The Berry is a landscape in central France . It takes its name from the Gallic tribe of the Biturigen , its inhabitants are called Berrichons . The Berry was one of the historic provinces of France until it was replaced by the départements on March 4, 1790 . Today it essentially consists of the Cher (the Haut-Berry) and Indre (the Bas-Berry) departments. The capital of Berry is Bourges , another important city is Châteauroux .
The Berry lies on the Jurassic limestone table of the southern Parisian basin , which is cut by the Cher , Indre and Creuse rivers , and already borders in the south on the northwestern foothills of the Massif Central . Where the lime board is only thinly covered by clay, grazing areas and less intensive sheep farming prevail. In the core region of the berry, however, the Champagne berrichonne north of Châteauroux, mainly grain is grown. In the east, finally, you will find viticulture with the AOC locations ( Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée ) Menetou-Salon , Quincy , Reuilly and Sancerre .
The famous manuscripts Les très belles heures du Duc de Berry and Les très riches heures du Duc de Berry are also associated with the Berry, one of which was completed before 1402 and is in the Bibliothèque Royale in Brussels , the other dates from 1413 to 1416 and is in the Musée Condé in Chantilly .
The Berry belonged to the Visigoth Empire at the end of the 5th century , from 507, after the Battle of Vouillé to Aquitaine , and thus to the Frankish Empire . In Carolingian times, the Berry was independent as County Bourges before it was split between the Duchy of Aquitaine (Bas-Berry in the southwest) and the Counties of Anjou and Blois (Haut-Berry in the northeast). In addition, the Bourbon rule ( Bourbonnais ) arose in the east . The French kings began to seize the Berry in the 11th century, but its incorporation into the Domaine royal dragged on for more than a hundred years: 1101 Vice-County Bourges , 1221 Issoudun and Châteauroux .
In 1360 the Berry was raised to a duchy when King John II set up a paragium for his son John (1340-1416). The duchy returned to the Domaine royal after his death, as he had outlived his sons and the title and the Paragium could not be bequeathed to descendants in the female line.
In 1419 Charles of France adorned himself with the title, although he was already Duke of Touraine , heir to the throne and regent for his father Charles VI. the madman was; even after his accession to the throne in 1422 as Charles VII , the title was not given again. It was not until the year of his death in 1461 that there was a new duke, Karl , the king's youngest son, who, however , exchanged the title for that of the Duke of Normandy in 1465 .
After a newborn was appointed, but did not live to see his first birthday, the duchy went to Joan of France , the daughter of King Louis XI , in 1498 . , Wife of the later King Louis XII. and founder of the Order of Announcements , who was canonized in 1950. After her two other important rulers bore the title; Claude de France and Margaret of Navarre , but after that the Duchy of Berry sank to one of many titles in the French monarchy.
Dukes of Berry
- 1360-1416: Johann (* 1340; † 1416), Duke of Berry and Auvergne, son of King John II.
- 1416–1417: Johann (* 1398; † 1417), son of King Charles VI.
- 1419–1422: Charles (* 1403; † 1461), 1422 King Charles VII of France
- 1461–1465: Charles (* 1446; † 1472), 1465 Duke of Normandy , 1469 Duke of Guyenne , son of King Charles VII.
- 1472–1473: Franz (* 1472; † 1473), son of King Ludwig XI.
- 1498–1505: Johanna (* 1464; † 1505), daughter of King Ludwig XI. of France , wife of Louis XII.
- 1514–… .: Claude (* 1499; † 1524), daughter of Louis XII, Duchess of Brittany , 1515 Queen of France as wife of King Franz I.
- 1517–… .: Margarete (* 1492; † 1549) 1527 Queen of Navarre (uxor nomine), sister of Francis I.
- 1530–1574: Margarete (* 1523; † 1574), daughter of Franz 'I.
- 1576–1584: Franz (* 1555; † 1584), youngest son of King Heinrich II and Catherine de Medici
- … .–… .: Karl (* 1686; † 1714), grandson of Louis XIV.
- 1754–… .: Ludwig-August (* 1754; † 1793), later Louis XVI.
- … .–… .: Karl Ferdinand (* 1778; † 1820), son of King Charles X.
- Guy Devailly (Ed.): Histoire du Berry. Pays et villes de France, Toulouse 1980, ISBN 2-7089-8206-0 .
- Guy Devailly, Olivier Guillot: Berry . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , Sp. 2015-2018.