including metropolitan city of Turin
|surface||25,399.83 km² ( 2. )|
|Residents||4,341,375 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density||171 inhabitants / km²|
|president||Alberto Cirio ( FI )|
Relief map of the Piedmont region
The Piedmont ([ pi̯emɔnt ], Italian Piemonte [ pjemon.te ], from Latin ad pedem montium , at the foot of the mountains' ) is a region in the northwest of Italy with a population of 4,341,375 (December 31, 2019) and 25,399.83 km² the largest region on the Italian mainland.
In the north Piedmont borders on Switzerland , in the west on France , Italian internal borders can be found in the south on the Liguria region , in the south-east on Emilia-Romagna , in the east on Lombardy and in the north-west on the Aosta Valley . The region is part of the Italian-French Euroregion Alpi-Mediterraneo / Alpes-Méditerranée .
The capital of Piedmont is Turin , other well-known cities are Vercelli , Novara , Biella , Alessandria , Asti and Cuneo . Furthermore, Piedmont is the westernmost and in terms of population the sixth largest region in Italy.
The former Benedictine Abbey of Sacra di San Michele is the official symbol of the region.
The area that is known today as “Piedmont” emerged as a region of the Italian Republic - as a result of the separation of the Aosta Valley as an autonomous region - only after the end of the Second World War . This area has not always been called that and in no way defines an inherently uniform space, but is the result of a long series of political developments.
The term "Piedmont" appears in the sources for the first time in 1193, when a contract between the city of Asti and the Marquis of Saluzzo speaks of the "lords of Piedmont". The new name spread quickly and was generally associated with more or less the area that we still call that today. Over the centuries, however, the term then underwent repeated change of meaning: he was about after Amadeus VIII. His son in 1424 of a "Duke of Piedmont" had given the official title, only narrowed for a long time for the reign of the House of Savoy subject Areas on this side of the Alps used.
Piedmont covers an area of around 25,400 square kilometers, making it the largest of the 20 regions in Italy after Sicily . The Aosta Valley in the north-west of the region is historically and geographically part of Piedmont, but as an autonomous region with a special statute forms its own administrative unit. 125,501 people live in the Aosta Valley in an area of 3,263 square kilometers.
In terms of natural geography, the region is divided into three parts: the Alpine region, the Po Valley and the hilly landscapes in the southeast of Piedmont.
The Alpine region stretches along the edge of the Alps along the southern, western and northern borders of Piedmont. Here are the Occitan valleys ( Stura , Maira , Varaita , Po , Pellice , Chisone ), the Valle di Susa , the three Valli di Lanzo , the Valle dell'Orco , the Aosta Valley, the Valsesia and the area around the western shore of Lake Maggiore . The highest mountain in Piedmont is Monte Rosa at 4618 meters, followed by Gran Paradiso at 4061 meters and Monviso at 3841 meters. The Alpine region takes up 43.3% of the total Piedmontese territory. Piedmont is part of the Cottian Alps , Graian Alps and Valais Alps .
In the Po valley are the major cities of Piedmont; most of the people live here too. In Piedmont there are numerous rivers and streams, almost all of which flow into the Po , which rises at the Pian del Re in the Po Valley below the Monviso. With 26.4% of the total area, the Po Valley is the third largest geographical sub-region.
The hill country in the southeast of the region ( Monferrato , Langhe , Roero ) is primarily used for agriculture and tourism and takes 30.3% of the area of Piedmont; Here the famous wines ( Barolo , Barbera , Barbaresco ) of Piedmont grow . The hill country is at an altitude between 150 m and 750 m.
The main and official language is Italian . Furthermore, the regional language Piedmontese , which developed in the 17th century, is used by many residents . Occitan and Franco-Provençal are also spoken in the more remote corners of the western Alps . Another minority language of Piedmont is Walser German - an Alemannic dialect that is spoken in the upper Sesia valley .
In the north-west bordering Aosta Valley , Italian and French are the official languages, with Franco-Provençal being the native variety in this autonomous region. Walser German is also spoken here in three localities.
Human history in Piedmont begins in the Paleolithic and differs in some points from the history of the rest of Northern Italy, not least because of the special location of the region. The turning point that marked the dark centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire was particularly pronounced in Piedmont. As the entrance to Italy, the region was not infrequently occupied by several powers and hotly contested among them. In the sense of a story that is still manifested in the country's architecture today, the history of Piedmont does not begin until the 10th century, as previously almost the entire country had been devastated by the Saracens who invaded France .
Time before Roman rule
The first traces of the genus Homo in Piedmont go back to the early Paleolithic . The most important site of evidence from this period is the slope of Montarolo near Trinos . On this hill lived nomads who were probably members of the species Homo erectus as hunters and gatherers .
The earliest archaeological sources attesting to the presence of the Neanderthal man ( Homo neanderthalensis ) in Piedmont were dated to the Würm glacial period and come again on the one hand from the slope of Montarolo, on the other hand from Monte Fenera near Borgosesia . About 30,000 to 40,000 years ago, the Neanderthals were gradually replaced by anatomically modern humans ( Homo sapiens ), as they did everywhere in Europe, including in Piedmont . In the grotto of Boira Fusca at the entrance to the Valle dell'Orco , the most impressive evidence of the Mesolithic period was found, including fire pits and stone arrow and lance tips.
The area was then inhabited by the Ligurians in later times . In the fifth century BC, the Etruscans, who penetrated into the Po Valley, pushed the Ligurians to the west. Around 400 there was a great invasion of Celtic tribes and the Ligurians had to retreat to the Maritime Alps and the coast of today's Liguria.
The tribes who lived in Piedmont before the beginning of Roman rule, practiced agriculture and sheep-raising in the mountain areas, fishing near the great rivers and lakes, and gradually acquired craft skills and the art of metalworking.
The independent history of Piedmont begins with the retreat of the Romans when the Roman Empire fell apart . During the Great Migration the fertile area was crossed several times by marauding peoples.
In the 10th century the region was invaded by Arabs from Fraxinetum .
For the Waldensians , a religious minority movement brought into being in the 12th century by the Lyon merchant Petrus Valdes , some valleys in the Cottian Alps became important retreat areas. Although they were persecuted here, too, the Waldensians were able to repel several attacks by Savoy troops due to the favorable strategic location of the Alpine valleys, so that they only survived here for a certain period of time. B. in southern Italy, were cruelly exterminated. In 1686, however, the Waldensians were forced to leave the valleys of the Western Alps during a renewed religious war. They only returned from their exile in Switzerland three years later in the course of the so-called Glorioso Rimpatrio . Today is called the valleys Chisone , Pellice and Germanasca as Waldensian valleys .
Early modern age
In the Peace of Utrecht , which ended the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713 , Spain a . a. cede the Kingdom of Sicily to the House of Savoy, whereupon the Duke assumed the Sicilian royal title. As early as 1720 the Savoy exchanged Sicily for Sardinia and called themselves kings of Sardinia from then on.
From the French Revolution to the founding of the Kingdom of Italy (1789–1861)
French period (1789-1814)
Shortly after the Napoleonic occupation in 1798 (after the equally furious as surprising winter crossing of the St. Bernard Pass by Napoleon Bonaparte ), the House of Savoy retired to his estate in Sardinia.
The successful cannonade at Valmy allowed France an offensive advance of its armies in the First Coalition War since autumn 1792 . For example, French troops advanced into the Savoy region of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont to liberate and annex it after a national convention had declared the people of Savoy to be sovereign. From 1794 France also advanced into Piedmont, but was initially repulsed by Austria. The victorious Northern Italian campaign of General Napoleon Bonaparte from 1796 forced the King of Sardinia-Piedmont to cede Savoy and the county of Nice to France. Although the two states still concluded an alliance in 1797, the continuing danger of war in Italy and the uncertain situation of the Cisalpine and Roman subsidiary republic of France prompted an expansion of its power; it forced Sardinia-Piedmont in the Treaty of Cherasco to give up Piedmont, which came under French military administration. On December 10, 1798, the Piedmontese Republic was proclaimed in the capital Turin , which was given a constitution based on the French model. After the beginning of the Second Coalition War in the spring of 1799, the French collapse in Italy led to a rapid advance of Austro-Russian troops, which occupied Turin on June 20, 1799 and dissolved the Piedmontese Republic. The King of Sardinia returned.
In 1800 the French army managed to recapture Italy under the command of Napoleon (Alpine crossing at the Great St. Bernhard Pass and victory at Marengo ). Turin fell on June 20, 1800, the king of Sardinia was declared deposed a second time and the republic was again proclaimed; this time under the name of the Subalpine Republic , which was under French military administration and whose army was incorporated into that of France. From April 1801 to September 1802 only a provisional government ruled the state, and on September 11, 1802 France annexed its daughter republic as part of the reorganization of Italy (restoration of the Kingdom of Naples and the Papal States , transformation of the Duchy of Tuscany into the Kingdom of Etruria and the Cisalpine into the Italian Republic ). Piedmont, Savoy and Nice were only detached from France in 1814/1815 after the end of Napoleonic rule and reunited with the restored Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont .
From the Congress of Vienna to the Revolution of 1848 (1815–1849)
The Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont was of decisive importance in the Risorgimento , the epoch of the Italian unification process.
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna restored full control of the House of Savoy over Piedmont, Savoy and the county of Nice and joined the territory of the formerly independent Republic of Genoa (Liguria). The Kingdom of Sardinia was initially closely allied with the Habsburg Monarchy, in which the Foreign Minister Klemens Wenzel Lothar Prince von Metternich determined the policy guidelines. When an uprising broke out in Piedmont one year after the Spanish Revolution of 1820 , Karl Albert initially issued a liberal constitution, but after the return of the actual regent, Karl Felix , the revolt was suppressed militarily and Karl Albert had to go into exile.
Sardinia-Piedmont, which, in contrast to other Italian states, was ruled by an ancestral dynasty, was soon viewed by some liberals such as Massimo d'Azeglio and Cesare Balbo as a leading power in the struggle for national unity and independence. The Turin priest Vincenzo Gioberti , in his book On the moral and cultural priority of the Italians (Italian original title: Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani ) , published in 1843, took the view that the Pope must take the lead in the Italian question, and justified with it and with previous smaller publications the so-called neoguelism . On March 24, 1848, Karl Albert declared war on Austria, but his army suffered a military defeat on July 25 at Custozza and after the resumption of war the following year at Novara on March 23.
From Revolution to National Unification (1850–1861)
As in almost all European countries, the revolution of 1848/1849 initially failed in Italy too. During the 1850s, the new Prime Minister Camillo Benso von Cavour promoted radical secularization in Piedmont .
After Piedmont-Sardinia participated in the Crimean War and the subsequent peace conference in Paris, he succeeded in signing a treaty with France in Plombières-les-Bains in July 1858 and provoking Austria into war the following year. In 1859 the united Piedmontese and French defeated the Austrian troops at the Battle of Solferino .
After the procession of a thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi , the Savoy Victor Emanuel II was made King of Italy and the centralized administrative system of the Kingdom of Sardinia was extended to all of Italy. Piedmont disappeared as an administrative unit, because the whole of Italy was divided into 60 provinces according to the Napoleonic model, in which prefects ruled on behalf of the central government. To this day, the institutions of the Italian nation-state are deeply Piedmontese. Since the centralized Piedmontese system was not suitable for all parts of Italy, numerous problems arose in the economically backward south of Italy at this time. These were expressed in a real civil war lasting several years, which has gone down in history as a brigand war .
Although the Italian parliament had already decided in 1861 that Rome should become the capital of the new state, Turin was the provisional capital of the Kingdom of Italy until 1865. Then the king, government and parliament moved to Florence; it was not until 1871 that Rome was officially annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and chosen as its capital.
The time after the First World War and fascism (1919–1945)
In 1919/20 Turin was the center of the Biennio rosso , during which workers occupied factories in numerous northern Italian cities and tried to manage them themselves. Here Antonio Gramsci , who was a member of the socialist party until the Partito Comunista Italiano was founded, founded the weekly newspaper L'Ordine Nuovo on May 1, 1919 .
After the Italian surrender on September 8, 1943 (see also the armistice of Cassibile ), a particularly strong partisan movement developed in western Piedmont . In Boves, in the province of Cuneo , SS units carried out a massacre of the civilian population just ten days later. In Alba and in the Val d'Ossola there were partisan-controlled areas, so-called partisan republics (see also Partisan Republic of Ossola ).
After the Second World War (1946 to today)
With the decision for the Italian republic in the course of the referendum in 1946, the House of Savoy was deposed. While 54.3% of voters across Italy voted for the republic, it was 57.1% in Piedmont. The Italian constitution of 1948 introduced comprehensive decentralization for the first time , but this was only implemented slowly in the years that followed. In 1948 the Aosta Valley became autonomous and left Piedmont. It was not until 1970 that the new Piedmont region was de facto created. The 1960s and 1970s were marked by diverse political and social tensions. In 1969 bloody workers' uprisings broke out in Turin, as a result of which the Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse) terror group was formed. Economic development was particularly good in the 1980s. The following decade was characterized by sometimes painful economic restructuring and reorientation, which made the industrial Piedmont more and more a business location for service companies. Tourism has also played an increasingly important role in recent years. As in other European countries, the economic boom also attracted immigrants after Piedmont was more of the country of origin of emigrants in the 19th and early 20th centuries ; so Turin is a center of Islam in northern Italy .
Piedmont pioneered constitutionalism and secularism (separation of church and state) in Italy. The region is traditionally more bourgeois and conservative-liberal. The Piedmont region could emerge politically stronger in the next few years from the further decentralization of Italy that is being sought. In contrast to Lombardy and Veneto , the at times separatist Lega Nord never played a particularly important role in Piedmont. Today's Italy is a Piedmontese descendant, and Piedmont is largely aware of that.
From the regional election on 28./29. In March 2010, however, the presidential candidate of the center-right alliance Roberto Cota , a member of the Lega , emerged victorious and replaced the previous president Mercedes Bresso ( Partito Democratico ). However, in January 2014 the Turin Administrative Court annulled the election. In the regional elections on May 25, 2014, the former mayor of Turin, Sergio Chiamparino , of the Partito Democratico won.
The regional parliament Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte has 51 seats (50 councilors and president of the region). Since the last elections, these have been distributed as follows (alliance, total seats, direct mandates / seats via regional list):
- Center-left alliance (top candidate Sergio Chiamparino), a total of 32 seats + President: Partito Democratico (social democratic) 17/8, Chiamparino per il Piemonte 2 (including the president), Moderati 1/1, Sinistra Ecologia Libertà (socialist) 1 / 1, Scelta Civica (liberal) 1/1
- Center-right alliance (top candidate Gilberto Pichetto Fratin), a total of 9 seats: Forza Italia (conservative) 6/1, Lega Nord (regionalist / right-wing populist) 2
- More, a total of 9 seats: MoVimento 5 Stelle (top candidate Davide Bono) 8, Fratelli d'Italia - Alleanza Nazionale (top candidate Guido Crosetto) 1
|Province or metropolitan city||Capital||ISO||Communities||Population
(December 31, 2019)
density (inh / km²)
Piedmont is one of the richest regions in Italy. In 2015, the regional gross domestic product per inhabitant, expressed in purchasing power standards , was 103% of the EU-28 average . With a value of 0.892, the region ranks 11th among the 21 regions and autonomous provinces of Italy in the Human Development Index . The unemployment rate is around three percent, well below the Italian average (eleven percent). Some of the most important Italian companies have their headquarters here, including the automobile manufacturers Fiat and Lancia (both in Turin), as well as the food manufacturer Ferrero in Alba and the electronics company Olivetti in Ivrea . In addition to modern industry in and around Turin, wool processing in Biella and the service companies , agriculture is also of great importance: in the Po Valley, in addition to rice (one third of European rice production comes from here, Piedmont is the largest European rice-growing area), fruit and vegetables are grown, the hilly areas supply wine (see also the article on viticulture in Piedmont ) and hazelnuts , cattle is raised in the north-west bordering Aosta Valley , which does not belong to Piedmont .
In 2017, the unemployment rate was 9.1%, below the national average.
Compared to other parts of Italy, Piedmont is not yet very well developed for tourism. The main focus of tourism is in the north on Lake Maggiore and in the Langhe, where gastronomic enthusiasts can enjoy wine (especially Barolo and Barbaresco) and truffles . The main season begins with the truffle harvest in October.
The entire Alpine arc of Piedmont can be hiked on the 55-day long-distance hiking trail Grande Traversata delle Alpi (GTA) and the Via Alpina . In addition, there are many circular routes around well-known peaks such as the Giro di Viso and the Giro del Marguareis as well as hiking trails that open up certain valley regions such as the Percorsi Occitani in the Mairatal and the Alta Via in the Susatal. In addition, there are partisan routes in many valleys .
Part of today's route of the Via Francigena , which once served medieval pilgrims from France or England as a route to Rome, runs through Piedmont. In addition, both the historical path of the Glorioso Rimpatrio, on which the Waldensians returned from Geneva to their home valleys, and the path of the previous exile can be followed.
Architecture and art
Piedmont is rich in art and cultural treasures. Four categories of sights in the region belong to the UNESCO World Heritage : the residences of the House of Savoy , added to the list in 1997, the Sacri Monti (Holy Mountains), added in 2003, the prehistoric pile dwellings , added in 2011, and the vineyards of the Langhe- Roero and des Monferrato, recorded in 2014.
Among the most famous buildings are the baroque representative buildings of Turin: the Palazzo Reale , Palazzo Madama , the Castello del Valentino , the church of San Lorenzo designed by Guarino Guarini with its architecturally outstanding dome and Filippo Juvarra's Basilica di Superga , which is located on a hill . About 10 kilometers southwest of Turin in Stupinigi is also available from Juvarra designed pleasure palace Palazzina di Caccia , about 20 kilometers south of the Royal Castle Racconigi and just north of Turin of the Palace of Venaria . Also important is the Cathedral of San Giovanni Battista , the only surviving Renaissance building in the city, with the Capella di S. Sindone, another masterpiece by Guarini, which was damaged by fire in 1997. The most important museums in the city include the Museo Egizio , which after the museum in Cairo is the world's most important collection of Egyptian antiquities, the Galleria Sabauda picture gallery , the Museo Civico d'Arte Antica in Palazzo Madama with its collection of medieval works of art and the Museo Nazionale del Cinema (Kinomuseum) in the Mole Antonelliana , a 167.5 m high, pavilion-like building that was built in the 19th century according to plans by Alessandro Antonellis (originally planned as a synagogue). The region's capital is also characterized by the numerous equestrian statues, be it those of the various Savoy dukes such as the Emanuele Filibertos in Piazza San Carlo, one of the most beautiful squares in the city, or those of the Dioscuri in the large Piazza Castello. Baroque Turin emerged in the 17th and 18th centuries, modeled on Paris, when the Savoyers commissioned the city to be redesigned - not least to represent their power. This results in the cityscape that is still uniform today. Before Emanuele Filiberto I chose Turin as the new capital of his duchy in 1563, it was a rather insignificant country town.
The hilly landscape of Monferrato north of Asti and east of Turin impresses with numerous smaller Romanesque monasteries and churches such as the Abbey of Vezzolano or the churches in Montiglio , Montechiaro and Cortazzone . Furthermore, the former city republics of Asti (with its Gothic cathedral Ss. Maria Assunta e Gottardo) and Alba in the Langhe have an interesting historical old town, and Casale Monferrato , as the former residence of the Marquis of Saluzzo, has an interesting Gothic one with S. Evasio Dom.
Further north, Vercelli impresses in the Po Valley with the mighty Basilica of Sant'Andrea, one of the oldest Italian churches with a Gothic interior, and numerous family towers, such as the Torre dell'Angelo near Piazza Cavour. The Sacro Monte di Varallo was created in the late Renaissance . In Novara , a little further to the east, near Lombardy, the medieval Broletto and the huge domed church of San Gaudenzio are particularly worth seeing, the latter also largely a work of Antonelli.
The monastery of San Giulio on the island of San Giulio in Lake Orta was preserved from the Romanesque period . On Lake Maggiore, the Borromean Islands are one of the greatest attractions, especially the Isola Bella - a baroque island palace with multi-storey gardens that has always amazed travelers.
In Ivrea , which is near the border with the Aosta Valley, the Cathedral of S. Maria Assunta and the frescoed church of San Bernardino are of particular artistic and historical interest.
In the province of Cuneo (south of Turin) is the once mighty Saluzzo , which is characterized in particular by its churches (Dom S. Maria Assunta, S. Giovanni and S. Bernardino) and its medieval townscape, the also medieval Savigliano , Fossano the Abbey Staffarda and the castle of Manta with their Mannerist frescoes. About 30 km east of Cuneo is the monumental Marian shrine of Vicoforte . Visitors to this province can also see the choir frescoes attributed to the Flemish painter Hans Clemer in the parish church of S. Maria Assunta von Elva , a somewhat isolated village in the Mairatal .
To the west of Turin, at the entrance to or in the Susa Valley , are the Gothic-Romanesque abbey of Sant'Antonio di Ranverso with the fresco of Giacomo Jaquerios carrying the cross , the medieval Avigliana and the famous former Benedictine abbey of Sacra di San Michele , which is a symbol of Piedmont. The small town of Chianocco offers a fort, a ruined church and a Romanesque fortified house to visit. In addition to a medieval cathedral, Susa itself also has some remains from Roman times ( Arch of Augustus and Porta Savoia). Near the Mont Cenis pass is the Romanesque Novalesa monastery . At the end of the valley and on the border with France is the fortress of Exilles , which has housed a museum since 2000.
In the Chisone valley, the Fenestrelle fortress is the largest fortress in Europe.
The famous historical personalities of Piedmont include the general of the Habsburg Empire Prince Eugene of Savoy , the politician, painter and writer Massimo d'Azeglio and Camillo Benso von Cavour , who as Prime Minister Piedmont-Sardinia unified Italy in the second half of the 19th century helped. The neo-Guelf cleric Vincenzo Gioberti comes from Turin . The five-time Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti , the ninth Italian President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro and the military Luigi Cadorna , chief of the Italian General Staff in World War I, are native Piedmontese. The mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange , the priest and founder of the order Don Bosco and the entrepreneurial family Agnelli , which among other things hold the majority in the Fiat group, also come from the region .
The most important Piedmontese writers include Vittorio Alfieri , born in Asti , who influenced the Risorgimento as a poet and playwright of the Enlightenment , the novelist, philosopher and semiotic Umberto Eco from Alessandria , whose most famous work is the book The Name of the Rose , and the Turin authors Primo Levi and Carlo Levi , the former author of Is that a person? , the latter of Christ only came to Eboli . The writer Cesare Pavese also comes from Santo Stefano Belbo , who had a major influence on Italian post-war literature . Less popular is Beppe Fenoglio , from Alba , whose perhaps best-known book The Partisan Johnny is one of the most important literary works devoted to the resistance issue.
Other influential citizens of Piedmont were the financial scientist and Italian President Luigi Einaudi and his son Giulio Einaudi , founder of the famous publishing house Einaudi . Well-known Piedmontese are also the Turin jazz musician Nini Rosso , the Asti-born musician Paolo Conte , the Ivrea-born Camillo Olivetti , engineer and founder of the company of the same name, as well as the members of the Ferrero family , who still own the confectionery manufacturer of the same name. The most famous Piedmontese athletes are probably the cyclist and three-time world champion Fausto Coppi and the successful walker Maurizio Damilano .
- Sabine Becht, Sven Talaron: Piedmont with trips to the Aosta Valley. Michael Müller Verlag, 2018, 5th completely revised and updated edition
- Sibylle Geier: Piedmont, Aosta Valley. Reise Know-How Verlag, 2017, 4th revised, redesigned and completely updated edition
- Touring Editore (Ed.): Piemonte. ( Guide Verdi D'Italia series ), 2015.
- Richard Zürcher: Piedmont and the Aosta Valley. Prestel, Munich 1976.
- Ida Leinberger, Walter Pippke: Piedmont and Aosta Valley. DuMont, 4th edition, Ostfildern 2013.
- Heinz Schomann: Reclam's Art Guide Italy, Bd.1 / 2, Piedmont, Liguria, Aosta Valley. Reclam, Ditzingen 1982, ISBN 978-3-15-010306-7 .
- Touring Editore (Ed.): Piemonte. ( Guide Rosse D'Italia series ), 2005.
- Touring Editore (ed.): Torino e il suo territorio. ( Guide Rosse D'Italia series ), 2009.
- Sabine Bade, Wolfram Mikuteit: Piedmont hiking guide. Michael Müller, 2010, ISBN 978-3-89953-566-2 .
- Sabine Bade, Wolfram Mikuteit: Partisan Paths in Piedmont. Places and paths of resistance between Gran Paradiso and Monviso. A hiking book. Querwege Konstanz, 2012, ISBN 978-3-941585-05-8 .
- Werner Bätzing: Grande Traversata delle Alpi, Part 1: The North. Rotpunktverlag, Zurich, ISBN 3-85869-256-5 ; Part 2: The South. Rotpunktverlag, Zurich, ISBN 3-85869-257-3 .
- Iris Kürschner, Dieter Haas: GTA - Grande Traversata delle Alpi. Hiking guide. Bergverlag Rother, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-7633-4402-4 .
- Iris Kürschner: Piedmont South. Rother, 3rd edition, 2015, ISBN 978-3-7633-4359-1 .
- Iris Kürschner: Piedmont North. Rother, 2nd edition, 2015, ISBN 978-3-7633-4360-7 .
- Alessandro Barbero : Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008.
- Valerio Castronovo (ed.): Il Piemonte. Einaudi, Turin 1977. (Ruggiero Romani, Corrado Vivanti (Ed.): Storia d'Italia. ) (History of Piedmont from the unification of Italy to the present day)
- La grande storia del Piemonte , 5 vols., Bonechi, Florence 2006. (richly illustrated)
- www.regione.piemonte.it - website of the regional government
- Piemonte dal Vivo Lively Piedmont: 87 festivals
- Map of Piedmont
- Dictionary of the German and Piedmontese languages
- Waldensian Paths - (also in German, but not so detailed)
- Hiking in the Western Alps - site by the book authors Sabine Bade and Wolfram Mikuteit with lots of information and pictures
- Page with a lot of information about the Grande Traversata delle Alpi
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- Alessandro Barbero : Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008. Introduzione, p. XIV.
- Alessandro Barbero: Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008. Introduzione, S. XV.
- Minority languages in Italy ( Italian ) .
- Ida Leinberger, Walter Pippke: Piedmont and the Aosta Valley. DuMont, 4th edition, Ostfildern 2013, p. 15.
- Alessandro Barbero: Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008, p. 3.
- http://www.parks.it/parco.monte.fenera/par.php (accessed on March 28, 2016 at 11 p.m.): “Attraverso i secoli, a partire dal Paleolitico Medio fino ai giorni nostri, si ha sul Fenera una continua presenza umana [...] "(Eng." Over the centuries, from the Middle Paleolithic to the present day, there has been a continuous human presence on Monte Genera [...] ")
- Alessandro Barbero: Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008, p. 4 f.
- Ida Leinberger, Walter Pippke: Piemont and Aosta Valley. DuMont, 4th edition, Ostfildern 2013, p. 37.
- Giorgio Tourn: History of the Waldensians. kitab Erlanger Verlag, Klagenfurt / Vienna 2013, 4th edition, p. 6, p. 139 and p. 151.
- Rudolf Lill : History of Italy in the modern age . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 4th ed. Darmstadt 1988, p. 95.
- To this in detail Alessandro Barbero : Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008, pp. 385-387.
- Translation quoted from Gustav Seibt: Rome or death. The fight for the Italian capital. Siedler, Berlin 2001, p. 117.
- Rudolf Lill: History of Italy in the modern age . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 4th ed. Darmstadt 1988, p. 119 and p. 122.
- Rudolf Lill: History of Italy in the modern age . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 4th ed. Darmstadt 1988, p. 133.
- Dieter Langewiesche : Europe between restoration and revolution . 5th edition, Munich 2007 (Oldenburg floor plan of history 13), p. 92 and p. 105.
- Gustav Seibt : Rome or death. The fight for the Italian capital. Siedler, Berlin 2001, p. 151.
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