from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A multitude of bulbous mushrooms , mostly growing underground ( hypogean ) , are colloquially referred to as truffles ; among them are both "real" and "false" truffles. In the narrowest sense, it is the genus Tuber , to which some of the most expensive and culinary most valuable mushrooms belong. The cross-section of the marbled meat (gleba) is striking. The outer skin (peridia) has bark-like growths, the shape, color and structure of which are important for identifying truffles. For centuries, truffles were only used in rural cuisine. They are almost only used in haute cuisine .

Peridia = the outer skin of a truffle bulb.  The truffles have a rind, the color, shape and structure of which are important for determining the species of a truffle bulb.  Gleba = the cut surface of a truffle bulb or pulp called spores = seeds of the truffle.  The organ of distribution of the mushrooms that arise from previous fertilization.
Gleba, peridia and truffle spores from the uncinate tuber

White and black truffles
Sliced ​​black truffle

Concept and system

Word usage

The term “truffle” is used inconsistently in German. Popularly, “truffles” are understood to mean many types of mushrooms that grow underground, including those that are not closely related to real truffles, such as deer truffles . The word potato is also derived from tartufolo , the Italian word for truffle . Even some species with aboveground fruiting bodies are occasionally referred to as "truffles", such as the Bohemian truffle ( Pisolithus arhizos , also known as the common pea sprinkler ) or the Polish truffle ( potato boviste Scleroderma ).

The same applies to the term “truffle” in English-speaking countries. In the USA, for example, the corn smut ( Ustilago maydis ), which is traded there as a delicacy, is referred to as “Mexican truffle” ( Mexican truffle” ).

Another example is the Mexican bald head ( Psilocybe mexicana ). Meanwhile sclerotia are also "truffle" ( "truffles" called).

Word history

The word “truffle” goes back to the French “truffle” (a rarer form of “truffe” ; this in turn perhaps in Latin tuber: bump, swelling ). From German, the word has spread into Danish ( “trøffel” ) and Swedish ( “tryffel” ). The grammatical gender of the word varies between masculine and feminine and thus also its plural form (if masculine, truffle as in the singular, if feminine, truffle ).

An older name is nut mushroom . Other old names: Erdmorgeln , Erdschwämme , Grieblinge , peanuts .

The name Tuber as a mycological taxon goes back to Pier Antonio Micheli .


The real truffles belong to the real sac mushrooms (Pezizomycotina). Traditionally, and even until recently (2006), the real truffles are treated as a separate order Tuberales.

On the basis of phylogenetic studies, truffles, as a family of truffle relatives (Tuberaceae), are placed in the order of the muglings (Pezizales). The desert truffles with the genera Terfezia , Kalaharituber , Cazia , Pachyphloeus and Tirmania form a monophyletic clade within the Pezizaceae and are therefore only a synonym .

The fruiting bodies of the truffle can be derived from those of the cup mushrooms via various intermediate stages (similar to those of the lorel mushrooms ). In this respect, all three groups are more closely related to one another than to other tubular mushrooms.

However, there are numerous mainly morphological differences, as the following table shows:

Comparison of cup mushrooms - real truffles
Cup mushrooms real truffles
Occurrence epigeic (at least the hymenium reaches the surface when ripe) hypogeic (the surface is only reached in exceptional cases)
Fruiting bodies Apothecium Tuberathecium
Hymenium gymnocarp or hemiangiocarp celistocarp (at least when ripe)
Paraphyses short; simple or fused to form the epithecium further developed into a network (epithecial cortex in bladder truffles, external veins in food truffles) or dissolved (Mediterranean truffles)
Operculum available is missing
Number of spores per ascus 8, rarely less 1–6, usually 3–5
Spore release from wind or vibrations by animals (eating, trampling)
light promotes spore release omitted by hypogean way of life

Also not related to real truffles, but only because of the tuberous underground fruiting bodies:

Ecology and reproduction

Truffles are mycorrhizal , which means that they form a connection with the fine roots of their host plants. These are usually deciduous trees. Presumably, this connection has a mutual benefit ( symbiosis ): The host plant receives mineral salts and water, the truffles are supplied with photosynthesis products . This interplay between truffle and host plant results in their ecological relationship. However, some Terfezia species are considered parasitic.

There are two sexes in truffle reproduction, named Mat + and Mat- (mating-types), these are female and male truffle spores that "pair" beforehand to form the truffle fruit bodies (truffles). This happens through the natural distribution of the spores or the inoculation of truffle trees with spores from equal parts Mat + and Mat-. Only then can fruiting take place and the truffles emerge.

An important factor in truffle growth is the pH of the soil . Most truffle species prefer pH values ​​in the alkaline range, at least the edible ones, a few also occur in coniferous forests with a rather low pH value. Contrary to the assumption that truffles only grow under oak or hazelnut, the roughly 160 species (around 50 genera) mycorrhize with a large number of arboretic woody plants. The decisive factor here is not which symbiotic partner is available, but rather the nature of the soil, ventilation, sunshine duration and many other abiotic and biotic factors. Also just a popular scientific assumption is that truffles only mycorrhize with woody plants, because many grasses ( Poaceae ) and composites ( Asteraceae ) are known, which are considered symbiotic partners of some truffle genera. Where truffles have connected to the root network of their host plant, a vegetation-damaged zone, also known as "scorched earth" or French. Called brulee .

Truffles have completely adapted to the underground way of life, so that they no longer form fruit bodies above ground. Since the fruiting body is more or less extremely folded in, the spores can no longer simply be released outside. Truffles therefore use animals to spread.

The strong smell is absorbed by wild boars even through the forest floor. After consumption, the indigestible spores are excreted again. The wild boar therefore contributes significantly to the spread of the truffle mushroom. Insects, such as the truffle fly or certain types of beetles, are also attracted by truffles. In the literature, depending on the continent, armadillos, opossums or kangaroos are reported as truffle spreaders, which contribute to the reproduction of the truffle.

  • Through their mobility they spread the spores.
  • The droppings provide fertilizer for the mushrooms to grow.

As a food, truffles are likely to play a rather subordinate role for most, especially larger species. Similar to humans, they are more of a welcome treat. The situation is different with some insects, especially the truffle fly , whose larvae live in truffles.

Truffles are common all over the world and can be found almost everywhere from northern England to New Zealand. In the Arab region there are even arid genres such as Terfezia and Tirmania . The biology and life cycles of underground fungi (hypogea) have not been scientifically recorded. In spite of all assumptions, natural truffle cultivation is possible without problems on the right soil. The world's largest truffle producers are France and New Zealand.

Types of truffles

White truffles from Croatia

The following types of truffle in the genus Tuber are known as edible truffles:

  • Tuber melanosporum Vitt. - Perigord (black) truffles
  • Tuber magnatum Pico - White Alba Truffle or (White) Piedmont Truffle
  • Tuber aestivum Vitt. - Summer truffle (Italian Scorzone )
  • Tuber brumale Vitt. - (Black) winter truffle or nutmeg truffle (Italian moscato , French musquée )
  • Tuber uncinatum - Burgundy truffle
  • Tuber borchii Vitt. (= Tuber albidum Pico) - (White) March Truffle (Italian: Bianchetto or Marzolino )
  • Tuber macrosporum Vitt. - Large spore truffles or garlic truffles
  • Tuber mesentericum Vitt. - Meat truffle or bitumen truffle
  • Tuber moschatum Ferry - musk truffle
  • Tuber himalaensis - Himalayan truffle
  • Tuber sinensis - White Chinese Summer Truffle
  • Tuber indicum - (black) Chinese truffle

The Terfezia species with a certain importance include in particular:

Also edible (in moderation):

The Pseudotuberaceae and Geneaceae are economically and culinary insignificant.

The “Mexican truffle” known as the “Mexican truffle”, Ustilago maydis (also known as “Aztec caviar”), which attacks corn plants, is not a real truffle . It is considered a delicacy in Central and South America and is increasingly being traded in the USA . Touching his spores is considered harmless. However, the consumption of dry spores is said to favor miscarriages , and in animals also other disorders.

Extraction and economic importance


Structural formula of androstenone

Truffles were probably known to the people of ancient times . When collecting mushrooms, roots and berries, they must have found one or the other truffle.

The truffle may have been around as early as 3000 BC. Commonly used in Mesopotamia . The Egyptian Pharaoh Cheops is said to have been a passionate truffle eater.

Truffles were of greater importance in ancient times . Especially Terfezia leonis (African truffle or lion truffle) and Terfezia boudieri were valued by the Greeks and Romans and were considered an aphrodisiac . The Apicius cookbook deals extensively with truffles.

While the truffle enjoyed particular esteem until the early Middle Ages (even with the ascetic Bishop Ambrosius of Milan , for example), in the High Middle Ages it was regarded as the epitome of sin.

During the Renaissance , truffles also became popular again. It could not be missing on any elegant table. For the first time, higher quality truffle species such as Tuber magnatum and Tuber melanosporum appear . Truffles became noble gifts suitable even for popes.

The African truffle used to enjoy great popularity in the Orient . Entire camel loads are said to have been transported to the cities of Syria in the 19th century. It is still traded today in the Arab world, for example in Algeria and Syria.

The French truffle trade began in 1770. By the end of the 19th century, France was already exporting 1.5 million kg a year. However, due to excessive use of the stocks, the yield continued to decline. In 1990, only 50,000 kg came onto the market.

In Germany, according to the Federal Species Protection Ordinance, the native truffles belong to the "specially protected" species; however, there are no restrictions on extraction from plantations.


Truffle pig searching for truffles
Truffle hunting in Montone , Italy
Zigante Tartufi in Livade (
near Oprtalj , Croatia)

In the past, truffles were sought with truffle pigs . Today, however, this only happens to tourists , as pigs generally cause a lot of damage to the root tips when digging up, which is why they have been banned for truffle hunting in Italy since 1982. Furthermore, the pigs especially like to eat the truffles and are difficult to curb. The mushrooms contain the scent (+) - androstenone , which is also the boar's sexual scent . The assumption that female, sexually mature pigs instinctively search for it has now been refuted. In 1990 French researchers found out that truffles are not betrayed by androstenol, but by the aromatic substance dimethyl sulfide, a volatile sulfur compound. For the tests, the researchers had a proven truffle pig and several truffle dogs search for samples, including the champion of a truffle dog competition. All of them sniffed buried ripe truffles and also dimethyl sulfide in oil, but none of the animals sniffed the buried androstenol samples.

The most widespread way to hunt for truffles today is with specially trained truffle dogs (especially the Lagotto Romagnolo breed ). These are more agile in the undergrowth than pigs, less destructive when digging and the truffles can be taken away more easily.

The truffle fly is also based on the smell of truffles and uses appropriate places to lay eggs. B. by truffle hunters in England, but also in France, is sometimes used to find truffles. Small cracks in the floor are also a sign. The San in Namibia use this method today in the search for Kalahari truffle. According to Rudolph Hesse, the examination of the uppermost forest humus layer can be used to find it with a strongly curved garden knife.

The first truffle dogs came to Germany in 1720 by the Saxon Elector and King of Poland August the Strong . In Russia , bears used to be used to search for truffles; still goats in Sardinia today .

In 1999 Giancarlo Zigante found the largest known truffle to date in Buje (Buie) near Livade in the western Croatian region of Istria . The white truffle weighed 1.31 kg. Instead of selling the truffles, the Zigante family decided to organize a dinner for 100 people. An even larger truffle weighing 1.483 kilograms was found near Bologna in November 2014 .

Even outside of the classic truffle areas, there are occasional amazing finds. For example, a woman from Triesen in Liechtenstein found thirty summer truffles in her garden, the largest of which was 8 cm long.

Since the cultivation of truffles seemed impossible for a long time, one limited oneself to reforesting areas with oak seedlings from truffle regions. Such a "truffle grove " is also called a truffière in French . This method should lead to good harvests after just ten years. The reforestation at the foot of Mont Ventoux in the Vaucluse département became famous in 1858 .

For some time now, there have been large-scale trials in France and some Southeastern European countries to cultivate truffles: By inoculating young, annual to perennial arboretic plants, the fungus can be grown in a special substrate and later planted with the carrier plants on a plantation; in the meantime, truffle trees are even sold on the Internet, preferably Burgundy, but also Perigord truffles. However, according to a report from the world, truffles are widespread in the Federal Republic of Germany.

The truffle growers in Germany have joined the Association for Truffle Cultivation and Truffle Use in Germany. V. merged.


The truffle is the most expensive edible mushroom : one kilogram of white truffle costs up to 9,000  euros , in Japan up to 15,000 euros. The price of white truffles varies widely. On the one hand, this depends on the occurrence and demand. Depending on the weather and climate, there are “better” and “worse” truffle years. The size and shape of the truffle also has an impact on the price: a round truffle has less surface area in relation to its volume than a differently shaped one. A “normal serving” of truffles for two people (approx. 20-25 grams) costs approx. 40-60 euros.

Tuber aestivum Vitt - summer truffle is available fresh in Italy in Umbria from around 30 euros per 100 g (price summer 2019).

At a truffle auction in Grinzane Cavour in Piedmont , a buyer from Hong Kong bought three truffles with a total weight of 1.5 kilograms at a price of 125,000 euros in November 2006. The auction for a charity takes place every year near Alba . At the 2007 auction, a bidder from Hong Kong also offered 143,000 euros for a 750 gram white truffle - 190.67 euros per gram.

In 2010, a 1.3 kg truffle was sold to Macau for $ 417,200 (EUR 338,000) . On December 5, 2014, Sotheby’s auctioned a 1.89 kg white truffle in New York that had been discovered in Umbria . Sotheby's announced in advance that offers in the millions have been received from China . In fact, it brought in just under 50,000 euros (61,250 dollars).

Uncleaned truffles
Truffle cleaned
Cut truffle


The high prices for truffles make it attractive for counterfeiters to bring inferior varieties on the market that can hardly be distinguished from the high-quality externally. Such fakes have also existed in the past. Older sources even report the adulteration with poisonous Hartbovisten ( Scleroderma vulgare ).

Probably the most common and most lucrative truffle fraud is the Chinese truffle trade. The Chinese truffle can hardly be distinguished visually from high-quality and expensive Perigord truffles, but is itself of no culinary value. It also has the ability to take on the aroma of other truffles. It happens more and more often that the inferior truffles are mixed with the high-quality ones, because you can hardly tell them apart at first glance.

To prevent this, attempts have been made in recent years to develop various methods for differentiating between species and for determining quality.

Nutritional value

Truffles are used more as a flavoring ingredient , rarely in large quantities. Their contribution to nutrition usually remains rather small.

Information per 100 g for Perigord truffle
( Tuber melanosporum Vitt.)
energy 105 kJ / 25 kcal
water 75 , 00g
protein 5.5 0g
* of which can be used
0.5 0g
0.45 g
carbohydrates 0 , 00g
Fiber 16 , 00g
Minerals 2 , 00g
Elements in 100 g perigord truffle
( Tuber melanosporum Vitt.)
in detail
salary Daily
human requirement
(daily requirement)
sodium 77 , 0mg 550 mg 15th, 0
potassium 520 , 0mg 2000 mg 25th, 0
magnesium 24 , 0mg 300-400 mg 7th, 0
calcium 24 , 0mg 1000 mg 2.4
iron 3.5 mg 10-15 mg 30th, 0
phosphorus 62 , 0mg 700 mg 9, 0
Total weight 739 , 0mg

Furthermore, truffles contain significant amounts of vitamins B 2 , B 3 , B 5 , D and K, specifically:

Details per 100 g
vitamin salary Daily
human requirement
(daily requirement)
B 2 (riboflavin) 0.4 mg 1.2-1.5 mg 30th
B 3 (niacin) 5 mg 13-17 mg 30th
B 5 (pantothenic acid) 2.5 mg 6 mg 40
D (calciferols) 2 µg 5-10 µg 20-40
K 15 µg 70-80 µg 20th

Converted to the above value of 0.45 g of usable fats for the composition of the fatty acids per 100 g, the following values ​​result:

Details per 100 g
Fatty acids salary
saturated 0.13 g
monounsaturated 0.01 g
polyunsaturated 0.31 g

The numbers can vary more or less depending on the type of truffle. The information on the daily requirement is based on the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society .

Finished truffle products

The truffle oil offered in bottles often gets its taste not from truffles, but mainly from added aromatic substances. Other “truffle products” (truffle butter, ready meals, meat and sausage products, etc.) can also contain such flavors.

Even where no flavors are used, high-quality truffles such as Périgord and Alba truffles do not always have to be included. The large number of different types makes it possible to add cheaper types of truffle, which allow “truffles” to be written on the packaging, but which cannot keep up in terms of quality. Truffled pies and pâtés are also available. Among the finished products there is also z. B. Pralines and chocolate with Perigord truffles or a truffle aperitif.


Short term storage

Black truffles, carefully cleaned and stored in a closed terracotta jar, can be stored for up to ten days.

White truffles, wrapped in air-permeable paper, can be refrigerated in a glass jar for about two to seven days, whereby the paper must be replaced daily. An alternative storage option for up to two days is to store the truffles wrapped in paper in rice.

Long-term storage

Long-term storage of black truffles is possible by thoroughly cleaning them and placing them in an airtight glass jar that is sterilized in a water bath for three hours.

Canned truffles

Since truffles are seasonally dependent products (e.g. Périgord truffles are only harvested from December to March), it makes sense to preserve them . However, this method is controversial among gourmets:

  • On the one hand because of the possible loss of flavor due to preservation.
  • Furthermore, it is not always clear what type of truffle it is in a can. The use of inferior quality truffles can often not be ruled out.
  • Canned foods can also be pepped up with flavors.
  • In particular, the preservation of white truffles is widely rejected.

Many of the preservation methods used with other types of mushrooms are uncommon for truffles. This applies, for example, to:

  • Drying (otherwise widespread with mushrooms). The truffle completely loses its aroma.
  • Freezing (such as mixed mushrooms or mushrooms ). The typical grain of the truffle is destroyed. A black Périgord truffle with a fine white grain then turns greyish. The aroma is fully preserved.
  • Salting

A certain advantage, however, is that different preparations are offered that can be used as required and do not have to be specially prepared.

  • Whole truffles in cans or glasses, usually with truffle juice or essence
  • Truffle slices (so-called truffle carpaccio ) in glasses
  • Truffle paste or cream in glasses or tubes
  • Truffle essence: The concentrated juice that is created when it is boiled down, in bottles or glasses
  • Truffle juice: essence diluted with water, in glasses or cans
  • Truffle pieces: Small pieces in glasses or cans

There can be significant differences in truffles that have been boiled in glasses or cans, as the truffle loses its liquid and thus its aroma during the boiling process. In order not to lose this aroma, this liquid must remain in the can or glass. This is not always the case.

The liquid that is created the first time it is cooked is called première cuisson or première ébullition . She will u. U. separated and used elsewhere. If the truffle is then cooked again, a so-called deuxième cuisson is created . Such a preserve then naturally no longer has its full aroma, since a substantial part has been removed.

Medical use

An aphrodisiac effect was claimed as early as the 2nd century AD by the Greek doctor Galen . Ancient Roman doctors administered truffles as a remedy for impotence.

Research into the antibiotic effect of Terfezia boudieri was carried out as early as the 1960s .

In recent years, the antimicrobial effect of aqueous extracts from Terfezia claveryi , especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , has been proven. This could open up new options for treating the relevant infections. This would be particularly desirable in the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , since this germ is considered to be extremely resistant and difficult to treat.

The meander truffle has a slight laxative effect. However, in larger quantities it can cause digestive disorders. This fact is not always pointed out and the meander truffle is simply declared as "edible".


In ancient Rome, truffles were consecrated to the goddess of love Venus .

In the Christian High Middle Ages, the truffle was considered demonic and the epitome of sinfulness, probably because of its subterranean occurrence and the alleged aphrodisiac effect. However, she was later valued even by the popes .

In Islam , the truffle is also considered a medicine. Mohammed is said to have said: "Truffles are like manna , and their water cures eye diseases."

The truffles in art


  • Michael Böckler : Deadly Tartufo: The 2nd case for Hippolyt Hermanus . Knaur TB, 2008, ISBN 978-3-426-63517-9 (detective novel from Piedmont, in which culinary excursions, especially with regard to truffles, play a major role; with a detailed glossary and recipes in the appendix.)
  • Pierre Magnan : Laviolette on a truffle hunt . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-596-16865-1 . (Detective novel from Provence about a detective with a preference for truffle omelettes.)
  • Peter Mayle : Truffle dreams. Droemer Knaur, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-426-61743-9 . (Thriller about a man who invented a method for growing truffles and is therefore being persecuted by the mafia and the police.)
  • Heinrich Seidel : The impoverished gourmet. (A short poem in which the truffle is mentioned.)
  • Gustaf Sobin : The truffle hunter. Berliner Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8333-0272-0 . (A novel about a truffle hunter who cannot get over the death of his beloved wife.)
  • Giovanni Bernardo Vigo : Tuber terrae. 1776. (A price poem in Latin.)
  • Martin Walker : Black diamonds: the third case for Bruno, Chef de police . Diogenes Verlag, Zurich 2012, ISBN 978-3-257-24180-8 (detective novel from the Perigord, in which the search for truffles is a motive.)
  • Carsten Sebastian Henn: Death & Truffle. A dog crime story from Piedmont . List, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-471-30002-2 . (Detective novel from Piedmont, about a truffle dog, a Lagotto Romagnolo)


  • There is a painting by the Brazilian painter Juarez Machado, also available as an art print , entitled Omelette and Truffle .



  • In the animated series " The Smurfs " are resulted in 82 entitled A real truffles (OT: A Mere Truffle ) took the Smurfs caught in truffle hunting truffles of trolls. The episode is available on The Smurfs 6 - Don't Waste, Don't Smurf.


  • In the children's musical König Keks by Peter Schindler and Babette Dieterich, truffles play a central role: Böse Crösel lures its victims into a trap with enchanted truffles, whoever eats these truffles is caramelized . Carus-Verlag, Stuttgart 2008.


  • The spiky meander truffle ( Choiromyces maeandriformis ) was approved by the German Society for Mycology e. V. elected mushroom of the year in 2001.
  • The German word " potato " is derived from the Italian tartuffo (truffle), which alludes to the bulbous appearance and underground growth. How the T became a K is still unclear.
  • In marriage law there used to be the concept of truffle money .
  • The Spanish painter Salvador Dalí is said to have created a truffle ice cream, which consisted of a large ball of vanilla ice cream with truffle sticks inserted in it.
  • Probably the most expensive burger in the world can be found in New York in the "Wall Street Burger Shoppe". It costs 175 USD . In addition to plenty of black truffles, it contains u. a. Pate from Kobe beef , foie gras and gold leaf . It has replaced the “DB Burger Royale double-truffel version” from the “DB Bistro Moderne” (also New York) as the most expensive burger to date (120 USD).
  • Brillat-Savarin called truffles "black diamonds" . An omelette filled with truffle slices and snipe cubes was named after Brillat-Savarin.


Truffle research

Commodity science, history, dishes

  • Guy Bontempelli: The truffles. The black diamond . Laaber Verlag, Laaber 1989, ISBN 3-89007-302-6 .
  • Ralf Bos : Truffles: Stories, product knowledge and recipes from the most exclusive food in the world . Torch bearer, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-7716-4335-X .
  • Adolphe Chatin : La truffe. Étude des conditions générales de la production truffière . Bochard-Huzard, Paris 1869 (digitized version )
  • Jean-Marie Dumaine, Nikolai Wojtko: Truffle. The local exotic. 60 recipes and lots of interesting information about the Central European species. AT-Verlag, Aarau 2010, ISBN 978-3-03800-496-7 .
  • Klaus W. Gerard: The secrets of the truffle hunter. With handpicked old and new truffle recipes . Piper, Munich et al. 2005, ISBN 3-492-04778-5 .
  • Patrik Jaros (ed.), Otward Buchner (texts): Trüffel . The diamonds of the kitchen . After work, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89985-024-6 .
  • Thuri Maag and Annette Frei Berthoud: Truffle. Product knowledge, stories and recipes . Fona Verlag, Lenzburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-03780-355-4 .
  • Wolf Uecker : truffles en vogue . Mosaik Verlag, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-570-05793-3 .
  • Christian Volbracht: truffles. Myth and Reality . Tre Torri Verlag, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-941641-85-3 .


  • The diva and the pig. About truffles, money and good faith. (Alternate title: . La diva et le cochon truffles, argent et conviction. ) Documentary, France, 2001, 42 Min, written and directed. Piet Eekman , production: BITcom International, ZDF , arte , Summary .
  • At table in ... Quercy . Travel report, Germany, 2002, 26 min., Script and direction: Alix François Meier, production: arte , table of contents ( memento from January 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) by arte with truffle recipes.
  • The truffle dog. Documentary, Germany, 2006, 15 min., Script and director: Stefan Quante , production: WDR , series: Die kulinarische Reportage, synopsis by ARD .
  • Renato Re - The truffle king of Alba. Documentary, Germany, 2007, 26 min., Director: Udo Vieth, production: ZDF , arte , first broadcast: September 28, 2007 on arte, series: People and Markets, by arte.
  • Truffle dreams - Ralf Bos presents the precious tuber. Documentary, Germany, 2008, 30 min., Script and director: Nina Thomas, production: Hessischer Rundfunk , first broadcast: March 9, 2008 on hr-fernsehen , synopsis by ARD .
  • In search of the white gold. Truffle hunting in Piedmont . Television report, Germany, 2011, 14 min., Script and director: Stefan Quante , production: WDR , series: hier und heute , first broadcast: December 12, 2011 on WDR, synopsis by ARD . Head chefs looking for, buying and tasting white truffles, mediated by the Munich truffle trader Stephan Burger.
  • To the truffle tour to Lorraine. Travel report, Germany, 2012, 28 min., Script and director: Katharina Fiedler, production: Saarländischer Rundfunk , series: Fahr mal hin , first broadcast: February 28, 2012 on SWR , film information from SWR.
  • For a basket of truffles. (OT: Pour un panier de truffes. ) Documentary film, France, 2011, 52 min., Script and director: Sylvestre Meinzer, production: Alto Media, arte France, German premiere: 23 September 2012, by arte.
    Documentation about the truffle hunt in general and the current situation in the Perigord, where fewer and fewer truffles are being produced due to global warming and the intensification of agriculture.
  • The delicatessen hunter ... and the truffle seduction. Documentary, Germany, 43, 2012, p. 40 min., Script and director: Katja Vogler, production: Süddeutsche TV , ZDFinfo , series: Der Delikatessenjäger, first broadcast: September 16, 2012 on ZDFinfo, summary by Süddeutsche TV. Ralf Bos searching for and preparing truffles in northern Italy.
  • Truffle boom - the precious tuber on our doorstep. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 29 min., Script and director: Michael Hertle, production: SWR , series: Essgeschichten, first broadcast: December 3, 2012 at SWR, summary from the University of Freiburg. About truffle farming in Germany.
  • Richerenches , the truffle village. Documentary, Belgium, 2008, 25 min., Script and director: Catherine Haxhe, moderation: Guy Lemaire, production: Unicap Télévision, arte France, series: Reisen für Genießer, German first broadcast: 10 September 2013 on arte.

Web links

Commons : Truffle  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Truffle  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Duden online. (PDF) Retrieved December 25, 2018 .
  2. a b truffle. In: Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm : German dictionary .
  3. a b H. A. Pierer (Ed.): Universal Lexicon of the Present and Past or the latest encyclopedic dictionary of the sciences, arts and crafts. 2nd completely revised edition (3rd edition). HA Pierer, Altenburg 1846.
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