Occitan language

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Occitan (occitan / lenga d'òc)

Spoken in

FranceFrance France , Monaco , Spain , Italy
Official status
Official language in SpainSpain Spain
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


Occitan (Occitan occitan [ utsiˈtɒ ] / lenga d'òc [ lɛŋgoˈdɔ ], French occitan / langue d'oc ) is the second Gallo-Roman language alongside French , which developed from Vulgar Latin in former Gaul . The varieties (dialects) of Occitan, which, in contrast to French, does not have a uniform, supra-regional written language, are mainly spoken in the southern third of France and other smaller areas. These include the north-west Catalan region of Val d'Aran on the territory of Spain and some Piedmontese Alpine valleys in northern Italy , as well as language islands created by emigration in southern Italy ( Guardia Piemontese ), in North America ( Valdese in North Carolina ) and in South America ( Colonia Valdense in Uruguay ). In the Waldensian settlements in southern Germany, the Occitan linguistic islands disappeared in the 20th century.

Occitan is only recognized as an official language in Catalonia (alongside Castilian and Catalan ) - in its variant Aranese from the Val d'Aran. In France (Northern) French has been the sole official language since 1539 , while Occitan is only one of the regional or minority languages ​​recognized by the French state in 1999 with some restrictions under the European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages .

Demonstration for Occitan as the school and official language. Carcassonne , October 22, 2005


“Occitan language” in a review of: “Recueil de Poëtes Gaſcons avec le dictionnaire de la langue Toulouſaine. Part I, II & III à Amſterdam; 1700 ”Monthly extract from all kinds of useful and good books that have been published again. Ed. J. Gg. by Eckart. Hanover: Forester. October MDCC.

The name Occitan is derived from òc , the Occitan affirmation particle, which originated from the neuter hŏc (Latin "this") of the Latin demonstrative pronoun hĭc ("this"). Among the Gallo-Roman languages , the varieties ("dialects") of Occitan are delimited as langue d'oc [lɑ̃ɡdɔk] from the langue (s) d'oïl [lãɡdojl] of northern France. The latter are named after the old French affirmative particle oïl "ja", which is composed of o <hŏc "this" and il "er" and later became oui (New French pronunciation [wi], [w] as in English w all). The name for the Languedoc region [lãɡdɔk], which is only part of the Occitan language area , also comes from the language name langue d'oc . The present name Occitan was acquired in German from Occitan and French Occitan . They go back to the Middle Latin word forms of the type lingua occitāna or occitānica , which have been documented since the beginning of the 14th century , which remained restricted to the Latin official language, in contrast to Mittelat. lingua oc ( langue d'oc ) but had no equivalent in the vernacular and was completely out of use towards the end of the Middle Ages, only to be revived in Latin by a few scholars from the study of medieval manuscripts in the 17th century. Based on their model, isolated documents for occitan (1819) and occitanique (1802) appear in French at the beginning of the 19th century , but only with the programmatic return to an "Occitan" culture and language, especially since the founding of the Ligue Occitane von In 1897, the word occitan was able to establish itself in parlance.

The classification of the Romance languages ​​on the basis of their affirmative particles (“yes”) can already be found in Dante Alighieri , who in his writing De vulgari eloquentia distinguished three main branches of the Romance languages based on the affirmative particles , òc and oïl . In doing so, however, he determined (from Latin sīc ) exclusively as a feature of Italian, neglecting Spanish (Castilian), which is probably little known to him, while he referred to the speakers of the lingua oc as "Spaniards" ( Yspani ) ( Dve  I, viii, 5), although in his work he then mainly cites southern French and not Catalan or “Spanish” Trobadors as representatives of poetry in the lingua oc .

Occitan as the Romance language of Galloromania

Dialectal structure

Occitan is an independent Romance language and its varieties are not dialects or patois of French, as is often wrongly assumed in France.

Map of the Languages ​​and Dialects of France; red the Occitan varieties (dialects)

Occitan is divided into numerous varieties ("dialects") which can be divided into three groups:

Language history: origin, heyday, decay and revival

Occitan developed from Vulgar Latin in southern Gaul. The differences in social and cultural development between the south and north of France in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages are also reflected in the different language development. Among other things, the varieties of the south, unlike those of the north, were hardly influenced by the Franconian superstrat . They changed less quickly in the phonetic field and thus retained greater resemblance to the other Romance languages.

By the 12th century, two different languages ​​emerged on the basis of the linguistic varieties that had emerged from Vulgar Latin in what is now France. French developed north of the Loire and Occitan to the south. In the 12th and 13th centuries it played an important role as a literary language (especially trobadord poetry ), which was not limited to the courts of southern France, but also preceded the literaryization of the Romance dialects in northern Spain, especially in Catalonia , and in Italy or shaped them sustainably. The Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229) ended this cultural flowering of Occitan.

In the course of the centralization on the linguistic level begun by Louis XIV , Occitan was abolished as the language of instruction in public schools and its use in everyday life was pushed back. Especially since the French Revolution from 1789, the language lost its importance, as the entire population was now included in the political life of the French central state and the educational system organized by it, which only used French.

1854 the poet and lawyer founded Frédéric Mistral for the purpose of reviving the Provencal language and literature, the language movement Félibrige that birth as a model for linguistic normalization of Occitan Provencal of Mistral Maillane the orthographic normalization ( "graphy mistralienne") did not try to enforce, was only adapted to the conditions of this dialect, but was also influenced by the orthography of (northern) French. In contrast, the linguist Louis Alibert orientated himself in his grammar of Occitan (1935) not on Provençal, but on Languedoc and in the spelling on traditional conventions from the tradition of medieval trobadord poetry ("graphie classique" ). His initiative was continued from 1945 by the Institut d'Estudis Occitans in Toulouse , and Robert Lafont finally adapted the rules of the IEO in 1951 specifically for the Provençal.

Street signs in French (above) and in Occitan (below) in Toulouse
Place name sign for Marseillan in French and Occitan. The Occitan coat of arms and the colors (red and gold) appear on the sign.

Occitan is found in thirty-three French departments in the south of the republic. Its current speakers have usually already learned French as their primary language, only speak Occitan as a second language and use it mainly in their private lives. The proportion of older people outweighs younger people, men over women and rural dwellers over city dwellers. There are no official surveys; estimates and projections sometimes diverge considerably.

Language politics: struggle for recognition

According to estimates published in 1993 by the European Bureau for Linguistic Minorities , of the 12-13 million inhabitants of the region, 48% could understand Occitan, 28% could speak this language, 13% read it, 6% write it, and about 9%, which is one to two million Speakers used them every day. Fabrice Bernissan came in 2012 after a detailed study of the situation in the Hautes-Pyrénées department and an extrapolation for the entire language area to only approx. 100,000 native speakers in France.

Occitan is now taught in some state schools in France and is used as the language of instruction in addition to French in more than 30 private schools (as of 2000), so-called Calandretas .

Around 65% (4,000–5,000) of the inhabitants of the Val d'Aran speak Aranese and 90% understand it. Here, Occitan in its Aranese variant is considered a co-official language alongside Catalan and Spanish.

In Italy, the number of speakers is estimated at 50,000. In the Occitan valleys of Piedmont, Occitan is spoken by 49.5% of the population.

As a result of emigration, some more remote Occitan language islands emerged outside the original Catalan, French and northern Italian distribution area, especially the municipality of Guardia Piemontese in north-western Calabria, founded in the 16th century by northern Italian Waldensians, and the settlement of Valdese in North Carolina , which was also founded by northern Italian Waldensians in the 19th century and Pigüé in Argentina, which has been populated by immigrants from Aveyron since 1884 .

Occitan as a Romance Language: Linguistic Description

The Old Occitan

We encounter Old Occitan (also called Old Provençal in older Romance languages) in documents and the poems of the troubadours. As the language of poetry, it is a common language ( Koine ) that largely bridges the differences between the dialects of Occitan. This language also raises problems with regard to its origin because the texts they use are only available in later copies, some of which reflect the dialectal language peculiarities of their writers. Grammarians of the 13th and 14th centuries also called the language of the troubadours lemozi (limousine). Poitevini and Languedoc could also be used.

Linguistic particularities

  • Existence of a two- casus inflection (as in Old Friulian and Old French), therefore freer word order: cavaliers "the knight" in the case rectus (nominative) Sg. Versus cavalier "the knight" in the case obliquus (accusative and all other cases).
  • Pro-drop language , i.e. H. the use of the subject pronoun was not mandatory
  • Special features in the spelling:
    • "Ll" for [ʎ],
    • "S" marks voiceless s (also [s]),
    • "Z" voiced s (also [z]),
    • “-G” at the end of the word often [tʃ], “j” for the sound [dʒ].
  • Special features in phonetics:
    • As is customary in Western Romance languages , double sounds do not exist.
    • Latin final -a is first weakened to "-e" and then to [ə]. The forms in -a preserved in Old Occitan became predominantly -o in New Occitan .
    • The Latin diphthong / au / is retained: Latin taurus > altokz. taur 'bull', Latin aurum > aur 'gold' (similar to Friulian and Romanian).

Example of an old Occitan text :

Raimon Vidal de Besalú : Abril issi 'e mays intrava

  1. Abril issi 'e mays intrava / April went and May came
  2. e cascus dels auzels chantava / and every bird sang
  3. josta sa par, que autz que bas / with his companion, some with a high voice, some with a deep voice;
  4. e car remanion atras / and because lagging behind
  5. vas totas partz, neus e freidors / on all sides the snow and the cold
  6. venion frugz venion flors / came forth fruits and flowers
  7. e clar temps e dossa sazos , / and nice weather and gentle times
  8. e yeu m'estava cossiros / and I was full of thoughts
  9. e per amor un pauc embroncx . / and a little depressed by love.

Latin (as literally as possible):

  1. Aprilis iit et Maius intrabat,
  2. et unaquaeque avium cantabat,
  3. iuxta parem suum, vel (voce) acuta vel gravi;
  4. et quod relicta erant
  5. undique (in omnibus partibus) nix et frigus,
  6. venerunt fructus, venerunt flores
  7. et clara tempestas et dulcia tempora,
  8. et ego eram sollicitus
  9. et per amorem paulum maestus

Linguistic comment:

  • Bicasusflexion: mays (1): nominative ( may would be the accusative), cascus (2), neus (5), freidors (5)
  • Partition article : cascus dels auzels (2)
  • Reproduction of both and by que ... que (3) but also by e ... e (7)
  • paratactic constructions predominate: e (4), car (4)
  • Plural -s becomes voiced after a voiced consonant: frugz (6) and not * frugs
  • Prepositions and adverbs: atras (4) (<vulgar Latin ad + trans )
  • Vocalization of the Latin l before the consonant: Latin dulce > old Occitan dols , dulz > dous > neo- Occitan doç 'gently' (7)
  • the paradigm of stare adopts that of esse in the past tense (also in old French!): estava (8) “I was”, approach to an opposition between esse and stare as in Spanish.
  • Obtaining the Latin diphthong / au /: pauc (9)

The New Occitan

The dialects of Occitan according to Frédéric Mistral

Example of a New Occitan text:

En prouvençau, ce que l'on pènso / What one thinks in Provençal,
Vèn sus li bouco eisadamen: / comes easily on the mouth (over the lips):
O douço lengo de Prouvènço, / o sweet language of Provence,
Vaqui perqué toujou t'amen! / that's why we always want to love you!
Sus li frejau de la Durenço / On the pebbles of the Durance
N'en aven fa lou saramen! / we swore it!
Sian tout d'ami galoi e libre ... / We are all happy and free friends.
( Frédéric Mistral , 1854)


Vowels Front center Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Closed central / i / / y / / u /
half closed / e /
Half open / ɛ / / ɔ /
Open / a /

The phonemes / œ / and / ə / also exist regionally .

Consonants labial dental and alveolar palatal velar
unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced unvoiced voiced
Plosives / p / / b / / t / / d / / k / /G/
Fricatives / f / (/ v /) / s / / z / (/ ʃ /)
Affricates / ts / (/ dz /) / tʃ / / dʒ /
Nasals / m / / n / / ɲ /
Lateral / l / / ʎ /
Vibrants / r /
Taps / flaps / ɾ /
Approximants / w /, / ɥ / / y /



  • a :
    • -a- , a- and à are pronounced [a].
    • -a unstressed at the end of the word is pronounced [ɔ / o̞] .
    • á at the end of the word is pronounced [ɔ] .
  • e :
    • e or é is pronounced [e].
    • è is pronounced [ɛ] .
  • i or í is pronounced [i] or before vowels [j].
  • O
    • o or ó is pronounced [u] or [w].
    • ò is pronounced [ɔ] .
  • u is pronounced [y] or as a half-vowel [ɥ] , except after [w].


  • b : [b]
  • c : [k]. [s] before “e” and “i”. If it is doubled ( cc ), [ts].
  • ch : [tʃ]
  • ç : [s]
  • d : [d] / [ð]
  • f : [f]
  • g : [g] / [ɣ] before "a", "o", "u". [dʒ] before “e” and “i”. At the end of the word it is pronounced [k] or, in some words, [tʃ] . gu before "e" and "i" is [g] / [ɣ]
  • h : mostly mute
  • j : [dʒ] , [dz]
  • k : [k]
  • l : [l]. Doubled ( ll ) it is pronounced geminized as [ll].
  • lh : [ʎ] , at the end of the word [l].
  • m : doubled ( mm ) it is mined [mm].
  • n : [n]. Mute at the end of the word. [m] before “p”, “b” and “m”. [ŋ] before c / qu and g / gu. [ɱ] before "f". nd and nt [n]
  • nh : [ɲ] . At the end of the word [n].
  • p : [p]
  • qu : [k] before “e” and “i”. [kw] in other positions.
  • r : [r] and [ɾ] . At the end of the word, most of the words are silent. rn and rm [ɾ] .
  • s : [s]. [z] between vowels. ss is [s].
  • t : [t]. tg / tj is [tʃ] . tl is [ll]. tn is [nn]. tm is [mm]. tz is [ts]
  • v : [b], [v] in Ostoczitan.
  • w : [w], [b]
  • x : [ts], [s] before consonant.
  • y : [i] / [j]
  • z : [z]

Morphology and syntax

  • Verb: three conjugation classes: 1st group on -ar , 2nd group on -ir , 3rd group on -er / -re .

Example of present tense conjugation

parl ar 'speak' leg ir 'read' met re 'set, lay'
parl i leg issi met i
parl as leg isses met it
parl a leg ís met
parl am leg issèm met èm
parl atz leg issètz met ètz
parl at leg isson met on

Few verbs ending in -ir are formed without the suffix -iss- : sentir ' to hear' - senti, sentes, sent, sentèm, sentètz, senton

  • Occitan is a pro-drop language, so it doesn't need the subject pronoun, as the endings of the verbs provide clear information about the person.
  • The negation is formed by post-verbal pas .
  • The definite articles are lo / lou [lu] (sg.), Los (pl.) For masculine, la (sg.) And las (pl.) For feminine. Before a vowel, lo and la are elided to l ' . The indefinite articles are un (mask.) And una (fem.).
  • Noun: There are two grammatical genders. Masculine ending in consonant or -e , feminine ending in -a : lo filh 'the son', la filha 'the daughter'.
  • Plural: As in all Western Roman languages, Occitan has a sigmatic plural, i.e. H. usually an -s is added to the singular form: òme, omès 'man, men', femna, femnas 'woman, women'.

Words that end in -s, -ç, -ch, -f, -g, -sc, -st, -xt, -x form the plural on -es : peis, peisses 'fish, fish', fotograf, fotografes 'photographer, photographer', tèxt, tèxtes 'text, texts'. Words that end in -tz form the plural on -ses: crotz, croses , Kreuz, Kreuze '.

  • Compared to French, Occitan has a relatively large number of article prepositions, whereby only the masculine articles fuse with the preposition:
+ lo + go
a al as
de del dels
sus sul suls
jos jol jols
by pel pels
  • While the Old Occitan, like the Old French, had a two-case inflection , there is no longer a noun case in modern Occitan. The syntactic relationships are expressed using word order and prepositions.


The vocabulary of Occitan is largely of Romance / Latin origin and is mostly similar to that of Catalan .

Latin French Franco-Provencal Occitan Catalan Spanish Portuguese Piedmontese Italian meaning
clavis clé clâ clau clau clave, llave chave ciav chiave key
(accusative: noctem )
nuit nuet nuèch, nuèit, nuòch, net nit noche noite neuit notte night
( Vulgar Latin : cantare )
chanter chantar cantar, chantar cantar cantar cantar canté cantare to sing
capra chèvre cabra / chiévra cabra, craba, chabra cabra cabra cabra crava capra goat
lingua langue lenga lenga, linga, lengua llengua lengua língua lenga lingua language
platea place place plaça plaça plaza praça piassa piazza Square (Latin: street, alley)
(genitive: pontis )
pont pont pont pont puente ponte pont ponte bridge
ecclesia église églésé glèisa, glèia església iglesia igreja cesa , gesia chiesa church
hospitals hôpital hèpetâl espital, ospitau hospital hospital hospital ospidal ospedals hospital
( Vulgar Latin : formaticum )
fromage tôma / fromâjo formatge, fromatge, hormatge formatge queso queijo formagg formaggio , dial. cacio cheese

Linguistic peculiarities of some Neo-Occitan dialects



  • Gerhard Rohlfs : The Provencal Language . In: From Vulgar Latin to Old French . 3rd, verb. Ed. Max Niemeyer, Tübingen 1968, pp. 52–84
  • Pierre Bec: La langue occitane. Que sais-je? Vol. 1059, 6th edition. PUF, Paris 1995 ISBN 2-13-039639-9
  • Pierre Bec: Manuel pratique d'occitan modern . Picard, Paris 1973
  • Pierre Blanchet: Le Provençal. Essai de description sociolinguistique et différentielle. Série pédagogique de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain. Vol. 15. Peeters, Louvain-la-Neuve 1992 ISBN 90-6831-428-9
  • Dominique Garcia: La Celtique méditerranéenne: Habitats et sociétés en Languedoc et en Provence du VIIIe au IIe siècle av. J.-C. Errance, Paris 2004 ISBN 2-87772-286-4
  • Günter Holtus , Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (Hrsg.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics . 12 Bde. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988 - 2005. Volume V, 2: Occitan, Catalan. 1991 ISBN 3-484-50250-9
  • Georg Kremnitz: The Occitan. History of Language and Sociology. Romance workbooks, 23. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1981 ISBN 3-484-54023-0
  • Trudel Meisenburg: The social role of Occitan in a small community in Languedoc ( Lacaune / Tarn). Tübingen 1985 ISBN 3-484-52200-3

Literary history

  • Fausta Garavini: La letteratura occitanica moderna . La letteratura del mondo. Vol. 50. Sansoni, Florence 1970, ZDB -ID 415178-1
  • Philippe Gardy: Une écriture en archipelago. Cinquante ans de poésie occitane (1940–1990) . Fédérop, Église-Neuve-d'Issac 1992, ISBN 2-85792-083-0 .
  • Robert Lafont , Christian Anatole: Nouvelle histoire de la littérature occitane. PUF, Paris 1970.
  • Jean Rouquette: La littérature d'oc . 3. Edition. Que sais-je? Vol. 1039. PUF, Paris 1980, ISBN 2-13-036669-4 .


  • Michel Courty (ed.): Anthologie de la littérature provençale modern. L'Astrado, Berre l'Etang 1997, ISBN 2-85391-082-2 .
  • Fritz-Peter Kirsch (ed.): Occitan narrators of the 20th century. Selected texts with German translation and commentary . Narr, Tübingen 1980, ISBN 3-87808-519-2 .
  • Robert Lafont (Ed.): Histoire et anthologie de la littérature occitane. Presses du Languedoc, Montpellier 1997, ISBN 2-85998-167-5 .
  • Dietmar Rieger (ed.): Songs of the Trobadors. Provencal / German. Selected, translated and commented by Dietmar Rieger (= Medieval poetry of France I ). Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-15-007620-X .
  • Dietmar Rieger : The old Provencal poetry . In: Poetry of the Middle Ages I (= Poetry of the Middle Ages. Problems and Interpretations. Edited by Heinz Bergner ). Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-15-007896-2 . Pp. 197-390.


  • Louis Alibert: Dictionnaire occitan-français d'après les parlers languedociens . Institut d'études occitanes, Toulouse 1965, 1993, ISBN 2-85910-069-5
  • Roger Barthe: Lexique occitan-français . Association des amis de la langue d'oc, Paris 1972, 1980, 1988.
  • André Lagarde: Dictionnaire occitan-français, français-occitan . CRDP Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse 1996, 2000, ISBN 2-86565-151-7
  • Frédéric Mistral : Lou Tresor dóu felibrige ou dictionnaire provençal-français embrassant les divers dialectes de la langue d'oc modern . Remondet-Aubin, Aix-en-Provence 1878-1886, Edisud, Aix-en-Provence 1979, ISBN 2-85744-052-9 (repr., Introduction by Jean-Claude Bouvier).
  • Dictionnaire de l'occitan médiéval (DOM) . Founded by Helmut Stimm . Edited by Wolf-Dieter Stempel with the assistance of Claudia Kraus, Renate Peter, Monika Tausend. Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen. (The publication of the dictionary has been supervised by the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich since 1997. The work was published in printed form until 2013, now it is only published in an Internet version: DOM en ligne - Dictionnaire de l'Occitan Médiéval ).

Language teaching and grammar

  • Oskar Schultz-Gora: Old Provencal elementary book . Carl Winters Verlag, Heidelberg 1936.
  • Peter Cichon: Introduction to the Occitan language (= library of Romance language textbooks . Vol. 4). Romanistischer Verlag, Bonn 2002, ISBN 3-86143-093-2 .
  • Pierre Bec: Manuel pratique de philologie romane . Picard, Paris. Vol.1 (1970), Vol. 2 (1971).
  • Jacme Taupiac: Gramatica occitana . Institut d'Estudis Occitans, Puèglaurenç 1995, ISBN 3-86143-093-2 .
  • Nicolas Quint: L'occitan. Collection sans peine. Assimil, Chennevières-sur-Marne 2014, ISBN 978-2-7005-0425-5 .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Dictionary Occitan-German  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Dictionaries of the Occitan language  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: Occitan Dictionaries  - Sources and Full Texts
Commons : Occitan Language  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ernst Hirsch: Contributions to the linguistic history of the Württemberg Waldensians. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1962
  2. Laura Schroeder: Les petjades occitanes dels valdesos a Alemanya. In: Aitor Carrera Baiget, Isabel Grifoll (ed.): Occitània en Catalonha: de tempses novèls, de novèlas perspectivas. Actes de l'XIen Congrès de l'Associacion Internacionala d'Estudis Occitans. (Lhèida, del 16 al 21 de junh de 2014) . Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya, departament de Cultura. 2017. Biblioteca técnica de política lingüística, 21. Documents occitans, ISBN 978-84-393-9567-6 . Read online .
  3. hŏc took the place of ĭd “this” in Vulgar Latin . ( Documented in the so-called Reichenau glosses ).
  4. It is based on the shortening of an answer that served as an affirmation. “Did he do this?” “Yes, he did this.” Hoc Zonen fecit > o il / oïl = literally: “This is what he did”. This formula was also possible with other pronouns. O je, o tu, o el (l) e etc. Since the pronouns of the third person occurred most frequently, it has established itself as a general affirmative formula, the original meaning of which was no longer recognized. S. Hans Rheinfelder : Old French grammar. Part 2: Form theory . 1st edition. Max Hueber Verlag, Munich 1967. p. 118. In Occitan the formula was used without pronouns: hence oc = “yes”.
  5. On the phonetic development of the new French oui [wi] s. Hans Rheinfelder : Old French grammar. 1st part: Phonology . 3rd edition supplemented by an appendix. Max Hueber Verlag, Munich 1963. pp. 44 and 354.
  6. s. Gerhard Rohlfs: Le Gascon. Études de philologie pyrnénéenne . Max Niemeyer Verlag, Halle 1935.
    Kurt Baldinger: La position du gascon entre la Galloromania et l'Iberoromania. In: Revue de linguistique romane (RLiR). Vol. 22, 1958. pp. 241-292.
  7. ^ European Bureau of the Lesser Used Languages: Mini-Guide to the Lesser Used Languages ​​of the EEC. EBLUL, Dublin 1993, pp. 15-16, quoted from Anne Judge: France: “One state, one nation, one language”? In: Stephen Barbour, Cathie Carmichael (Eds.): Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford University Press , Oxford 2000, pp. 44-82, p. 62.
  8. a b c Claudia Polzin-Haumann: Occitan. In: Nina Janich, Albrecht Greule (Ed.): Language cultures in Europe. An international manual. Gunter Narr, Tübingen 2002, pp. 186–191, p. 186.
  9. ^ Fabrice Bernissan: Combien de locuteurs compte l'occitan? Revue de Linguistique Romane Vol. 76, 2012, pp. 467-512, p. 493.
  10. ^ Istituto di Ricerche Economico Sociale del Piemonte: Le lingue del Piemonte . 2007. Collana di Ricerche. Vol. 113. Retrieved June 11, 2011.
  11. The language of trobadord poetry, which was primarily called "Old Provençal" earlier, is not the medieval language level of today's Occitan dialect "Provençal".
  12. Dietmar Rieger : The old Provencal poetry . In: Poetry of the Middle Ages I (= Poetry of the Middle Ages. Problems and Interpretations. Edited by Heinz Bergner ). Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-15-007896-2 . Pp. 202-205.
  13. ^ From: Heinrich Lausberg: Romance Linguistics. I. Introduction and vocalism . 3rd, revised edition (= Göschen Collection, Vol. 128 / 128a). Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1969. p. 46.
  14. ^ Lo in the so-called graphie classique, lou in the graphie mistralienne.