Calendar overview 1621
Gregor XV. Pope.
Gustav II Adolf of Sweden
Polish-Lithuanian city of Riga .
uprising in Bohemia
are executed in Prague.
|1621 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1069/70 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1613/14 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1026/27 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2164/65 (southern Buddhism); 2163/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||983/984 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3954/55 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1030/31 (turn of the year 15th / 16th November)|
|Jewish calendar||5381/82 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic Calendar||1337/38 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1931/32 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1932/33 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1677/78 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Thirty Years' War
- JANUARY 22: Emperor Ferdinand II. Imposed on Elector Frederick V of the Palatinate , the so-called "Winter King" because of breach of the peace , breach of Reich laws, support rebellious subjects and treason, the imperial ban .
- May 7th: Imperial troops under Karl von Bucquoy take the city of Pressburg held by units of the Transylvanian Prince Gábor Bethlen .
- May 14th: After the Protestant side has disagreed on several issues, the Protestant Union, founded in 1608, is formally dissolved .
- June 21: As a sanction for the class uprising in Bohemia , Christoph Harant von Polschitz and Weseritz , Joachim Andreas von Schlick and Jan Jessenius are executed together with 24 other members of the gentry, knight and civil class on the Old Town Square in Prague.
- July 16: Johann t'Serclaes von Tilly fends off an attack by Peter Ernst II von Mansfeld , General Frederick of the Palatinate, near Waidhaus in the Upper Palatinate.
- October 5th: In the battle of Tyrnau , Habsburg imperial troops under Rudolf von Tiefenbach are defeated by Gábor Bethlen's army .
- December 2nd: Christian von Halberstadt conquers Amöneburg near Mainz .
- December 20: Christian von Halberstadt is defeated in the battle of Kirdorf by the troops of the Catholic League under Christian von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel .
- December 31: Emperor Ferdinand II dictates the peace of Nikolsburg and forces Bethlen Gábor , Prince of Transylvania , to renounce the Hungarian royal crown .
- May 30th to June 24th: Siege of Saint-Jean-d'Angély : French troops under the command of King Louis XIII. besiege and capture the city of Saint-Jean-d'Angély , an important strategic point from which the hinterland of the important Huguenot fortress of La Rochelle can be controlled. A siege of La Rochelle is out of the question at this point in time, as it would require a navy that Ludwig was not able to use at the time. Instead, he turns south with the bulk of his troops, subdues Guyenne , besieges and conquers Clairac (July 23 to August 4) and moves from there against Montauban . The city is commanded by Jacques Nompar de Caumont , duc de La Force, who is assisted by his two sons, the Maréchaux de camp Henri and Jean. The defense forces consist of mercenaries who previously fought in the War of Succession of the Margraviate of Montferrat in Savoy and in the Eighty Years' War in the Netherlands.
- August 22 to November 9: The siege of Montauban , a Huguenot stronghold in France , by troops under the command of King Louis XIII. , ends with the unsuccessful withdrawal of the besiegers.
- On the march to Bordeaux, the army is commanded by François de Bassompierre . On November 11th, it took the heavily fortified Huguenot village of Monheurt , which was burned down on the king's orders and the fortifications razed.
Spain / Netherlands
- March 31: Philip III. of Spain , as Philip II also King of Portugal , dies at the age of 42, his son Philip IV succeeds him.
- April 9th: The Eighty Years War between Spain and the Netherlands resumes after a twelve-year armistice .
- September 25th: Gustav Adolf of Sweden , who after the agreement with Moscow in the Peace of Stolbowo had resumed the fight for Livonia against Poland , forced the surrender of Riga after several weeks of siege and in the ensuing clashes secured Sweden the possession of Livonia north of the Daugava .
- October 9: The Ottoman-Polish War 1620–1621 ends with a peace treaty that re-establishes the status quo ante bellum .
- April 15th: The Mayflower sets sail for the return voyage from the newly formed colony of Plymouth to England.
- June 3: The Dutch West India Company receives the exclusive trade patent for America in its country.
- Upayuvaraja I ousted his father Voravongse II from the throne and ruled the Laotian kingdom of Lan Xang .
- The Augustiner Bräu Kloster Mülln is founded.
science and technology
- February 5th: The Academy of Strasbourg receives the rank of university through an imperial privilege .
- July 17th: The University of Rinteln is inaugurated and its statutes are drawn up.
- The northern lights are systematically observed for the first time.
- The Nicolaus Gerckensche Family Foundation in Salzwedel commences operations.
- Juan van der Hamen y León paints the first of two still lifes with a bowl of fruit, birds and a view of the window .
- Friedrich Spee publishes the songs Insurmountably strong hero, Sankt Michael and O Christ hie merk .
- February 9th: Alessandro Ludovisi is elected Pope and gives himself the name Gregory XV. He is the last head of the church elected by acclamation in the conclave . He abolished this electoral method during his pontificate .
First half of the year
- January 6: Moritz von der Pfalz , troop commander in the English and Swedish service († 1652)
- January 17: Ernst Friedrich Schröter , German legal scholar († 1676)
- January 30th: Georg II. Rákóczi , Prince of Transylvania († 1660)
- March 2: Ludwig Günther II. , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen zu Ebeleben († 1681)
- March 16: Georg Neumark , German composer of hymns († 1681)
- March 17 (presumably): Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen , German poet († 1676)
- March 24th: Johann von Anhalt-Zerbst , Anhalt regent († 1667)
- March 25: Matthäus Merian the Younger , painter, engraver and publisher († 1687)
- March 31: Andrew Marvell , English poet († 1678)
- April 1: Tegh Bahadur , ninth guru of Sikhism († 1675)
- April 10: Daniel Lüdemann , German Lutheran theologian († 1677)
- April 23: Georg Arnold , Austrian composer and organist († 1676)
- April 23: William Penn , English admiral († 1670)
- April 25: Roger Boyle , Baron of Broghill, Baron Castlemartyr, Lord President of Munster; English statesman († 1679)
- May 25: David Beck , Dutch painter († 1656)
- June 2: Rutger von Ascheberg , German-Baltic field marshal († 1693)
- June 6: Petar Zrinski , Ban of Croatia († 1671)
Second half of the year
- July 8: Jean de La Fontaine , French writer and poet of many famous fables († 1695)
- July 8: Leonora Christina Ulfeldt , daughter of the Danish King Christian IV., Countess of Schleswig-Holstein, political prisoner and writer († 1698)
- August 13: Israël Silvestre , French painter and engraver († 1691)
- August 19: Gerbrand van den Eeckhout , Dutch painter († 1674)
- September 8: Ludwig II of Bourbon, Prince of Condé , French general († 1686)
- September 9: Heinrich X. Reuss zu Lobenstein , German nobleman and rector of the University of Leipzig († 1671)
- September 15: Caspar Ziegler , German lawyer, poet and composer († 1690)
- 3rd / 4th December: Bohuslav Ludvík Balbín , Czech Jesuit, man of letters, historian, geographer, patriot and advocate of the Czech language, active participant in the re-Catholicization († 1688)
- December 8: Maximilian Heinrich of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne († 1688)
- December 10th: Christian Albrecht von Dohna , general in Brandenburg († 1677)
- December 11th: Philipp Matthäus , German medic († 1700)
- December 12: Jacques Courtois , Italian battle and history painter († 1675)
- December 12: Justinian von Welz , Austrian Lutheran theologian and missionary († around 1668)
- December 14: Johann Schulte , German lawyer and mayor of Hamburg († 1697)
Exact date of birth unknown
January to May
- January 28: Camillo Borghese, under the name Paul V Pope (* 1552)
- February 2: Sebastiano Folli , Italian painter (* 1568/69)
- February 10: Pietro Aldobrandini , Cardinal of the Roman Church and Archbishop of Ravenna (* 1571)
- February 15: Michael Praetorius , German composer, organist, court music director and scholar (* 1571)
- February 28: Cosimo II. De 'Medici , Grand Duke of Tuscany (* 1590)
- March 3: Rudolf Goclenius , German doctor, physicist, mathematician, astronomer and astrologer (* 1572)
- March 7th: Ottilia von Fürstenberg , prioress of the Oelinghausen monastery and abbess of the Heerse Monastery (* 1549)
- March 27: Benedetto Giustiniani , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Church (* 1554)
- March 31: Philip III. , King of Spain and (as Philip II) of Portugal, both Sicilies and Sardinia (* 1578)
- April 2: Cristofano Allori , Florentine painter (* 1577)
- April 6: Maria Christina of Austria , Princess of Transylvania (* 1574)
- April 11: Matthias von Oppen , German economist and church politician (* around 1565)
- April 21: Heinrich Abermann , German historian (* 1583)
- April 21: Thomas Sagittarius , German philologist, philosophical logician and educator (* 1577)
- before May 3: Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley , Scottish nobleman (* 1546)
- May 11: Johann Arndt , German post-Reformation theologian (* 1555)
- May 15: Hendrick de Keyser , Dutch architect and sculptor (* 1565)
- May 23: Bartholomäus Agricola , German minorite and composer (* around 1560)
- Martin Fruwein , Bohemian lawyer and participant in the Bohemian uprising June 7th:
- Anne de Xainctonge , founder of a religious order in the Roman Catholic Church (* 1567) June 8th:
- June 21: Friedrich von Bila , imperial councilor in Bohemia, participant in the uprising of the estates
- June 21: Václav Budovec z Budova , Bohemian nobleman, reformer, diplomat and writer, leading representative of the class uprising (* 1551)
- June 21: Kaspar Cappleri de Sulewicz , Czech nobleman (* 1535)
- June 21: Diwisch Czernin von Chudenitz , Bohemian nobleman and participant in the uprising of the estates (* around 1565)
- June 21: Christoph Harant von Polschitz and Weseritz , Bohemian nobleman, imperial chamberlain, composer, writer, traveler to the Orient and humanist, participant in the uprising of the estates (* 1564)
- June 21: Jan Jessenius , German physician, politician and philosopher of Slovak descent, participant in the Bohemian uprising (* 1566)
- June 21: Joachim Andreas von Schlick , Bohemian nobleman, leader of the Protestant estates in Bohemia (* 1569)
- June 21: Louis III. de Lorraine-Guise , Archbishop of Reims (* 1575)
July to December
- July 4th: Simon Rudnicki , Prince-Bishop of Warmia (* 1552)
- July 10: Charles Bonaventure de Longueval , imperial general in the Thirty Years War (* 1571)
- July 15: Albrecht VII of Habsburg , Archduke of Austria and regent of the Spanish Netherlands (* 1559)
- August 3: Anna Caterina Gonzaga , Princess of Mantua and Montferrat, Princess of Tyrol (* 1566)
- August 15: John Barclay , Scottish poet and satirist (* 1582)
- August 20: Rudolf , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (* 1576)
- September 17th: Robert Bellarmin , Italian scholar, Catholic theologian and Jesuit (* 1542)
- September 24: Jan Karol Chodkiewicz , Polish-Lithuanian military leader (* 1560)
- September 25th: Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke English noblewoman and writer, center of an artists' circle (* 1561)
- October 16: Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck , Dutch organist, composer and teacher (* 1562)
- October 17: Daniel Chamier , French Reformed theologian (* 1565)
- December 13: Katharina Stenbock , Queen of Sweden (* 1535)
- December 14: Jacob Fransz de Witt , Dordrecht patrician and regent (* 1548)
- December 15: Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes , French statesman and Connétable of France, adviser to King Louis XIII. (* 1578)
- December 17th: Cornelius Martini , German-Flemish Lutheran theologian (* 1568)
Exact date of death unknown
- Jean Le Clerc , French geographer, engraver, printer and publisher
- Hayashizaki Shigenobu , Japanese samurai (* 1542)