As langues d'oïl (today's debate: [lãɡdɔj (l)]) is a group of Gallo-Roman languages and dialects of the north lying on the merits of the Loire region of France and in French-speaking part of Belgium and Luxembourg respectively.
In contrast, there are the southern langues d'oc (from Latin hŏc ), which are known as the Occitan language . The langues d'oïl were more exposed to the influence of the Franks and their language than the langues d'oc . The langues d'oïl are distributed in northern France , the islands in the English Channel , Belgium ( Walloon language ) and north-west Switzerland . Modern French developed from a variant of the langue d'oïl of the Paris area , the French dialect (fr. Francien ).
Distribution of the langues d'oïl in France
- Berrichon ( Berry )
- Bourguignon-morvandiau ( Bourgogne ),
- Champenois ( Champagne ),
- Franc-Comtois ( Franche-Comté ),
- Gallo ( Armorican Zone),
- Lorraine ( Lorraine ),
- Norman ,
- Saintongeais and Poitevin ( Marais Poitevin ) and
- Walloon .
- Oscar Bloch et Walter von Wartburg: Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française . Quatrième édition revue et augmentée par W. v. Wartburg. Presses universitaires de France. Paris 1964. (Article "il, ils")
- Gerhard Rohlfs: From Vulgar Latin to Old French . 3rd improved edition. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1968.
- Bodo Müller: Contemporary French. Varieties, structures, tendencies . Carl Winter University Press, Heidelberg 1975.
- Carlo Tagliavini: Le origini delle lingue neolatine . Bologna 1959. (German edition: Introduction to Romance Philology . Translated from Italian by Reinhard Meisterfeld and Uwe Petersen. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 1976. ISBN 978-3-406-06466-1 ).
- fr., Literally: "Languages of the oïl", d. H. Languages in which the affirmative particle “yes” in Old French of the Middle Ages was called o il or oïl (pronunciation: [o-il]).
- From the Latin hŏc ĭlle (abbreviation of the sentence hŏc ĭlle fēcit , "he did this") the form oïl developed. In the 12th century, the "o" in oïl was legally written as [u], ou , the final consonant "l" of il fell silent. This is how the New French form oui (pronunciation: [wi] (w pronounced like the w in English "wall")), which has been documented since the 16th century, came about.