Guarino Guarini

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Guarino Guarini

Guarino Guarini (born January 17, 1624 in Modena , † March 6, 1683 in Milan ) was an Italian Theatin , mathematician, philosopher and important architect of the late Baroque and Sicilian Baroque .


Guarino Guarini joined the Order of the Theatines in Modena in September 1639 ; his superiors sent him to Rome , where he studied theology , philosophy , mathematics and architecture . In 1647 Guarini returned to Modena and was ordained a priest on January 17, 1648. On March 9, 1648 he became an economist or administrator of the economic and financial affairs of the Theatine Order in Modena.

Around 1650 Guarini was appointed treasurer of the order, with this post the first problems arose. On April 19, 1650 the Provost of the Order discovered a missing item in the bookkeeping, suspected Eugenio Guarini, the brother of Guarino Guarini. Guarino made up for the shortfall, and the disputes were declared over on November 20, 1650 by the Colonel General of the Theatines. However, the relationship between the abbot and the Guarini brothers has been tense since then. Guarino was appointed lecturer of philosophy in 1650, Eugenio procuratore in 1653. In 1654 Eugenio left Modena to teach philosophy in Ferrara. The vacant position was taken over by Guarino Guarini on May 30, 1654. A little later - Guarino was 31 at the time - he was elected head of the Theatin order in Modena.

The election as head of the order, however, marked the beginning of disputes with Alfonso IV. D'Este , who preferred Bernardo Castagnini for this post and who repeatedly communicated this openly to the Theatiner Order. With a letter from the Colonel General of the Order to Alfonso d'Este dated February 25, 1655, he was informed that Guarino Guarini had resigned from his post as headmaster. The Theatiners in Modena remained without a director for over a year, then in 1656 they elected the board that Alfonso wanted: Bernardo Castagnini. He remained in this office until his death on September 14, 1658. On September 9, 1658, Guarino was accepted by the Theatine Order in Parma.

He was not allowed to return to Modena many times, and even 14 years after leaving the city he was still not welcome there. Documents show that he nevertheless returned to his hometown for a short stay in 1657. Then there is an entry about his whereabouts for 1660, this time in Messina. The years 1657 to 1660 are also referred to as the "blank years" or as the years of travel, since it is not certain where Guarini was staying. Research suspects him either in Lisbon, Paris or Prague. According to Harold Alan Meek, a stay on the Iberian Peninsula is most likely because Guarini was able to bring Islamic building elements with him, which then appeared in his buildings in France, Italy (e.g. at San Lorenzo in Turin) and Lisbon.

For the following years 1660 to 1662 stays in Modena, Messina or Paris can be proven. In 1660 the church of Santissima Annunziata in Messina was built, but it was destroyed in 1908. In the 1660s, Guarini also began to be active in literature.

In 1666 Guarini settled in Turin and began building work for the House of Savoy . A number of churches and other buildings were built (e.g. the Palazzo Carignano in Turin). Guarini was commissioned by Maria Giovanna di Savoia-Nemours to build the Church of San Filippo Neri in 1679, but he died in Milan on March 6, 1683, when the work began.

His architectural works were influenced by the thoughts of Francesco Borromini , who was particularly concerned with the intricate intersections of architectural elements. The Palazzo Carignano has numerous parallels to Borromini's San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome. There is also the influence of Moorish architecture.

Guarini was a main master of the Italian late baroque in northern Italy, where he worked for the House of Savoy from 1666, especially in Turin. This is also where his main works were created. Its buildings are lavishly decorated with rich decorations.

His writings Placita Philosophica (1665), Euclides Adauctus (1671) and Architettura Civile (1686) take a pioneering role in the matter of descriptive geometry . The latter work, published only posthumously, also contains a commitment to Gothic , as is implemented in his San Lorenzo church in Turin .

He also influenced the history of architecture north of the Alps through his "virtuoso penetration of geometrical forms, the inspiration of which in the 18th century encroached upon the baroque architecture of southern Germany and Austria."


Compendio della sfera celeste , 1675

Especially his works in Messina were significant:

  • In 1660 he built the church of Santissima Annunziata for the order of the Theatines .
  • The church of Padri Somaschi was also designed by him.

However, he was later called back to Turin , where important works by him were also created:

Works outside Italy were:




  • Vittorio Viale (ed.): Guarino Guarini e l'internazionalità del barocco. Atti del convegno internazionale promosso dall'Accademia delle scienze di Torino, 30 September - 5 October 1968. 2 volumes. Accademia delle scienze, Torino 1970, 1362 pp. And illustrations .
  • Gerd Schneider: Guarino Guarini, unbuilt buildings. Dr. Ludwig Richter Verlag, Wiesbaden 1997, ISBN 3-89500-036-1 .
  • Nicoletta Marconi:  Guarini, Guarino. In: Mario Caravale (ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 60:  Grosso – Guglielmo da Forlì. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2003.
  • Giuseppe Dardanello, Susan Klaiber, Henry A. Millon (eds.): Guarino Guarini (= Archivi di architettura ). Photography delle architetture: Pino Dell'Aquila Torino. U. Allemandi, Torino et al. 2006, ISBN 88-422-1471-X .
  • Jürgen Buchmann : Some thoughts on the language of architectural science and the connection between Guarino Guarini's sacred architecture and mechanistic physics. In: IN SITU. Journal of Architectural History. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2010, ISSN  1866-959X , pp. 33-44.

Web links

Commons : Guarino Guarini  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Harold Alan Meek: Guarino Guarini and His Architecture. Yale University Press, New Haven CT et al. 1988, ISBN 0-300-03989-1 .
  2. Guarini, Guarino. In: James Stevens Curl: A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford et al. 2006, ISBN 0-19-280630-0 .
  3. ^ Heinz Schomann: Piedmont, Liguria, Aosta Valley. Art monuments and museums , (Reclams Art Guide Vol. 1,2) Stuttgart: Reclam, 1982, p. 457.
  4. Stefan Kummer : Architecture and fine arts from the beginnings of the Renaissance to the end of the Baroque. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes; Volume 2: From the Peasants' War in 1525 to the transition to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1814. Theiss, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8062-1477-8 , pp. 576–678 and 942–952, here: p. 631.