Peace of Stolbowo
The Peace of Stolbowo was concluded on February 17th July. / February 27, 1617 greg. closed between the Russian Empire and Sweden . He ended the Ingermanland War (1610-1617) and established Sweden's position as a great power in the Baltic Sea .
Sweden had gained a foothold in Estonia since 1561 and expanded this position in wars with Russia in 1570–1583 and 1590–1595. Sweden was in a war with Poland and in 1613 had only ended a losing war with Denmark, the so-called Kalmar War .
Russia had also started a policy of acquisition and expansion under Ivan IV (1533–1584). The latter was directed against the Baltic countries since 1558. But Russia has not yet been able to gain a foothold on the Baltic Sea. After the end of the Rurikid dynasty in 1598 and the death of the Boyar Tsar Boris Godunov , Russia was plunged into a time of turmoil, the Smuta (1605–1613). There were Polish and Swedish interventions and in 1610 even Moscow was occupied by Polish troops.
During the conflict between the Russians and the Polish Crown, Sweden signed a treaty with Tsar Vasily Shuisky in 1609 . The King of Sweden sent La Gardie to Moscow and put him at the head of an army that was supposed to stop the Poles on their advance. However, the tsar soon realized that he had to get rid of the eager helpers from Sweden in order to preserve his autonomy. After relations between Sweden and Russia intensified, La Gardie conquered Novgorod and, in the further course of the war , recaptured the fortresses of Ingermanland, which Sweden had to give up in the peace of 1595 .
The first attempt at negotiations was initiated in 1615, but the Russian side refused to start talks while Gustav II Adolf was besieging the Pskov fortress . After the end of this siege, the delegations met regularly, with the Swedish side being headed by Jakob de la Gardie. Sweden wanted to cut off Russia from all Baltic ports and achieve better security for Finland at Lake Ladoga. At times, the English King James I also took part in the negotiations. The British side probably wanted to secure their trade routes leading to Russia via the Arctic Ocean. They were in danger because Sweden claimed Arkhangelsk . A Dutch delegation under Reinhald Brederode and a Danish delegation were also involved, the latter being excluded shortly before the end of the negotiations.
The agent of the English Moscow company , John Mericke , acted as mediator . It was a forced victory peace, because the new Tsar Michael Romanov absolutely needed this peace, as Russia feared that Poland would enter into an alliance with Sweden that would rekindle the war. So he gave in to the insistence of the mediators and agreed to the terms.
The contract negotiations were conducted in the town of Diderino south of Lake Ladoga , but the signing took place in the now defunct village of Stolbowo ( Столбово ) by Tsar Michael I and the Swedish military leader Jakob de la Gardie .
Sweden received the Schlüsselburg as well as the fortresses Jama , Koporje and Ivangorod with the associated estates, which corresponded to the largest part of the historical province of Ingermanland . Furthermore, the Swedes did not need to return all the spoils of war that were obtained before November 20, 1616. In return, Sweden ceded the area around Novgorod and other small areas to Russia. When the contract was signed, Michael I was also recognized as the Russian tsar .
Thus Sweden had a strip of land near the lakes Ladoga and Peipus , which could easily be defended against possible Russian attacks. Gustav II Adolf should end the contract with the words “ I hope that it will now be difficult for the Russian to jump over this stream. “Have commented.
Through the conclusion of this treaty and the successful fixing of Gustav II Adolf's trade policy constraint, Swedish-Russian relations were determined for the rest of the 17th century, and the Swedish possessions upstream from Russia remained an impenetrable barrier for the entire 17th century: without Swedish approval the Russians could not enter the Baltic Sea by boat, and the Swedes never gave the Russians such consent. Instead, they set up their own guest house in Stockholm. All attempts by Russian merchants to actively trade beyond the Swedish sphere of influence were nipped in the bud by the Swedish government. It was not until the Great Northern War from 1700 to 1721 that Russia was able to recapture most of these areas and regain access to the Baltic Sea.
- Peace of Stolbowo . In: John Rosén, Theodor Westrin, Bernhard Meijer (eds.): Nordisk familjebok konversationslexikon och realencyklopedi . 1st edition. tape 15 : Socker – Tengström . Gernandts boktryckeri, Stockholm 1891, Sp. 644 (Swedish, runeberg.org ).
- Berättelser ur svenska historien
- 1617 II 27_III 9 Peace Treaty of Stolbovo. Contract text. Leibniz Institute for European History . Retrieved June 29, 2016 .
- Ralph Tuchtenhagen: Little History of Sweden , p. 52
- Yearbooks for the History of Eastern Europe (JBfGOE), ed. in the order d. Eastern Europe Institute Munich. Stuttgart 1968, p. 87