Calendar overview 1683
Great Turkish War begins with the second Turkish siege of Vienna .
besieges Vienna in vain.
Johann III. Sobieski
defeats the Turks in the
Battle of the Kahlenberg .
|1683 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1131/32 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1675/76 (New Year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1088/89 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2226/27 (southern Buddhism); 2225/26 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1045/46 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4016/17 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1094/95 (turn of the year 19/20 December)|
|Jewish calendar||5443/44 (September 20/21)|
|Coptic calendar||1399/1400 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1993/94 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1994/95 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1739/40 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Turkish War / Second Turkish Siege of Vienna
- May 3 : The Ottoman army reaches Belgrade with 200,000 men and 300 artillery pieces after wintering in Edirne . Sultan Mehmed IV transfers the supreme command to his grand vizier Kara Mustafa Paşa . Later, in Stuhlweissenburg, Vienna was announced as the target of the campaign .
- July 7 : From the Raab , the Tatar vanguard of 40,000 men reaches Petronell , 40 km east of Vienna. After these battles, Emperor Leopold I left Vienna with his family and fled to Linz . Count Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg takes over the military leadership in the capital .
- July 15 : One day after the arrival of the main army of 300,000 men, Vienna refuses to surrender, although there are hardly 10,000 defenders in the city. The second Turkish siege of Vienna begins. An alliance between the emperor and Poland , Bavaria and Saxony came about late .
- August 15 : Poland's King Jan Sobieski sets off with his army from Krakow towards Vienna.
- August: Karl von Lorraine defeats Thököly's troops and a Turkish auxiliary corps on Bisamberg north of Vienna. So the Danube can be crossed by the relief army . The Poles unite with the troops of Saxony, the imperial, Bavarian and Franconian-Swabian imperial troops near Tulln , 30 km upstream from Vienna.
- September 12th : The relief army under the leadership of Johann III. Sobieski defeats the Turks in the Battle of the Kahlenberg .
- October 9 : After the initial successes of the Ottoman army in the three-day battle at Párkány during the Great Turkish War , the tide finally turned in favor of the troops of Charles of Lorraine and John III. Sobieskis .
- December 25th : The commander Kara Mustafa atone for the failure of the Ottoman siege of Vienna with his life. Sultan Mehmet IV has the Grand Vizier strangled.
Other events in Europe
- The Rye House conspiracy planned for April 1st against King Charles II of England and his brother James because of their pro-Catholic stance failed on March 22nd because of a major fire in Newmarket. Several MPs are arrested and executed, including Algernon Sidney , Lord William Russell and Sir Thomas Armstrong .
- April 15 : A uniform Danish legal code, the Danske Lov , is put into force by King Christian V and replaces traditional rights of the regions.
- September 12th : After the death of King Alfonso VI. from the house of Braganza , his brother Peter II succeeds him to the throne of Portugal .
- January 1 : The Kurbrandenburg colony of Groß-Friedrichsburg , an approximately 30 to 50 kilometer long coastal strip in today's Ghana , is founded. The contract signed last year with the Ahanta will be renewed on January 5th, after which the construction of Fort Groß Friedrichsburg will begin. The headquarters of the Brandenburg-African Company will be relocated from Pillau to Emden on April 22nd . In a contract negotiated on August 4th, the Emdens stalls participate in the company.
- October 6 : The first closed group of 13 German immigrant families from Krefeld , under the leadership of Franz Daniel Pastorius , a friend of William Penn , reaches North America on Concord and founds the city of Germantown in Pennsylvania .
science and technology
- June 3 : The Ashmolean Museum of Oxford University is open to visitors. It is the first university-run facility of its kind in the world.
- Adriaen Coorte : mountain landscape with ducks
- The kabbalistic sect of the Dönme is founded in Saloniki .
- October 10 : After a fire broke out, the explosion of the Wapen frigate from Hamburg I loaded with ammunition in front of the Spanish port of Cádiz kills 285 people.
First half of the year
- January 14th : Gottfried Silbermann , important German organ builder († 1753 )
- January 22nd : Christian Löber , German Protestant clergyman († 1747 )
- January 23 : Johann Christoph Graupner , German composer († 1760 )
- February 9 : Alexander von Dönhoff , Prussian lieutenant general and confidante of King Friedrich Wilhelm I († 1742 )
- February 13 : Joseph Schmuzer , German builder and plasterer († 1752 )
- February 28 : René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur , French scientist († 1757 )
- March 21 : Ludolf August von Bismarck , Russian general († 1750 )
- April 27 : Johann David Heinichen , German composer and music theorist († 1729 )
- May 19 : Burkhard Christoph von Münnich , Field Marshal General of German descent and politician in Russian service († 1767 )
- May 23 : Antoine Pesne , court painter in Prussia († 1757 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Edward Young , English poet († 1765 )
- July 11th : Caspar Neumann , German chemist and pharmacist († 1737 )
- August 22nd : Erdmann II. Count of Promnitz , († 1745 )
- September 7th : Maria Anna of Austria , Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Portugal († 1754 )
- September 13 : Maria Anna Victoria , niece and chief heiress of Prince Eugene of Savoy († 1763 )
- September 19 : Lorenz Heister , German anatomist († 1758 )
- September 23 : Johannes Ernst , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1765 )
- October 18 : Augustin Leyser , German lawyer († 1752 )
- November 6 : Christian Friedrich Börner , German Lutheran theologian († 1753 )
- November 8 : Heinrich August Schumacher , German historian and educator († 1760 )
- November 9 : George II , King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg († 1760 )
- November 21 : Domingo Ortiz de Rozas , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, governor on the Río de la Plata and in Chile († 1756 )
- November 22 : Franz Kaspar von Franken-Siersdorf , Auxiliary Bishop of Cologne († 1770 )
- December 5 : Georg Friedrich Christian Seekatz , German painter († 1750 )
- December 13 : Bernardo De Dominici , Italian painter and art historian († 1759 )
- December 19 : Philip V , King of Spain († 1746 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Theodor Arnold , German translator, lexicographer, grammarian and teacher († 1771 )
- Hattori Nankaku , Japanese poet and painter († 1759 )
- Tshangyang Gyatsho , sixth Dalai Lama († 1706 )
First half of the year
- January 21 : Anthony Ashley-Cooper , English politician and nobleman (* 1621 )
- February 18 : Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem , Dutch painter (* 1620 )
- March 6 : Guarino Guarini , Italian Theatin, philosopher, mathematician and architect (* 1624 )
- March 16 : Johann Georg Achbauer the Elder , Upper Austrian master builder
- April 23 : Moritz Ludwig I of Nassau-LaLecq , Count of Nassau-LaLecq, Lord of Beverweerd and Lek (* 1631 )
- April 28 : Daniel Casper von Lohenstein , German playwright (* 1635 )
- May 15 : Johann Ernst II , Duke of Saxe-Weimar (* 1627 )
- June 26 : Ferdinand von Fürstenberg , Prince-Bishop of Münster and Paderborn (* 1626 )
Second half of the year
- July 28th : David Khöll , imperial court stonemason and 1682 headmaster of the Viennese building works (* 1652 )
- July 30th : Queen Marie Therese of France , cousin and wife of the Sun King (* 1638 )
- August 3 : Georg Rimpler , German fortress builder (* 1636 )
- August 29 : Adam Haresleben , Austrian master builder (* 1627 )
- September 6th : Jean-Baptiste Colbert , French statesman (* 1619 )
- September 12 : Alfonso VI. , King of Portugal from the House of Braganza (* 1643 )
- October 8 : Philipp Friedrich Böddecker , German composer and organist (* 1607 )
- October 10 : Berend Jacob Karpfanger , pirate hunter and captain of the ship " Wappen von Hamburg " (* 1622 )
- October 22 : Philips Angel van Middelburg , Dutch still life painter (* 1616 )
- November 18 : Louis de Bourbon , Count of Vermandois, illegitimate son of Louis XIV (* 1667 )
- November 19 : August Carpzov , German statesman (* 1612 )
- December 13 : Anna Sophia II , Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and Abbess of the Quedlinburg Monastery (* 1638 )
- December 15 : Izaak Walton , English writer (* 1593 )
- December 24th : Amalia von Degenfeld , Baroness von Degenfeld (* 1647 )
- December 25 : Kara Mustafa Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire and Commander-in-Chief at the Second Siege of Vienna (* around 1626 )
- December 27 : Maria Francisca Elisabeth of Savoy , Queen of Portugal (* 1646 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Fabian von Aderkas , major general in the Swedish army (* before 1605)
- Antonius Pery , Swiss sculptor (* 1644 )
- Jakobus Stainer , Austrian violin maker (* around 1617 )