|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Dusseldorf|
|Height :||27 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||110.71 km 2|
|Residents:||13,602 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||123 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||46514|
|Primaries :||02853, 02865 , 02856|
|License plate :||WES, DIN, MO|
|Community key :||05 1 70 036|
|LOCODE :||DE SCK|
|Community structure:||8 districts|
|Address of the
|Weseler Strasse 2
|Mayor :||Mike Rexforth ( CDU )|
|Location of the community Schermbeck in the Wesel district|
The municipality of Schermbeck is located between the Lower Rhine region and the Westphalian Münsterland in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia . The municipality in the Wesel district belongs to the Düsseldorf administrative region and is a member of the Euregio Rhine-Waal .
The community of Schermbeck is about 8 km from Dorsten and 18 km from Wesel and 17 km each from Dinslaken and Bottrop. The entire municipal area is part of the Hohe Mark-Westmünsterland nature park , which includes the Loosen Berge , Dämmer Wald and Lichtenhagen nature reserves in the west , and the Üfter Mark as part of the August forest area in the east . Both the Lippe and the Wesel-Datteln Canal cross the municipality for around 4 km of their course.
Municipality area and structure
The community of Schermbeck has a total area of 110.74 km². Its maximum north-south extension is 12.90 km, from west to east 17.80 km. It is divided into the eight districts of Altschermbeck , Bricht , Damm , Dämmerwald , Gahlen , Overbeck , Schermbeck and Weselerwald .
Neighboring municipalities / cities
|The municipality of Schermbeck borders in the west on the Lower Rhine municipalities of Hünxe and Hamminkeln and otherwise on the Westphalian municipalities of Raesfeld , Dorsten and Bottrop .|
The name "Scirenbeke" as the origin of today's place name appeared for the first time in documents from 799 . In it, Liudger assigned the farms “Scirenbeke” and “Ruscethe” (from which the name of the current district of Rüsten developed) to the Werden monastery . Liudger is also believed to be the builder of the church in Altschermbeck.
With the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the area around the later Schermbeck became part of the Lotharii Regnum under Emperor Lothar I , while the later Altschermbeck fell to Eastern Franconia under King Ludwig . In the year 900 the district of Gahlen was first documented as "Galnon", whereby it was also a donation to the Werden monastery. The documentary mention of the other districts followed in the centuries that followed, for example, in the oldest surviving book of the dead of the Xantener Viktorstift "Damme" (today's district Damm) was mentioned. The farm "Wisele" (today Weselerwald) was first mentioned in a document from 1122. The first written reference to Bricht comes from the year 1163. A parish was first mentioned in 1184 , which was probably established by the Werden monastery.
In the beginning of the 13th century, Schermbeck benefited above all from the trade route leading through the village. Schermbeck Castle was first mentioned in 1319, followed by the parish of Schermbeck in 1372 and Gahlen as a parish in 1380. At the beginning of the 15th century, the city fortifications with two gates and eight towers were built and completed around 1416. In the following year Schermbeck was first mentioned in a document as a city, whereby the granting of city rights must have already taken place. In 1417, the Schermbeck chapel community was separated from the previous Drevenack parish and raised to the status of an independent parish.
In the following, Schermbeck was destroyed twice within a short period of time. In 1425 Schermbeck was taken by Johann von Gemen , who led a feud against Adolf II , and finally set on fire. In 1483 Heinrich von Gemen succeeded in taking Schermbeck again. When the city was conquered, Schermbeck was destroyed again and the city charter was also destroyed in the flames. Duke Johann II granted the burnt-out Schermbeck a reconstruction grant and left the entire income of the Schermbeck customs to the city for six years. On March 12, 1485 Schermbeck received city rights again.
After the Duchy of Kleve had granted religious affiliation, the communities in Schermbeck and Gahlen converted to Lutheranism between 1550 and 1580 . The division of Schermbeck, which has existed since 843 , was first documented in 1559 in the name “Olden-Schermbeck” in contrast to “Neu-Schermbeck”.
As a result of the Jülich-Klevischen succession dispute , Schermbeck came to Brandenburg-Prussia and was occupied by Spanish troops in 1615 during the Eighty Years' War . A troubled time followed: in 1631 the plague broke out, in 1636 Hessian troops camped in the Damm district during the Thirty Years War . According to reports, they " lodged themselves in and lied there for about five days, during which time they ruined everything ". In 1636, Schermbeck was occupied by imperial troops until large parts of it burned down again on June 28, 1640. In 1643 the office, castle and town of Schermbeck were pledged to Alexander Freiherr von Velen for 50,000 Reichstaler and only redeemed 20 years later. The castle went into private ownership in 1662.
On October 9, 1685, the citizens of Schermbeck celebrated the inauguration of the first Reformed church on Mittelstrasse, which was destroyed in the fourth city fire in 1742 (like around 30 percent of the houses), caused by Hanoverian troops billeted in Schermbeck during the First Silesian War . The destroyed church was replaced by a chapel. As early as 1718, the walls and towers of the old city fortifications had been partially removed.
Until 1803 Schermbeck belonged to the Ahaus office in the Principality of Münster and in 1803 came to the newly created Principality of Salm in the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss . From 1811 to 1813 Schermbeck was under French rule. From 1815 the mayor's offices of Altschermbeck, Gahlen and Schermbeck came under Prussian administration. With the formation of the new administrative districts in 1816, the district level was also reorganized. While the mayor's office Altschermbeck was assigned to the district of Recklinghausen in the province of Westphalia , the mayor's offices of Gahlen and Schermbeck came to the district of Dinslaken in the province of Jülich-Kleve-Berg, which became part of the Prussian Rhine province in 1822. The district of Dinslaken was dissolved again in 1823; his mayor's office, located north of the Lippe, came to the Rees district in Wesel ; the rest of the district, which was south of the Lippe, was incorporated into the newly formed district of Duisburg .
In 1830, the Lutheran and Reformed congregations united in Schermbeck. At the same time, the Catholics Schermbeck, Bricht and Overbeck were parished to Altschermbeck, where on October 19, 1841 a new Catholic church was consecrated. In 1858 Wilhelm Schoel and E. Fischer built the first mechanical brickworks in Schermbeck, the successor of which still exists today in the form of the Nelskamp roof tile works . In 1870 the local hospital was put into operation.
In 1874 the first section of the Haltern-Venloer Bahn , which was completed in the same year, was opened with the section from Haltern via Schermbeck to Wesel . The Deutsche Bundesbahn gave up passenger traffic on the route in September 1962. From 1974 Schermbeck was the western end point from the direction of Haltern, in 1985 the station was also given up. Thirteen years later, 19 "colonists" initially founded the Lühlerheim workers' colony in the Weselerwald district, before Schermbeck experienced a renewed economic boom at the end of the 19th century thanks to the flourishing pottery . Between 25 and 30 master potters worked in Schermbeck during this time, and their goods were mainly sold in the nearby Ruhr area . In the period that followed, a new office building (today the Old Town Hall ) was built in 1910 and today's Ludgerus Church in Altschermbeck was inaugurated in 1915.
History of Schermbeck after 1945
In 1965 the office of Schermbeck joined the Hohe Mark-Westmünsterland Nature Park, which was founded in 1963 . The indoor pool opened in 1978 and the local history museum in 1987. In the same year the Marien Hospital was converted into a nursing home for the elderly. On October 30, 1993, the new town hall with a meeting center was officially opened. In 1999 Schermbeck celebrated its 1,200th anniversary.
On January 1, 1975, as part of the second reorganization program, the previously independent municipalities of Bricht, Dämmerwald, Damm, Overbeck (partially), Schermbeck and Weselerwald became the former Schermbeck office in the former Rees district, and the municipality of Gahlen (partially) the Gahlen office in the previous one District of Dinslaken and the Westphalian community of Altschermbeck of the Hervest-Dorsten office in the district of Recklinghausen merged to form the new community of Schermbeck.
Since then Schermbeck has been a municipality in the Wesel district.
According to the 2011 census , 43.9% of the population in 2011 were predominantly Roman Catholic , 36.9% Protestant, and 19.2% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. Historically, Schermbeck is more Catholic (Diocese of Münster) than Protestant.
The presence of Jews in Schermbeck was first recorded in 1676 . During the time of Prussian rule, a special right was introduced for Jews, in which they were issued letters of protection providing evidence of a certain amount of assets. Jews worked as cattle dealers and butchers . In 1810 the small Jewish community built its own synagogue . There was also a mikveh and a Jewish cemetery. From 1820 the Jewish population increased. In 1855 there were 97 people of Jewish faith in the village, around 10% of the population. Thereafter the number decreased continuously until 1927 only 13 Jews were counted. On the night of the pogrom of November 9, 1938, the synagogue was not burned down because of the feared fire risk for the outbuildings, but its interior was devastated and furnishings were thrown into the garden behind the church, where they were burned the next day. While some families were able to save themselves in time by emigrating , other Jewish families found death in various concentration camps . Since 1982 a memorial plaque commemorates the synagogue that was destroyed in 1938.
The results of the past local elections since 1989 (2009: 32 seats, 2014: 26 seats):
|Party / list||1989||1994||1999||2004||2009||2014|
|Citizens for Citizens||-||-||-||-||-||-||12.5||3|
* % = each: share of votes ** Independent Schermbeck voter community
Mike Rexforth ( CDU ) has been the mayor of Schermbeck since June 23, 2014 .
The result of the mayoral elections on May 25, 2014:
|Political party||candidate||Election result|
Mayor of the municipality of Schermbeck since the abolition of dual leadership in North Rhine-Westphalia:
- 1999-2004: Wilhelm Capell (SPD)
- 2004–2014: Ernst-Christoph Grüter (CDU)
- since 2014: Mike Rexforth (CDU)
Municipal coat of arms
The Schermbeck municipal coat of arms shows a silver (white) heart shield on a red field covered by a three-pointed golden (yellow) lily reel and a golden (yellow) lily bar. There are three green wave bars in the silver (white) wave shield base .
The municipal coat of arms has its origins in the time of Schermbeck's elevation between 1410 and 1417. The oldest known seal of the city at that time bears the inscription " sigillum opidi schirenbecke " (German: seal of the city of Schermbeck) in a document dated May 15, 1500 . The silver heart shield and the lily reels and bars are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts and Dukes of Kleve due to the former territorial affiliation of the former city of Schermbeck to the Duchy of Kleve. The three wavy bars in the lower part of the coat of arms indicate the place name adopted by the Grenzbach, now known as Mühlenbach, “ Scirenbeke ”. Furthermore, the wave beams symbolize the Issel , the Lippe and the brooks as geographically connecting elements of the municipalities that were previously independent in the Schermbeck office.
The municipal coat of arms was approved by the district president in Düsseldorf with a certificate dated December 21, 1977.
Economy and Transport
Rail and bus transport
Schermbeck had a train station on the Haltern - Wesel - Venlo line from 1874 to 1985 . There have been no passenger trains here since 1962. Freight trains continued to Wesel via Drevenack until 1974 . The empty station building was destroyed by arson in 1978 and then demolished. In 1985, the Deutsche Bundesbahn also shut down the eastward section of the route from Schermbeck to Hervest-Dorsten .
In local road transport , the express bus line 21 (Wesel - Schermbeck - Dorsten) connects to Wesel train station every 2 hours and the express bus route 28 (Schermbeck - Dorsten - Gelsenkirchen-Buer ) connects every 30 minutes to Dorsten train station every hour on Saturdays and Sundays .
3.1 km of autobahns , 17.4 km of federal roads , 22.1 km of state roads , 16.5 km of district roads and 165.2 km of local roads run through Schermbeck . Another 2.3 km of road network is privately owned.
- Community elementary school
- Catholic Maximilian Kolbe School
- Comprehensive schools
- Academy for Taxes and Economics
other educational institutions
- Community College
The 1st men's team of the handball department of SV Schermbeck achieved promotion to the regional league in 2007. In 2008 he was promoted to the association league.
The TC Altschermbeck tennis club was founded in 1970. It provides 7 ash places for a good 132 members.
Sons and daughters
- Karl Böckenhoff (1870–1917), Catholic clergyman, canon lawyer and moral theologian
- Gustav Sack (1885–1916), poet and writer
- Karl-Heinz Henrichs (1942–2008), cyclist
- Christel Bienstein (* 1951), nursing scientist, university professor
- Andreas Kraß (* 1963), philologist, professor at the Humboldt University in Berlin
- Andreas Hüttemann (* 1964), philosopher, professor at the University of Cologne
- Franz-Josef Deiters (* 1964), literary scholar, lecturer at Monash University in Melbourne , Australia
- Thomas Kammeier (* 1966), Koch, with a star in the Michelin guide awarded
- Andreas Peine = DJ Deep (* 1968), remixer and DJ
Other personalities who worked in Schermbeck
- Jermaine Jones (* 1981), German soccer player with US roots, married his long-time partner in Schermbeck
- Tobias Voss (* 1992), professional boxer and Thai boxer, graduated from high school in Schermbeck
Schermbeck in literature
Gustav Sack wrote about his home village:
- “In a shallow basin on the Lower Rhine, between wooded and heathery heights, there is a village whose signature is a short, clunky brick church tower and whose main street is called Mittelstraße, which is accompanied on both sides by Kaffeestraße and Kirchstraße and is connected to them through several little streets, the official names of which can only be heard in the local history lessons at the school; later they are forgotten and the streets are named after some sort of prominent local resident.
The residents, however, tend a little towards cretinism and have a peculiar malicious and biting joke ahead of their neighbors - otherwise they live their day like them and know nothing of the transcendent ideality of time, the negation of the will, the pathos of distance and would be as happy as their cattle, if they didn't have the malicious joke and were so inveterate in the image of their god. "
- Marga L. Randall: As if it only happened yesterday. Jewish fates from Schermbeck 1930–1997. Translated by Iris Landgraf. Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 1997 ISBN 3-89649-171-7 (A childhood in town, the extinction of Jewish families in small rural towns, remembrance project after 1980). With further contributions.
- Orig. Marga Silbermann Randall: How beautiful we once were. A remembrance of the Holocaust and beyond. Cathedral, Pittsburgh PA, ISBN 1-887969-06-3 (English).
- Hermann Ostrop, Helmut Scheffler: Sociable Schermbeck . Published by Verbands-Sparkasse Schermbeck. Self-published by the editor, Schermbeck 1988.
- Helmut Scheffler: 1698–1998. 300 years of order, unity and happiness . Published by the Schützenverein Damm von 1698 eV self-published by the editor, Schermbeck-Damm 1998.
- Helmut Scheffler (Red.): Gahlen an der Lippe. Festschrift for the 50th anniversary of the Heimatverein . With elements of an illustrated post-war village chronicle. Published by the Heimatverein Gahlen. Self-published by the editor, Schermbeck-Gahlen 2000.
- Helmut Scheffler: Schermbeck . Sutton-Verlag, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-86680-189-9 .
- Helmut Scheffler (Red.): 1950–2010. 60 years of the Heimatverein Gahlen. With building blocks of a local chronicle for the years 2000–2010 . Published by the Heimatverein Gahlen. Self-published by the editor, Schermbeck-Gahlen 2010.
- Helmut Scheffler (Red.): 1998–2018. Heimatverein [Schermbeck-] Weselerwald und Umgebung eV Ed. From the Heimatverein Weselerwald und Umgebung. Self-published by the editor, Schermbeck-Weselerwald 2018.
- Website of the community of Schermbeck
- Current news, historical photos, event information and customs from Schermbeck
- Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 . ( Help on this )
- Rolf Swoboda: Venlo Railway. Haltern - Wesel - Venlo . VBN Verlag Bernd Neddermeyer, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-941712-04-1 , p. 316-319 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 297 .
- Schermbeck Religion , 2011 census
- Andrea Kammeier, Wolfgang Bornebusch: The history of the Jewish community in Schermbeck, = Marga L. Randall, as if it had only happened yesterday. Jewish fates from Schermbeck 1930-1997 , Konstanz 1997, p. 107ff., ISBN 3-89649-171-7
- State Officer NRW: Municipal elections 2014 - Final result for Schermbeck
- Rolf Swoboda: Venlo Railway. Haltern - Wesel - Venlo . VBN Verlag Bernd Neddermeyer, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-941712-04-1 , p. 241-242 .
- Gustav Sack: A lost student . Novel. S. Fischer, Berlin 1917. ( online in the Gutenberg project).