black border covered with eleven golden balls , two diagonally crossed black keys with quatrefoil - reiden and turned away key beards, angled at the top with a small black Greek cross ."

History and declaration of the coat of arms: The keys in the crossed form can be documented for the first time in the city's aldermen's seal from 1303 and, like the cross, go back to the Archdiocese of Cologne , which had both symbols as attributes of its patron saint Peter and at the time the city was granted city rights Possessed dominion over Xanten. The Kurkölnian cross, shown here as a Greek cross of the same length, could also be interpreted as Kurköln's participation in the 4th crusade , and accordingly the golden balls in the shield border as bezants (" Byzantines ") indicate a particularly notable portion of the booty after the storming of Constantinople in 1204. However, the eleven heraldic spheres are traced back to the (otherwise regular) three spheres of St. Nicholas of Myra in the jury's seal from 1338. The black shield border as such is of unknown origin and appears for the first time in a coat of arms from the 16th century, the Count von dem Bergh , who lived near Xanten , also had eleven golden balls on a black border in the coat of arms.

Flag (banner)

"The flag of the city of Xanten is divided into three equally wide horizontal stripes black / white / black."

"The banner of the city of Xanten is split into three equally wide strips of black / white / black under a square white field (banner head) in which the city coat of arms is located."


The city of Xanten has an official seal that is similar in shape and size to the seal attached to this main statute. “Inscription above:“ STADT ”- inscription below:“ XANTEN ”; in between each a black cross - seal image: On a black ring, eleven white balls in the middle two crossed black keys with turned away beards, between them a floating black cross. "

Culture and sights

The middle gate that used to divide the city
Town hall on the market
Xantener Südsee with leisure center
Bislicher Insel nature reserve


The Xanten Archaeological Park (APX) and the amphitheater in Birten bear witness to Xanten's Roman past . The first-mentioned of the partial reconstruction of the destroyed in the year 275 and as Tricensimae rebuilt Colonia Ulpia Traiana . Other parts of the APX are the remains of the "Great Baths" with the Roman Museum, which are now located within the park and provided with a glass and steel structure, in which mostly finds from the Roman history of Xanten are exhibited. The amphitheater in Birten is the only reconstructed part of the Vetera legionary camp .

The Gothic St. Viktor Cathedral with the monastery library and the monastery museum , which exhibits rich ecclesiastical treasures and documents from the history of the cathedral, testify to the medieval heyday of Xanten . Built from 1263 onwards, it is considered the "largest cathedral between Cologne and the sea". The cathedral, the Klever Tor , the Kriemhildmühle and its counterpart, the Siegfriedmühle, as well as the Karthaus and other historical buildings shape the image of the medieval town center. From the former city fortifications, a wall tower on the west wall, the sea tower, a round tower on the west wall, the pig tower and a round tower on the north wall have been preserved, which were mostly redesigned during the 18th century. The middle gate, built in 1392, bears witness to the former division of Xanten into the northern, Klevian and southern, Electoral Cologne parts of the city. Few of the remains of the wall have survived from the bishop's castle built in the 10th century in the area of ​​monastery immunity. The Romanesque tower from the 11th century, built as the corner tower of immunity, is part of the Xanten Marian School.

The Gothic House, built around 1540, is an outstanding example of late Gothic architecture on the Lower Rhine. It vividly describes the active preservation of monuments in Xanten through its original woodwork (beam ceilings and roof trusses) . The poor maid's house from the late 16th century was built to give the women working in the Viktorstift a home for their old age; A Gothic stepped gable from the 15th century stands directly opposite the Arme-Maiden-Haus.

In addition to the Gothic architecture, other architectural styles have been preserved, including rococo facades on buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries, the baroque pavilion at the eastern corner of Immunity and the Renaissance bay window from 1634.

The Protestant church , built in 1648/1649 on the south corner of the monastery immunity, remained nameless. The church tower with its curved dome dates from 1662. The Michael Chapel was placed between 1472 and 1478 on the south portal of the monastery immunity, which was built around 1000. The Fürstenberg chapel was built in 1671 and is reminiscent of the Fürstenberg Benedictine monastery , which existed for almost 500 years and was destroyed in 1586. The town hall was originally built as a Capuchin monastery. The statue of Victor on the elevated location of a Hohenstaufen capital at the former place of jurisdiction of the cathedral chapter was designed in 1468 in honor of Viktors von Xanten . Napoléon had the Obelisk de Pauw built in honor of Cornelius de Pauw in 1811 . Numerous fountains and pumps exist in the city area, such as the market pump from 1736 and the Norbert fountain, which is reminiscent of Norbert von Xanten .

The old grain distillery is the only remaining monument to Xanten's industrial history of the 19th century. The plant was built as an oil mill in 1853 and converted into a steam grain distillery 20 years later.

In 2010, the “Nibelungen (h) ort” museum was opened in the former Xanten regional museum, which is dedicated to the history and reception of the Nibelungen saga.

There are other sights in the Xanten districts. The Winnenthal house, one of the oldest preserved moated castles in the Lower Rhine, was built near the village of Birten . The miraculous image of Mary in the pilgrimage church of St. Mary's Assumption draws 15,000 pilgrims to the Marienbaum district every year. In Wardt there is the museum about money .

Leisure and nature

The Xanten Leisure Center (FZX), which was built in 1979, is a local recreation center consisting of the Xanten North Sea and the Xanten South Sea, the leisure harbors in Wardt, Vynen and Xanten, a water ski facility and a high ropes course as well as a variety of other offers.

The Bislicher Insel nature reserve , which is partly located in the urban area, is one of the few floodplain landscapes in Germany that is one of the most important winter quarters for Arctic geese and houses the only beaver population in the Lower Rhine. It was only created by hydraulic engineering measures around 1788 (initiated by Frederick the Great ), which led to a shortening of the Rhine bed and the current course of the Rhine. Furthermore, the nature reserves Fürstenberg and Gut Grindt and Rheinaue as well as parts of the nature reserves Grenzdyck , Reeser Schanz and Uedemer Hochwald lie in the city area.

The "Garten Krautwig" located on the Fürstenberg shows an inner courtyard with myrtles and beech trees, a herb garden and a perennial garden on 1.5 hectares of a 130 year old farm. Chestnuts, a pond and many roses, some of which are rare, round off the garden on the street of garden art between the Rhine and the Maas .

Xanten is the starting point of the Römer-Lippe-Route and Via Romana long-distance cycle routes , a stop on the 2-country route , the Lower Rhine route and the Rhine cycle route and a stop on the E8 European long-distance hiking route . In addition, path 4 of the Rhenish Paths of the Pilgrims from Nijmegen to Cologne is also a pilgrimage route through Xanten.

Performances and exhibitions

In the reconstructed arena of the Archaeological Park and on the open-air stage of the former Veteras, Arena-Theater GmbH organizes the Xanten Summer Festival every year . These offer an annually changing program of ballet, musicals and operas and usually take place from June to August. In 2006 the summer festival was held for the 24th time, with the operas Il trovatore and La traviata , among others . As part of the summer festival, since 2003, plays like Jedermann have been performed in front of the Xanten Cathedral. As a result of the success of the Summer Festival, the arena of the Archaeological Park established itself as a venue for concerts and musicals in particular outside the festival.

Classical cathedral concerts take place inside the Xanten Cathedral every month; The so-called Siegfried spectacle is held annually against the backdrop of the Klever Tor . The stage in the Nibelungenbad at the leisure center in Xanten is mostly used by comedians as a venue.

The Stadtkultur Xanten eV association, founded in 1996, is dedicated to promoting art and culture in Xanten and in 2007 had around 100 members. Among other things, the association regularly organizes exhibitions, lectures, contemporary dance and theater performances as well as discussions, promotes the expansion of the city library and supports local history, local history and sport in the city area.

Folk festivals

The “Day of Encounter” is celebrated annually in the Archaeological Park. First held in 1998, this largest event of its kind in Germany now attracts over 20,000 disabled and non-disabled people to the APX site. The day of the encounter goes back to an initiative of the Rhineland Regional Association , which reacted to a judgment of the Higher Regional Court of Cologne on January 8 of the same year. As a result of a complaint about noise pollution from a residential area of ​​disabled people, this had determined "The" annoyance factor "is particularly high with the noises made by the mentally handicapped residents of the home . For “more acceptance and normal coexistence between the disabled and the non-disabled” , the Day of Encounter was then launched, at which, for example, The Prinzen appeared in 2003 .

The Christmas market, which takes place annually from the end of November until the last Sunday in Advent before Christmas Eve, benefits above all from the atmosphere of the medieval townscape. The Xantener Kirmes is also held annually on the “Big” and the “Small Market”. It always takes place from the Thursday of Corpus Christi until the following Monday. Every other year the carnival parade takes place in the center of Xanten on the day before Shrove Monday. This is called the “blood sausage Sunday” parade , as traditionally (packed) pieces of blood sausage are thrown from the last wagon of the parade as projectiles to the audience. Furthermore, the Oktoberfest and similar festivals are held annually on the premises of the FZX.

regional customs

One of the traditional customs of the town of Xanten is the 25-year-old procession called “Viktortracht” , in which the cathedral treasure is ceremoniously carried through the town (most recently in 2014). Furthermore, the so-called tower blowing takes place annually, during which Christmas brass music is played on the towers of St. Viktor's Cathedral on Christmas Eve. A custom cultivated by many of the citizens of Xanten is reflected in the many existing pump neighborhoods and the associated street festivals.

There are three brotherhoods in Xanten, the St. Victor brotherhood Xanten, named 1393 as the year of foundation and mentioned for the first time in 1400 in the city's pension registers, as well as the St. Helena shooting brotherhood Xanten, it is the oldest mentioned shooting brotherhood of the city, as well as the shooting society. All three associations look back on a long tradition and a connected community in Xanten.

Xantener Platt

Santes Platt (Det on Dat op Santes Platt) as well as the dialects of the districts and surrounding villages, is based on the Lower Franconian languages ​​that were spoken at the time of the early medieval expansion of the Franks on the Lower Rhine, and is assigned to the North Lower Franconian (also called Kleverländisch ).

Although Santes Platt is cultivated in clubs and dialect circles, the number of dialect speakers is constantly falling, especially among younger people. Instead, a Lower Rhine German called Regiolekt is spoken more and more frequently .


With around 2500 members, the Gymnastics and Sportfreunde Xanten 05/22 are the largest sports club in the city. The most successful table tennis division plays in the second division in the 2013/14 season. Every year the association organizes the nationally important sporting events Nibelungen Triathlon and "International Xanten City Run". The “Stadtsportverband Xanten eV” as a local umbrella organization comprises 32 clubs, of which, in addition to TuS Xanten, the popular sports clubs DJK Eintracht Wardt, SSV Rheintreu Lüttingen, SV Viktoria Birten and SV Vynen-Marienbaum should be mentioned. There are also three tennis clubs, two archery clubs, a diving club and a basketball club, the Xanten Romans.


On July 15, 1975, the Deutsche Bundespost issued a postage stamp with a face value of 50 Pfennig. The design came from the graphic artist Otto Rohse .

Economy and Infrastructure

Commercial establishments

The city of Xanten has two industrial areas, the Sonsbecker Straße industrial park with an area of ​​110,623 m² in Xanten and the Birten industrial area with an area of ​​98,907 m². Notable companies include Wessel GmbH (boiler and apparatus construction) and Röchling Industrial Xanten GmbH (specialty plastics). In 2002, 17 companies were represented in the city in the area of ​​civil engineering. Over 140 trading, craft and commercial enterprises in Xanten are organized in the Xanten commercial interest group.


A coin that tourists in Xanten can have minted as a souvenir medal

Every year around 800,000 tourists visit the city, mostly because of the historic city center, the archaeological park or the leisure center . The latter are also the most important employers in the field of tourism. Due to the higher ratio of tourists per inhabitant (TPE) compared to the New York metropolitan area, Xanten is popularly referred to as the "New York on the Lower Rhine".

In 2003 there were ten hostels with 358 beds in addition to numerous restaurants. They booked 43,601 overnight stays with 23,903 guests. Around 7,000 of these multi-day tourists attended the summer festival organized annually by Arena-Theater GmbH .

As a new tourist facility, the Hafen Xanten leisure harbor has been added as part of the leisure center on the Xanten South Sea . The expansion of the archaeological park is currently being implemented and in future it will encompass the entire area of ​​the former Colonia Ulpia Traiana. The federal highway 57 , which previously divided the area in two halves, has already been transferred to the new bypass road, the Varusring. At the moment, the two halves of the park are gradually growing together.

Xanten belongs to the funding area of ​​the Regional Economic Promotion Program (RWP), through which certain new commercial settlements, company expansions and other investments in the tourism industry are promoted. Financial subsidies from the RWP are possible, especially for investments in the hospitality industry.


The daily newspapers Neue Rhein Zeitung and Rheinische Post as well as the twice weekly Niederrhein-Nachrichten , an advertising paper , maintain local editorial offices in Xanten. The local newspaper Der Xantener appears weekly and the Xanten Live magazine appears quarterly . The publishers Live Magazine Verlagsgesellschaft , Organischer Landbau Verlagsgesellschaft and Verlag Focus Rostfrei are based in Xanten.

Public facilities


The Xanten branch of the Rhenish Office for Land Monument Preservation is responsible for an area totaling 3812.5 km² consisting of the districts of Kleve, Wesel and Viersen and the independent cities of Duisburg, Essen, Krefeld, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr and Oberhausen.

Educational institutions

In Xanten are 12 kindergartens , the Shared grundschule Viktor in Xanten and two Catholic elementary schools in the localities Lüttingen ( Hagelkreuz School ) and Marienbaum ( Marienschule ).

Secondary schools are the comprehensive school Xanten-Sonsbeck , the Walter-Bader - Realschule , the private girls-Realschule Marienschule and the municipal collegiate high school Xanten . In 2013, the comprehensive school Xanten-Sonsbeck was founded as a joint school Xanten and Sonsbeck.

In addition, the Placidahaus Xanten is a vocational college for the Catholic Propsteigemeinde. There is also an adult education center in community with the neighboring communities of Alpen, Rheinberg and Sonsbeck. The Xanten city library is open Wednesdays to Saturdays.

The Niederrhein Akademie / Academie Nederrijn for researching the history and culture of the Lower Rhine, which was created through an initiative of the University of Duisburg , is based in Xanten.

Medical facilities, retirement homes

Medical care is provided by the Sankt Josef Hospital with 159 beds. In addition, five general practitioners , eleven specialists and seven dentists maintain their practices in Xanten. There are five pharmacies . The social psychiatric initiative Xanten operates facilities for assisted living, social psychiatric centers and the institute for systemic research and therapy in Xanten and Wesel .

There are three retirement homes in Xanten . These are the Evangelical Elderly Center at the Stadtpark, the Catholic Elisabeth House near the Fürstenberg and the senior citizens' residence Burg Winnenthal near Birten.


Trunk roads

There is no separate motorway connection, but Xanten is connected to the trunk road network through junctions 5 (Sonsbeck) and 6 (Alps) of the federal motorway 57 ( E 31 ). The federal highway 57 crosses the urban area in a north-south direction.


Xanten has a train station near the city center on the Lower Rhine route , on which the regional train Der Niederrheiner (RB 31) Xanten - Moers - Duisburg runs. The section of the railway line ( Hippeland-Express ) leading from Xanten to Kleve has been out of service since 1990, the line formerly leading to Goch and Wesel ( Boxteler Bahn ) and the Xanten West train station located next to it have been dismantled.

In local road transport there is an express bus connection (SB 6) with the district town of Wesel , as well as other bus routes to Kleve (44, via Kalkar ), Geldern (36, via Sonsbeck ), Uedem (43), Rheinberg (65), Alpen (41) as well as city ​​buses that connect the individual districts of Xanten with the center. A citizens' bus also runs through Xanten , which runs between Sonsbeck and the Alps and goes to the Xanten hospital.

The tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr applies to all public transport and the NRW tariff applies to all tariff areas .


In addition to the pier operated at Rhine kilometer 823, which is also used by the passenger ships Stadt Rees , Rheinkönigin and River Lady , the passenger ferry Keer Tröch II connects from Palm Sunday to the end of October on Wednesdays, Fridays, Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. October until 6 p.m. the city of Xanten with the Wesel district of Bislich . This ferry connection was mentioned as a regular connection as early as the 12th century.


Honorary citizen

The city of Xanten and the communities of Marienbaum and Wardt, which were independent until 1969, awarded the following honorary citizenships :

  • 1926, Johann Langenberg († 1931), pastor
  • 1928, Günter van Endert († 1958), politician (district administrator)
  • 1960, Heinrich Hegmann (1885–1970), politician (member of the state parliament)
  • 1962, Margarete Underberg († 1986), entrepreneur
  • 1963, Matthias Kempkes († 1964), pastor
  • 1977, Walter Bader (1901–1986), archaeologist and monument protector
  • 1999, Heinz Trauten († 2017), retired city director D.

(Years indicate the year of the award)

sons and daughters of the town

The following people were born in Xanten or the districts of Xanten:

(Years indicate the year of birth)

Other people related to the city

The cenotaph of Marcus Caelius
Monument to Mary of Burgundy in Marienbaum

The following people lived and worked in Xanten or are otherwise connected to Xanten:

(Years indicate the year of birth)


  • Clive Bridger, Frank Siegmund: The Xantener Stiftsimmunität. Excavation history and considerations on the topography of the settlement. In: Contributions to the archeology of the Rhineland. (Rhenish excavations 27). Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1987, pp. 63-133.
  • Michael Brocke: Xanten - Find in the Lapidarium. In: Salomon Ludwig Steinheim Institute for German-Jewish History Duisburg (ed.): Kalonymos - Contributions to German-Jewish history from the Salomon Ludwig Institute of the University of Duisburg-Essen. 9th year edition 3. Salomon Ludwig Steinheim Institute, Duisburg 2006, ISSN  1436-1213 , pp. 10–12.
  • Dieter Geuenich (ed.): Xanten lectures on the history of the Lower Rhine . Volume 2ff. Univ. Duisburg, Duisburg 1994ff. (The articles in the series are published as individual issues and in edited volumes)
  • Dieter Geuenich , Jens Lieven (ed.): The St. Viktor-Stift Xanten. History and culture in the Middle Ages (publications by the Historical Association for the Lower Rhine. NF Volume 1). Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-412-20708-3 .
  • Friedrich Gorissen (Ed.): Florilegium Xantense. Xanten in the literature from 1464-1892 . Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1984, ISBN 3-7927-0808-6 .
  • Heike Hawicks: Xanten in the late Middle Ages. Abbey and city in the field of tension between Cologne and Kleve (= Rheinisches Archiv 150). Böhlau, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-02906-7 .
  • Hermann Hinz : Xanten in Roman times . Th. Gesthuysen, Xanten 1960, W. Renckhoff, Duisburg-Ruhrort 1963, Th. Gesthuysen, Xanten 1967, Dombuchhandlung, Xanten 1971, 1973, 1976 (6th edition)
  • Dieter Kastner: 750 years of the city of Xanten. Exhibition by the city of Xanten and the Rhineland archives advice center . Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1978, ISBN 3-7927-0425-0 .
  • Juliane Kirschbaum: Xanten. European example city. Rhineland State Conservator on behalf of the Rhineland Regional Association. Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1975, ISBN 3-7927-0226-6 .
  • Paul Ley: The inscriptions of the city of Xanten (= The German inscriptions of the Middle Ages and the early modern times . Düsseldorfer Reihe, Bd. 9). With the collaboration of Helga Giersiepen. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden 2017, ISBN 978-3-95490-144-9 .
  • Tim Michalak : Du mein Xanten - Römer-, Dom- und Siegfriedstadt am Rhein , 2014, 2nd revised edition 2015, Anno-Verlag, Ahlen, ISBN 978-3-939256-14-4 .
  • Tim Michalak and Heimat- und Geschichtsvereine Xanten (ed.): Xanten and his localities - yesterday and today , 2015, Anno-Verlag, Ahlen, ISBN 978-3-939256-22-9 .
  • Tim Michalak: Time travel Xanten. History (s) of a traditional Lower Rhine hotel - 230 years "Hotel van Bebber , 2014, Anno-Verlag, Ahlen, ISBN 978-3-939256-23-6 .
  • Julia Obladen-Kauder: Searching for traces in Xanten (Guide to archaeological monuments in the Rhineland, 3). Ed. Rhenish Association for Monument Preservation and Landscape Protection. Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-88094-927-1 .
  • Thomas Otten : The excavations under St. Viktor zu Xanten: Cathedral and immunity . (Rhenish excavations, 53). Zabern, Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-8053-3148-7 .
  • Gundolf Precht , Hans-Joachim Schalles (Ed.): Trace reading. Contributions to the history of the Xanten area. Rheinland-Verlag / Rudolf Habelt, Cologne / Bonn 1989, ISBN 3-7927-1162-1 .
  • Ingo Runde: Xanten in the early and high Middle Ages. Tradition of sagas, history of the monastery, development of the city (= Rheinisches Archiv 147). Böhlau, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-412-15402-4 .
  • Holger Schmenk: Xanten in the 19th century. A Rhenish city between tradition and modernity . Böhlau, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-412-20151-7 .
  • City of Xanten (ed.): Studies on the history of the city of Xanten 1228–1978 . Rhineland, Cologne 1978, ISBN 3-7927-0749-7 .
  • Frank Siegmund : Merovingian time on the Lower Rhine . (Rhenish excavations 34). Rheinland, Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-7927-1247-4 , pp. 246-267 and 440-470.
  • Ralph Trost: A completely destroyed city. National Socialism, War and End of War in Xanten . Waxmann, Münster 2004, ISBN 3-8309-1413-X . ( online (pdf) )
  • Association for the Preservation of the Xanten Cathedral eV (Ed.): Xanten lectures on the history of the Lower Rhine . Volume 1 - 1990-1992. Mönchengladbach 1993.

Web links

Commons : Xanten  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Xanten  - sources and full texts
 Wikinews: Xanten  - in the news
Wiktionary: Xanten  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Xanten  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 .  ( Help on this )
  2. "Kapuzinerkloster Xanten" 1629 to 1802 (GSN: 50397) , in Germania Sacra, accessed on June 10, 2018
  3. Ralph Trost: A completely destroyed city. National Socialism, War and End of War in Xanten , Volume 1, Waxmann, Münster, 2004, p. 153, ISBN 3-8309-1413-X
  4. Martin Bünermann: The communities of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1970, p. 103 .
  5. Martin Bünermann, Heinz Köstering: The communities and districts after the municipal territorial reform in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1975, ISBN 3-555-30092-X .
  6. State recognition of the climatic health resort Xanten. Order of the Düsseldorf district government - April 24, 2003 - of July 2, 2014 ( SMBl.NRW. P. 522 )
  7. State Returning Officer NRW: Municipal elections 2014 - final result for Xanten
  8. State Returning Officer NRW: Municipal elections 2014, election of mayors - final result for Xanten
  9. ^ Main statute of the city of Xanten. (PDF; 1.1 MB) rathaus-xanten.de, accessed on October 3, 2013 .
  10. ^ Fritz Hofmann: Canon Cornelis de Pauw. An important Xanten personality of the 18th century . In: Xanten lectures on the history of the Lower Rhine . tape 32 . Gerhard Mercator Univ. Duisburg, Duisburg 2002.
  11. http://www.geldmuseum-xanten-wardt.de/
  12. related to Sankt Viktor
  13. Internet portal of the LVR: statements on the subject of Regiolect in the Rhineland ( memento from June 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Website accessed on October 10, 2013
  14. https://www.niederrhein-nachrichten.de/der-verlag/
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on May 10, 2006 in this version .