Ivan IV (Russia)
Ivan IV Vasilyevich, the Terrible ( Russian Ива́н (Иоа́нн) Васи́льевич Гро́зный Grozny ; * August 25, 1530 in Kolomenskoye ; † March 18 Jul. / March 28, 1584 greg. in Moscow ) was the first Grand Duke of Moscow , who had himself crowned Tsar of Russia . The German translation of "grozny" is "terrifying, strict". The translation "terrible" is common but controversial. Ivan IV came from the old Russian dynasty the Rurikids .
Through far-reaching reforms in administration, law and the army , Ivan IV strengthened the central authority and promoted the lower service nobility at the expense of the influential boyars . Under his rule Tsardom Russia expanded considerably east and south by crushing the Tatar khanates of Kazan , Astrakhan and Sibir . However, the ultimately unsuccessful Livonian War and internal terror left Russia in a weakened state.
Ivan was the long-awaited heir to the throne of Grand Duke Vasily III. His long-term marriage to Solomonija Saburova was childless. Only when Saburova was sent to the monastery and Vasily III. Helena Glinskaya , he got the heir to the throne Ivan in 1530 at the age of 51. The Church of the Ascension was built in the years 1528-1532 in the Kolomenskoye Grand Duke's residence, first as a request from God for a son, then as a thank you to God .
Ivan, after his grandfather Ivan III. named the Great , was baptized on September 4, 1530 at the Monastery of Trinity and Saint Sergius , about 78 km north-northeast of Moscow. He grew up in the Kremlin with his mother, Helena Glinskaya, who gave birth there on October 30, 1532 to another son, Yuri, who was deaf.
Ivan lost his father on December 3, 1533 when he was only three years old. His mother Helena Glinskaja then took over the regency for her son. The pretender to the throne, Prince Yuri of Dmitrov , a brother of Vasily, was immediately imprisoned and two years later eliminated. Mikhail Glinsky , the grand duchess's uncle, who actually ran the government for seven months, was arrested on August 5, 1534 in agreement with the boyars on the orders of the regent and then murdered in the Kremlin's dungeon . Prince Glinski had rejected Helena's open love affair with the young Prince Ivan Obolenski as a threat to the House of Glinski and saw his own position of power threatened as a result. The 15-member Boyar Council was split, with the more loyal wing dominated by the moderate prince Dimitri Belsky , while the other wing was dominated by the rapacious and violent Shuisky family, the latter intending to seize the throne itself. As a dangerous pretender, Prince Andrei of Staritsa , a brother of the predecessor Vasily III, was arrested on the orders of the regent and Prince Obolensky and thrown into prison in December 1537.
On April 4, 1538, the still young Grand Duchess Helena died unexpectedly, probably from poison; young Ivan became an orphan. After the death of the mother, a power struggle developed between the boyars, with the Shuisky and Belsky in particular fighting for control of the throne and guardianship of the young tsar. They treated Ivan unlovingly and isolated him from the outside world in the Kremlin 's Terem Palace . The life of the young prince was in constant danger; a last confidante, Prince Obolenski, also disappeared into the dungeon. Eight-year-old Ivan was at the mercy of the intrigues, rumors and various measures of the all-powerful boyar council led by the old boyars Ivan and Vasily Shuisky. The experience of constant fear and lovelessness in his childhood shaped Ivan's suspicious, cruel and vindictive character.
In July 1540, Prince Ivan Belski was able to assert himself in the boyar council and brought stability to the empire for two years. On January 2, 1542, however, the Shuiskys regained power through a palace revolt, took the young grand duke into their power and sent Belsky to prison. When Ivan realized his power in 1543 at the age of 13, he fought back. On December 29, 1543, he had the new leading boyar Andrei Shuisky seized by the Kremlin guards and torn to pieces by starved hunting dogs.
Ivan IV had himself crowned tsar by the metropolitan of Moscow on January 16, 1547 at the age of 16 and in the same year married the daughter of the boyar Roman Jurjewitsch Sacharjin-Jurjew (Russian Рома́н Ю́рьевич Заха́рьин-Ю́рьев), Anastasija Romanovna Sacharjina (russ Анастаси́я Рома́новна Заха́рьина), the aunt of Patriarch Filaret , progenitor of the House of Romanov . The ceremonies at his coronation were based on those of Byzantine imperial coronations and were intended to emphasize his power and chosenness (e.g. showering him with gold coins ). The power of the tsar was still disputed at this point. Many boyars were effectively independent of the tsar, maintained private armies and administered justice. Ivan began curtailing this power. He began to transform the state in his favor, which consisted of expropriating large parts of the country's most fertile and wealthy regions, boyar property, into state property - the oprichnina - which reported directly to him. The boyars he hated were only given inferior land on the state borders or were completely expropriated and banished to monasteries .
Ivan was considered pious and well-read in the Holy Scriptures, as well as intelligent, but also cunning, devious and resentful. He could think ahead strategically and often played chess . After he had proclaimed himself autocrat ( Samoderschez , Russian самодержец ) of all Russia in 1549 , he resided in the tsar's palace in the Moscow Kremlin , which he had known since childhood. Here he initiated important social and state reforms in the 1550s. He was supported by a circle of important advisors, the Isbrannaja Rada ("chosen council"). These include the recasting of legislation by the Code of Laws ( Sudebnik ) of 1550 and the reorganization of the Russian army. Tsar Ivan IV founded the first Russian parliament , in which the feudal estates were represented ( Zemski Sobor , 1549). The new code and government decrees ( Ustavnye Gramoty ) extended the rights of elected representatives of peasant communities in the court and in local self-government. Furthermore, in 1550 he founded the palace guard of the Strelizen (literally "shooters") equipped with muskets and Russian glaives , the Berdyschen ( Russian берды́ш ) . The reforms strengthened the central state apparatus, increased Russia's military clout and created the conditions for foreign policy successes.
In May 1553, the English launched an expedition to find a Northeast Passage through the Arctic Ocean . Admiral Sir Hugh Willoughby and his navigator Richard Chancellor were in charge . Chancellor landed his ship on August 24, 1553 in the Nikolsky estuary of the northern Dvina and was later received by Ivan IV in Moscow. The first trade relations between England and Russia came about, and in 1555 the “ Moscow Company ” was founded, an Anglo-Russian trading company. By 1584, Arkhangelsk was the first Russian trading port, Saint Nicholas Port. The city of Vologda , located between Arkhangelsk and Moscow, was also greatly expanded at Ivan's instigation.
After the loss of his first wife, Anastasiya Romanovna Zakharjina, in 1560, the only person after his mother whom he really loved, Ivan IV banged his head against the wall in front of the assembled court until he bled, screamed and raged like a madman . His mood swings, his moodiness and his irascibility, also against himself, came to light more clearly than ever. Ivan remarried several times after his second wife over a period of nine years (1571–1580). These wives either died an unexplained death or were cast out by him and banished to monasteries. Out of his deep distrust, which also extended to his wives, he eavesdropped on them in their sleep in the hope that they would talk and reveal their true opinion about him.
Between 1563 and 1575, Ivan ordered nine mass executions. The newly formed oprichniki tasked with conducting it spread terror throughout the country and were the tsar's henchmen in the murder of thousands. The members of the oprichniki served as bodyguards as well as spies, captors and executioners. They were directly subordinate to the tsar.
Campaigns against Kazan
Ivan IV continued the Moscow-Kazan wars . In December 1547, after the annual threats to Moscow from the invading Tatars, his first campaign was against Kazan , followed by another in November 1549, both of which were under-equipped. In 1551 Moscow worked out detailed plans for the final capture of Kazan and raised a strong army to do so. Ivan IV opened a new campaign against the Crimean Khan Devlet I Giray and the Kazan Khanate on June 16, 1552 . After successfully repelling the Crimean Tatars off Tula , his force turned east. On August 30 he began the siege of Kazan, supported by battering rams, mine warfare and 150 guns. The city's water supply was blocked, a final storm brought the city's surrender on October 2nd, its fortifications were leveled and large sections of the population massacred. The captive Khan Jediger Machmet was forced to convert to Christianity in 1553. The Bashkirs had to accept Russian supremacy two years later. By defeating the Tatars, the tsar stopped the raids of the Kazan Khanate in north-eastern Russia and made more difficult the attacks of aggressive peoples from Asia across the Volga to Europe.
The conquest of the Kazan Khanate was followed in 1556 by that of the Astrakhan Khanate , the center of power of the Nogai Horde . The Russian state received new lands as a result of the conquests, was able to expand trade to the south (including to Persia ) and the south-west, and thus created a starting point for the subsequent advance into Siberia .
Important in the religious field was the subsequent missionary instruction of Ivan IV, which formed the basis for the missionary work of the Orthodox Church among the Tatars and some pagan peoples of the Volga region. It was entrusted to the first bishop of Kazan, Guri (1555-1563), and was accompanied by the founding of numerous monasteries.
With Ivan's attempts to create access to the Baltic Sea, Russia's international rise and its involvement in shaping the interests of European states began. In late autumn 1557, Ivan led a 40,000 strong Russian army across the border and in January 1558 attacked Livonia . On May 11, 1558, the Russians managed to gain direct access to the Baltic Sea by conquering Narva. On July 18, troops under Prince Peter Schuiski marched into the town of Dorpat after a short siege . In the following year Fellin was conquered, large parts of Livonia were already in Russian hands. After the formation of a hostile coalition led by King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland, the war was dormant for several years.
Only in November 1562 did the war against Lithuania flare up again, and on February 15, 1563 the Russians succeeded in conquering Polotsk . During the arduous approach to the Nevel border fortress , Ivan IV killed Prince Ivan Shakhovskoy in a fit of exhaustion, committing the first recorded murder. In March 1563, the tsar ordered the first murders, especially of the nobility, who were treacherous to him, and had several members of the house of Adashev and Sheremetev executed. In July 1564 he had Prince Dimitri Ovchina-Obolensky strangled. Prince Andrei Kurbsky , commander of the Russian troops on the western frontier, betrayed the Tsar in April 1564 and defected to Poland. Together with the Polish-Lithuanian army, the prince devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki .
On December 3, 1564, Ivan IV transferred his residence to Alexandrov , a city north of Moscow, for 17 years. The tsar also suspected other boyars of treachery, founded the oprichnina (a special army of the lower service nobility devoted to him) in January 1565, and ordered a second wave of mass executions. The year 1568 represented the worst time of his reign of terror.
The commercial metropolis of Novgorod suspected Ivan of conspiring with Poland-Livonia. On January 6, 1570, Ivan the Terrible, accompanied by Tsarevich Ivan, rode with 1,500 soldiers to the city gates and massacred the population for a month. In June 1570, the tsar made Prince Magnus of Denmark king of Livonia. King Magnus was given an army of 25,000 men to conquer lands for the tsar. His engagement to a daughter of Prince Vladimir of Staritsa should commit him to the Tsarist Empire. Since Magnus was playing a double game with the king of Poland and could not conquer Reval , the tsar sent his army to Estonia to destroy the kingdom again. Magnus escaped to Riga to the Poles.
The Crimean Tatar cavalry meanwhile again devastated the southern border areas of Russia. On May 24, 1571, the Crimean Tatars under Khan Devlet Giray were able to break through the fortifications on the Oka and set Moscow on fire. The following year, however, they suffered a heavy defeat against the Russians under Mikhail Vorotynsky in the Battle of Molodi in a renewed attempt at conquest and had to stop their frequent raids for a long time.
In the fall of 1575, Ivan IV, tired of his post, resigned surprisingly and handed over the government to Zayin Bulat, the Moscow-based vassal chanche of Kasimov, a Tatar enclave on the Oka. By July 1573 Bulat had converted. Under the name of Simeon Bekbulatowitsch , he had risen to become the tsar's highest-ranking favorite and in 1574 commanded the Russian army, which attacked the city of Pernau during the campaign in Livonia . The abdicated tsar withdrew from the Kremlin for more than a year under the new name Prince Ivan of Moscow, but took power again at the end of 1576.
The following year, 1577, Ivan launched a new campaign to conquer Livonia. In the autumn of 1578, the main Russian forces under Prince Ivan Bulgakov-Golitsyn besieged the town of Wenden and had to retreat on October 21, defeated by a combined army of Germans, Lithuanians and Swedes. In the spring of 1579 Polotsk , in September 1580 Velikiye Luki , and in August 1581 the city of Pskov fell to the counter - attacking Poles led by Stephan Báthory . Only the treaty of Jam Zapolski of January 15, 1582 ended the war, which finally brought the Russian expedition to the Baltic Sea coast to failure. By this treaty, the tsar had to cede the city of Polotsk and parts of Livonia, which he had occupied since the Livonian War, to the Polish-Lithuanian crown. The long war with Poland-Lithuania and Sweden , triggered in 1558, ruined Russia's economy.
Beginning of the conquest of Siberia
Ivan was the first tsar to look east, to Siberia, the "sleeping land" beyond the Urals . Precious treasures (gold, crystals, magnificent sable skins ) were shown to him by a member of the Stroganov family . On Ivan's orders and with his charter, the first Siberian expedition led by the Stroganov family was launched. The Cossack leader Yermak Timofeevich reached the Tatar Khanate of Sibir in 1582 along the rivers . The decisive battle of the Cossacks against the Siberian Tatars took place in 1582 near what later became Tobolsk , which was founded as a fortress ( Tobolsk Kremlin ) soon after . Countless sable pelts came into Ivan's possession from the vanquished Tartars – an unimaginable fortune. From now on, Ivan IV also called himself "Tsar of Siberia".
Nickname "The Terrible"
The German nickname "the terrible" is not the exact translation of the Russian name. Ivan's nickname is grozny in Russian . This word comes from grosa (thunderstorm) and means "threatening", "the frightening one". But even during Ivan's lifetime, his reputation was spreading at Western European courts, which led to the translation "the Terrible". Ever since a boyar conspiracy against his mother had been uncovered, Ivan had been filled with a pathological distrust of almost everyone. Even as a child, Ivan showed a tendency towards cholerics and sadism towards animals, encouraged by the cruel and inhuman treatment by the boyars after the death of his mother.
Various examples of his cruelty are reported, especially in the second half of his reign. So on July 25, 1570 he had a mass execution carried out on the main square in Moscow (the predecessor of today's Red Square). Large parts of the population had fled out of fear, so that the streets looked deserted. He had his loyal chancellor Ivan Mikhailovich Viskovatyj (Russian Ива́н Михай́лович Вискова́тый ) dismembered alive by the oprichniki under their leader Maljuta Skuratov (Russian Малю́та Ску́ратов). The charge was triple high treason , in the course of which the accused asked the Polish king Sigismund II , the Turkish sultan Selim II and another ruler, Devlet I Giray , the khan of the Crimea , for help and the former possession of Novgorod and is said to have granted the others access to the country, which the former chancellor dismissed as defamation. His friend, Ivan's treasurer Nikita Funikov (Ники́та Фу́ников), was doused with boiling and ice-cold water until the meat fell off the bones. After four hours, 200 people were killed in a similarly gruesome manner in front of the remaining Muscovites, who cheered the tsar out of fear.
In July 1564 he himself stabbed the young prince Dmitri Obolensky in the heart when he spoke some reproachful words. Peter Petrejus, a 17th-century German-Swedish traveler and historian of Russia, reported: “Once he had a prince sewn into a bearskin and brought onto the ice. When his big dogs tore the supposed bear to pieces, the tsar was so amused that he did not know which leg to stand on.” He had a boyar who had fled from him to a monastery tied up, sit on a powder keg and blow it up: "This is how he gets closer to heaven and the angels!" said Ivan.
Ivan is said to have found pleasure in devising special methods of torture and watching the death throes of his victims. He also killed his servants at whim. Perverted magnanimity showed itself in the fact that he had his subjects' wishes collected in a basket, only to then refuse to fulfill them; a contemporary saying is therefore "put your wish in Ivan's basket". In 1570 he had Novgorod surrounded by the oprichniki and massacred all citizens of reputation. Women and children were tied up and thrown into the Volkhov , those who didn't drown were beaten to death with axes by Ivan's henchmen or pushed under the ice cover. Since that event, his subjects began calling him "Grosny" (the "Severe One"), possibly a euphemism . According to other sources, the name appeared already during his only military successes, the conquest of the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates, in the form of "terrifying" towards his enemies - not "terrible" towards his own people.
Andrei Kurbsky , who fought Ivan the Terrible from exile and sent him accusatory letters, which Ivan regularly answered in detail , also reports on his atrocities , by forbidding any criticism as a ruler appointed by God and demanding absolute submission. They are considered an important source for the reign of Ivan the Terrible, although some historians have questioned their authenticity. Both quote the Bible (and ancient authors) frequently, and Ivan laments his traumatic childhood in one of the letters. There is also an October 1570 autograph letter from Ivan to Queen Elizabeth I of England, in a similarly rude and insulting tone, complaining about peasant , profit-only English merchants (as in a letter a year earlier ) who she would have as an adviser, and expresses annoyance that Elisabeth would only allow him asylum in England at her own expense. Presumably he also proposed marriage to her around this time (which Elisabeth rejected), although he was still married himself at the time.
Ivan IV was married seven times:
- Immediately after his coronation, he married Anastasiya Romanovna Zakharjina (* around 1523), who was about eight years his senior. With her he had six children:
- Anastasija died in 1560, probably from poison.
- On August 21, 1561 Ivan married his second wife Maria Temryukovna of Circassia (Russian Мари́я Темрюко́вна), the daughter of Prince Temrink (Temrjuk) Cherkassky. With her he had the son Wassili (Russian Васи́лий , born March 21, 1563), who drowned on May 3, 1563 because his nanny accidentally dropped him. Maria Temryukovna died on September 1, 1569.
- On October 28, 1571 he married Marta Wassiljewna Sobakina (Russian Марфа Василье́вна Собаки́на ). She died, possibly of poison, on November 13, 1571, two weeks after the marriage.
- On April 28, 1572 he married Anna Ivanovna Koltowskaja (Russian А́нна Ивано́вна Колто́вская ). In 1573 he divorced her and placed her in a convent. She died on April 5, 1626.
- 1575 Anna Grigorievna Vasilchikova (Russian А́нна Григорье́вна Васильчико́ва ) Ivan's fifth wife. After less than a year, he banished her to a monastery. She died on January 7, 1579.
- In 1579 he married his sixth wife Vasilisa Melentyeva (Russian Васили́са Меле́нтьева ). Because she got herself a lover, she was also banished to a monastery and her lover impaled . Possibly Vasilisa Melentyeva was only a concubine of Ivan, the alleged marriage could be based on a rumor from the 19th century.
- In September 1580, in his seventh and last marriage, he married Maria Fjodorovna Nagaja (Russian Мари́я Фёдоро́вна Нага́я), daughter of Fjodor Nagai. She became the mother of his last child, Prince Dmitri (Russian Дми́трий, born October 19, 1583, probably murdered on May 15, 1591). The so-called Pseudodimitris ( Pseudodimitri I. , Pseudodimitri II. ) later claimed to be the latter . Mother and son were exiled to Uglich by Boris Godunov after Ivan's death. Maria Nagaia died on July 20, 1612.
Alleged killing of the heir to the throne
According to the papal legate Antonio Possevino , Ivan IV killed his son and heir to the throne Ivan in a dispute with the iron pommel of his royal staff. The reason was allegedly that the tsarevich took his father to task after Ivan IV had found his pregnant daughter-in-law too scantily clad when he went to her chambers the previous day, had hit her with his stick and she then killed the child, a boy. lost.
Contemporary sources also spoke of a physical dispute between father and son over the many setbacks in the Livonian War and the son's demand for assistance to the city of Pskov besieged by the Poles , in which Boris Godunov was also injured trying to intervene, and in both versions, a multi-day ailment and death is described. Other sources describe a brief but unnamed illness.
The family burial chamber was opened in 1963 and the remains were subjected to various examinations. So e.g. For example, he and his mother found extremely high levels of mercury, arsenic, and lead, and his father found mercury and arsenic, which are believed to have been in the drugs he was trying to use to treat the arthritis found in him. The Kremlin's chief archaeologist, TD Panova, wrote in her 2003 book about the burial chambers: "...what caused such high levels of mercury, arsenic and lead is anyone's guess."
Mikhail Gerasimov , who made a forensic facial reconstruction of Ivan IV, wrote that because of the humidity in the burial chamber, "only dust remained" of the son's skull, and therefore the cause of death could not be clarified here either.
Iwan suffered from mood swings and depression throughout his life . After the death of his son and heir to the throne, he transferred the court from Alexandrovskaya Sloboda back to Moscow.
In the last years of his life, Ivan is said to have sought solace from "witches" and "wizards" and ran howling through the palace. Ivan IV died of old age, suffering from dropsy and arthritis , on March 18, 1584 in the Kremlin. According to one theory, he may also have been the victim of an assassination plot. According to this, Boris Godunov, Bogdan Belski and the English doctor Johann Eiloff, who was in Belski's service, are said to have conspired against the tsar. Russian historians see the reason in the fact that Godunov is said to have been vehemently opposed to Ivan's intention to marry a relative of Elizabeth I , Mary Hastings, proposed by his English personal physician Robert Jacob . This connection, the conspirators worried, could have significantly increased the influence of the English crown on the Russian Empire and curtailed the rights of the imbecile Fyodor I, who was married to one of Godunov's sisters. Belsky, to whom the tsar entrusted the supervision of the doctors at court, is said to have feared Ivan's irascibility. Since Ivan's death had already been prophesied and the medics seemed to agree with this prognosis, Belski was afraid to break the news to Ivan. However, Ivan found out about the prophecy and is said to have taken revenge on the soothsayers by having them burned at the stake .
However, some historians doubt whether the executions actually took place or whether Ivan only threatened them. Others, on the other hand, explain Ivan's threat by saying that he felt stronger again on the predicted date of his death and thus believed he had convicted the "lying" astrologers. Setting an example seemed appropriate to him. According to documents found in Moscow, Ivan is said to have sat down to play chess with the court deacon 's son-in-law , Rodion Barkin (Grey names Belsky as a chess partner). Godunov and Belsky were present in an adjoining room. When the tsar became nauseous and fell, Godunov and Belsky reportedly took advantage of the confusion to strangle Ivan. According to Moscow historians, a poison previously administered to Ivan by Eiloff at Belski's behest triggered the fainting spell. A 1963 analysis of Ivan's remains in the Moscow Kremlin Cathedral of Archangel Michael showed elevated levels of mercury , consistent with this theory . It could therefore be that Ivan was gradually poisoned over a long period of time before he was given a single high dose.
Ivan had himself buried in the Archangel Michael Cathedral, the burial church of the Moscow princes, as a monk Jonah next to two of his sons (Vasily and Ivan), hidden behind a wall. In addition to the magnificent cathedrals such as the Assumption Cathedral (Holy Trinity) in Sergiyev Posad or the St. Basil's Cathedral on Moscow 's Red Square , and his insane son and successor Fyodor, who never ruled alone, he left a treasury, the book of his good ones Deeds and Treasures and the Time of Troubles – a civil war lasting almost 30 years .
The figure of Ivan the Terrible and his reign, and thus the entire epoch, offered rich material for artists.
The sculptor Mark Matveyevich Antokolsky created a bronze statue of the Tsar around 1870, which is in the Museum of Alexander III. was issued. A first marble copy of the statue was installed in 1871 in the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg . A second copy ended up in the Kensington Museum in London . In 1885, Ilya Repin depicted Ivan killing his son in a painting. Viktor Vasnetsov painted a portrait of the ruler in 1897.
On October 14, 2016 , a monument to Ivan IV was unveiled for the first time against resistance in the Russian city of Orel , which he founded. The project was supported by the Russian Minister of Culture.
Viktor Vasnetsov : Tsar Ivan the Terrible . Painting from 1897
literature, music, film
literature and theatre
- Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy : The Death of Ivan the Horror. Tragedy in five acts (first performance 1867). Hendel Verlag, Halle/Saale 1911.
- Alexei Konstantinovich Tolstoy: Prince Serebrenny. Roman from the time of Ivan IV. Berlin 1882, Zurich 1944, reprint by Manesse, Zurich 1985, ISBN 3-7175-1706-6 .
- Alexei Nikolayevich Tolstoy : Tsar Ivan the Terrible . Berlin 1909.
- Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov : The Girl from Pskov (first performance 1873, based on Lev Alexandrovich Mei )
- Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov: The Tsar's Bride (first performance in 1899, based on Lev Alexandrovich Mei)
- Georges Bizet : Ivan IV (composed ca. 1862–65, premiere 1951)
- Sabine Dumschat: Foreign Doctors in Moscow Russia . Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-515-08512-2 .
- Hans von Eckardt : Ivan the Terrible . Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1941. (2nd combined edition 1947)
- Ian Grey: Ivan the Terrible - The Biography . Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 1988, ISBN 3-8052-0443-4 . (also: Albatros Verlag, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96064-9 ) (Original edition: Ivan The Terrible . Hodder & Stoughton, London 1965).
- Detlef Jena: Ivan IV Wassiljewitsch - the terrible 1547-1584. In: The Russian tsars in life pictures. Verlag Styria, Graz/Vienna/Cologne 1996, ISBN 3-222-12375-6 .
- Frank fighter: Ivan (IV.) the Terrible 1533-1584. In: H.-J. Torke (ed.): The Russian Tsars: 1547-1917. Beck Verlag, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-38110-3 , pp. 27-49.
- Andreas Kappeler: Ivan Groznyj reflected in the foreign publications of his time. A Contribution to the History of the Western Image of Russia . Zurich 1972.
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- SF Platonov : Ivan Groznyj . Obelisk, Berlin 1924.
- Ruslan G. Skrynnikov: Ivan the Terrible and His Time . CH Beck Verlag, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-406-36492-6 .
- Nikita Romanoff, Robert Payne : Ivan the Terrible. Carl Habel Verlag, Darmstadt 1975, ISBN 3-87179-178-4 .
On the sources of Ivan the Terrible
- Hugh Graham: How do we know what we know about Ivan the Terrible? (A paradigm). In: Russian History. 14, 1987, pp. 179-198.
- Literature by and about Ivan IV in the German National Library catalogue
- Иван Васильевич Грозный . Russian history website "chronos" (Russian; numerous references and further Russian links)
- Joan Bos: Ivan "the Terrible". (No longer available online.) xs4all.nl, January 20, 2009, archived from the original on April 13, 2001 ; Retrieved March 19, 2018 (English).
- Uwe Klußmann: Iwan IV - The Angry Tsar (spiegel.de, January 31, 2012; retrieved on January 26, 2020)
- The Gold of the Tsars - Ivan's Rise. (No longer available online.) German Center Kirov, archived from the original on 2002-07-29 ; retrieved March 19, 2018 .
- The Encyclopedia Brockhaus, the Russian edition, St.-Petersburg, 1890-1897.
- Manfred Hildermeier: History of Russia: From the Middle Ages to the October Revolution . CHBeck, 2013, ISBN 978-3-406-64552-5 ( google.de [accessed May 13, 2019]).
- R. Payne: Ivan the Terrible. Carl Habel Verlag, 1975, p. 87.
- Russian annals record 40 attacks by the Kazan Khanates on north-eastern Russia in the first half of the 16th century. century. Complete collection of the Russian annals. Volume 13, St. Petersburg 1908 and Moscow 2001.
- Gensichen: missionary history of modern times. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1961, p. 13.
- R. Payne: Ivan the Terrible. Carl Habel Verlag, 1975, p. 157.
- C. M. Соловьев: История России с древнейших времен. Volume III: 1463–1584. Moscow 2001.
- John Mortimer (ed.): Mirror or Literature, Amusement, and Instruction . London 1843, p. 360 ff.
- Ian Grey: Ivan the Terrible - The Biography .
- Peter Petrejus: Histories and reports in the Großfürstenthumb Muschkow . Leipzig 1620.
- Hans-Joachim Torke: The Russian Tsars 1547-1917.
- John Vincent, Ivan the terribly rude, Daily Telegraph 2004 . The letter is printed in Felix Pryor, Elizabeth I, Her life in letters, British Library 2004
- Henri Troyat: Ivan le terrible ( fr ). Flammarion, 1993, ISBN 2-08-064473-4 .
- Панова, Т. Д.: Кремлёвские усыпальницы. История, судьба, тайны . Изд-во Индрик, Москва 2003, ISBN 5-85759-233-X , p. C. 68, 69, 71 (Russian).
- М.М. Герасимов: Документальный портрет Ивана Грозного. In: liberea.gerodot.ru. Retrieved March 14, 2019 (Russian): "«Краткие сообщения института археологии Академии Наук СССР»". 1965. Вып. 100. C. 139-142.”
- Sabine Dumschat: Foreign doctors in Moscow Russia .
- Ian Grey: Ivan the Terrible - The Biography. (bibliographical information see sources), p. 304.
- Urania. Popular science monthly, ed. by the Presidium of URANIA and the Kulturbund der DDR, , issue 7/80, p. 71 f., with reference to Наука и Жизнь. Moscow 1/80.
- The Reds also vote for Putin , NZZ, March 15, 2018
- First monument to Ivan the Terrible in Russia unveiled on zeit.de
- Ivan the Terrible gets a monument on n-tv.de
- Former title: The Death of Ivan the Terrible. Tragedy in five acts .
- Also under the title Tsar Ivan the Terrible or The Silver Prince .
- The music for this was composed by Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev .
- Tsar Movie Pilot . Retrieved October 26, 2017.
as Grand Duke of Moscow
Tsar of Russia
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ivan IV Vasilyevich; the terrible (nickname); Ива́н Васи́льевич Гро́зный (Russian)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||first crowned Russian tsar|
|BIRTH DATE||August 25, 1530|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Kolomenskoye|
|DATE OF DEATH||March 28, 1584|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Moscow|