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Chessboard with pieces in the basic position
A possible mate position ( immortal game )

Chess (from Persian šāh Shah /شاه/ ' King ' - hence the name “the royal game”) is a strategic board game in which two players take turns moving pieces (the chess pieces ) on a game board (the chess board ). The aim of the game is to checkmate your opponent , that is, to attack his king in such a way that he cannot defend himself or escape.

Chess is known around the world and has acquired deep cultural significance. Many chess players are members of chess clubs , which in turn belong to regional and national chess federations and have formed the World Chess Federation ( FIDE ) around the world . Chess tournaments are organized by private organizers, chess clubs or chess associations. Chess is considered a sport . The current men's chess world champion is Magnus Carlsen from Norway, the current world chess champion is Ju Wenjun from China.


Chess in Persia
Lewis chess pieces (Museum of Scotland)

The forerunner of all games in the chess family, not just European chess, but also Xiangqi , Shogis or Makruks , probably originated in northern India. This primal chess was called Chaturanga . Details of the development of the game are not known, which led to the formation of myths, especially the wheat grain legend .

The game of chess became more widespread in Persia and, after its conquest by the Arabs , in the course of Islamic expansion . The game of chess was firmly established in Europe by the 13th century at the latest, because since then it has been one of the seven virtues of knights . In the 15th century, presumably in Spain, there was a major reform of the rules of the game, in which the gaits for queen and bishop, the double step of the pawn from his starting field and castling were gradually introduced. In the centuries that followed, European chess masters in particular contributed to research into the game.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the game of chess became part of bourgeois culture, which changed the style of play and shaped tournaments and chess publicity. It was also the time of the great chess cafes, the most famous of which was the Parisian Café de la Régence , where chess had been played since 1740. The first chess club was founded in Zurich in 1809 .

The history of modern chess tournaments began with the first major tournament initiated by the English master Howard Staunton on the occasion of the World Exhibition in London in 1851 . The competition between the two leading players at the time, Wilhelm Steinitz and Johannes Zukertort, in 1886 is regarded as the first world chess championship , although some players were already considered to be the strongest of their time through tournament and duel successes. In 1924 the world chess federation FIDE was founded in Paris ; From 1948 FIDE took over the awarding of the world chess title and organized world championships every three years. From 1945 to around 1990 the Soviet Union was the world's dominant chess nation and also provided almost all world champions. The 1972 World Championship match, also known as the “Match of the Century” , in which the American Bobby Fischer won the title against the Russian Boris Spasski , led to the popularization of the game of chess in the western industrialized nations.

In the late 20th century, chess computers and chess programs on PCs gradually gained in importance. Today they are almost invariably superior to human gamers. Chess programs play an important role in chess training, game preparation and game analysis in top chess .

A very extensive collection on the historical and current situation of chess in Germany is located in the Lower Saxony Institute for Sports History in Hanover.


Measured by the number of players organized in clubs and the literature published about the game, chess is the most popular board game in Europe  , ahead of Dame , Mühle , Halma and the many descendants of Pachisi . In East Asian cultures, the respective games related to chess, and to various degrees similar, such as Xiangqi , Shogi and Makruk occupy a similar place.

It is both played purely for pleasure and competitively, in chess clubs , tournaments , online by chess server or as a correspondence chess by email , fax , special correspondence chess servers and postcard . An already very old branch of the game of chess is art or problem chess ( chess composition ). In contrast to party chess, here two parties do not play against each other, but a chess composer drafts and publishes a task that has to be solved (“chess without a partner”). The chess composition is evaluated according to aesthetic criteria.

The game of chess is played on the square chess board , which is divided into eight by eight alternating black and white square fields. 16 black and white chess pieces are drawn on each of these, a large part of which is usually captured gradually. The chess pieces are usually made of wood or plastic , although there are also decorative play sets made of stone , glass , marble or metal (e.g. tin ).

Chess is one of the most complex board games. The number of possible positions is estimated at over 10 43 . After just two moves, 72,084 different positions can arise. The number of possible game courses is again many times greater: For the first 40 moves, the estimates amount to around 10 115 to 10 120 different game courses. The geometric mean over the course of the game is assumed to be around 30 possible half-moves per position. In game theory , chess is assigned to the finite zero-sum games with perfect information . Theoretically, one could determine whether white or black wins or the game has to end in a draw if both sides play perfectly . According to the current state of knowledge, however, due to the enormous number of positions to be calculated, it is practically impossible to answer this question by completely calculating the search tree . However, results for all material distributions up to seven stones have already been calculated and - apart from most of the seven stones - are available in endgame databases (so-called tablebases ).

From a statistical point of view, white as the attractive person gets on average more points than black, namely around 54 percent of the possible points. This draw advantage is generally attributed to the fact that White has a tempo advantage when developing the pieces . The draw rate, i.e. H. the relative frequency of games with a tie is around a third and increases with the skill level of those involved.

Rules of the game

Basic concepts and goal of the game

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Chess diagram with basic position

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At the beginning of a game there are a total of 32  chess pieces (also known as stones ), 16 white and 16 black. Both players (designated as white and black or as attracting and pulling ) each have the following chess pieces available:

The chessboard is arranged between the players in such a way that, from each player's point of view, there is a white field at the bottom right. On a board with chess notation , the horizontal rows (from bottom to top when viewed from white) are labeled with the numbers 1 to 8 and the vertical lines (from left to right when viewed from white) are labeled with the letters a to h. The basic position of the chess pieces for White is then from a1 to h1: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight and rook. The white pawns are placed in the row above from a2 to h2. For Black, the same line-up applies from a8 to h8 and a7 to h7, so that the pieces are mirror images of each other. The queen stands on both sides on a field of her own color. A Latin rule of thumb is: Regina regit colorem, "The lady determines the color (of the field)". German versions of this are "The lady loves her color" or, more directly, "White lady, white field - black lady, black field". Another rule of thumb is “ D amen on the D line”.

Starting with white, the players take turns making moves with their pieces. The player who moves moves a chess piece of his own color onto another square. The only exception is castling , in which two of your own pieces (king and rook) are moved. There is a compulsory train movement, which can be a disadvantage for the player in forced train situations. In chess notation, a white and a subsequent black piece movement are always numbered together and counted as a move . The context usually reveals the meaning of the word train . But if an exact distinction is necessary, the action of the individual player is called a half-move.

Only one stone can be placed on a space. He blocks the field for all stones of his own color, i.e. In other words, you may never move a piece onto a space that already has your own piece. However, if there is an opposing piece on the target field, it is removed from the board. They say she is beaten. It is no longer used in the further course of the game.

The pieces may not jump over each other (exceptions apply to the rook in castling and for the knight ). They may only be moved across empty spaces: up to the first space occupied by the opponent (inclusive) or up to the first space occupied by your own piece.

If a chess piece could be captured in the next move, it is threatened (out of date: it is en prize ). If, after making this move, the capturing piece can be captured in the next half move, the threatened piece is called covered, if not, it hangs .

If one of the kings is threatened, it is said that he is in check . With the exclamation “Chess!” One used to point this out to the opponent; However, this is no longer customary in tournament chess and is not provided for in the FIDE rules (as is the reference to “ Gardez ” for an attack on the queen). A chess bid must always be parried, and the king must not be exposed to a threat: after every half-move by a player, the king of this player must be un-threatened. The aim of the game is to create a situation in which the opposing king is threatened and the opponent cannot remove this threat in the next half move ( checkmate ).

Rules of movement

Depending on their type, the chess pieces may only be moved according to certain rules:


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The king can move one square in any direction.

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  • The king can move horizontally, vertically or diagonally to the immediately adjacent square. The two kings can never stand next to each other as they would threaten each other and a king may not move to a threatened square.
  • In castling, not only are two pieces moved in one move with the king and rook, it is also the only move in which the king is allowed to move two squares. Both must never have been moved in the course of the game so that castling is permitted. No other pieces may stand between the king and the rook. The king moves two squares in the direction of the tower, and the tower jumps onto the square that the king has just crossed. Castling is also not possible if the king is threatened or would move across a threatened square while castling. For detailed explanations see: Castling .

The king is the most important game of chess figure , since the objective of the game, the opponent's king matt to put what the game ended immediately. Checking mate means threatening the opposing king with one (or more) pieces without the threat being fended off in the subsequent half-move, which can be done by moving the king to an un-threatened square, capturing the attacking piece or moving a piece between King and attacking figure can happen. It is a characteristic feature of the game of chess that the king himself is not captured, but the game ends one move before this would inevitably happen. This peculiarity is occasionally justified with the inviolability of the royal dignity in the context of the game's creation. As a special gesture that you have lost or given up, you can tip or knock your own king over on the chessboard.

In the opening , it usually makes sense to increase the king's security by castling soon. The pawns in castling should not be moved if possible, so that they form a protective wall against the king. A safe position for the king, where he is protected from enemy attacks, is also important in the middle game . In the endgame , when there are not many figures left to threaten the kings, they play an active role. In addition, it is usually a good idea to place the king near the center of the board. The position of the king is particularly important in a pawn ending . Reaching the opposition of both kings is often decisive for the game.


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The queen can move any number of spaces in any direction.

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  • The queen can move as far as she likes in the horizontal, vertical and diagonal directions, but without jumping over other pieces . It thus combines the traction possibilities of a tower and a runner.

This makes the queen the most agile and strongest piece in the game of chess. In practice, a lady is a strong attack figure in combination with the rook , bishop and jumper . Their value is measured at nine or more (according to Grand Master Larry Kaufman at 9.75) pawn units . All other things being equal, the queen is almost as strong as two rooks together. In Persian this figure is called advisor ( Wesir, Vazir /وزير / 'The royal advisor and court strategist'), which corresponds more to a military-strategic interpretation of the game.


  • A tower can move as far as it wants on lines and rows, i.e. horizontally and vertically, without jumping over other pieces. The only exception to this is castling , where the rook and king are moved. Like checkers and bishops, a tower has a range that is only limited by the edge of the field.

The rook is the second strongest piece in a chess game. Its value is measured at around five pawn units. In the origins of the game in Persia, the tower was probably a chariot that was depicted as a block of wood with several notches. The Europeans misinterpreted this as a crenellated tower. In the English chess language the rook is called rook ( rukh /رخ/ 'Battle, chariot'). The tower was previously called "Roch" in German; hence the name "castling" comes from.

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The tower can move any number of spaces in a straight line.

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A distinction is made in the basic position and in the opening between “Damenturm” and “Königsturm”. The former is on the queenside , the white one is on the a1 square, the black on a8. The latter is posted on the kingside ; the white is on the field h1, the black on h8.

It is possible to checkmate the opposing king with just a rook and a king . All other things being equal, the rook is therefore considerably stronger than a knight or bishop (although at the beginning of the game, especially before castling, it plays a subordinate role due to its very limited mobility). However, a single tower is slightly weaker than two of these figures. The difference in value between a rook and a knight or bishop is called quality . One speaks of quality gain when one can conquer a tower by giving up a jumper or bishop, and of quality sacrifice when one consciously relinquishes the quality in favor of other advantages.

In contrast to all other pieces, regardless of its position (if it is not blocked by other pieces), the tower can always reach the same number of squares in one move, namely 14.


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A runner can move diagonally across any number of spaces.

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  • Bishops move diagonally across the board as far as they want. They are also not allowed to move over other pieces .

The bishops can never change their field color, so that a bishop can only reach half of the fields on the chessboard. At the beginning of a game, each player has a white-squared and a black-squared bishop. A distinction is also made between women’s runner and king’s runner based on their positioning next to the queen or the king. A bishop is usually worth a little more than three pawn units (according to Larry Kaufman 3.25 pawn units), but the value of three pawn units is often given, which is usually a little too low. The so-called pair of bishops is very effective, which is usually superior to a pair of knights or a pair of bishops and knights in open positions - i.e. without blocking pawns - because the two bishops can act well together, i.e. i.e., never block each other. According to Larry Kaufman, one can also evaluate the pairing of the bishops with an additional half pawn unit. It follows from this that two bishops are worth about seven pawn units (two times 3.25 for the two bishops and 0.5 for the pair of bishops), i.e. about as much as a rook and two pawns. The final king and bishop pair against king is won.

Bishops are long-stepped pieces that can move from one side of the board to the other in one move if all spaces in between are free. Bishops of different colors are used when white has a black-squared bishop and black has a white-squared bishop or vice versa. These cannot threaten each other. A bad runner is called the runner who is restricted in his movement possibilities by several of his own pawns. Runners are usually effective when they can move into many spaces and control the center.


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Possible knight moves

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  • The official FIDE description reads: The knight may move to one of the squares that are closest to his standing square, but not on the same row, line or diagonal with it. This means: A knight move can also be seen formally as a one-step tower move and a one-step bishop move in the same direction, whereby the intermediate field can be occupied.

The target field always has a different color than the starting field. With this the knight is able to enter all fields of the board, but the way from one side of the chessboard to the other is time-consuming. In the middle of the board a knight can move to a maximum of eight squares, at or near the edge of the board the number of possible target squares can be limited to two, three, four or six.

A game of chess begins with two white and two black knights  - the older term "Rössel" is only used colloquially or in connection with the Rössel jump puzzle. The specialty of the jumpers is to be able to "jump" over their own and opposing pieces . A good square for a knight is usually a square that is as central as possible, from which he has many opportunities to move. A warning for beginners reads: "A jumper at the edge brings sorrow and shame." In practice, however, there are numerous exceptions.

Two knights against the sole king cannot force mate, but there are opportunities to win if the weaker side still has a pawn and this has not advanced too far .

With a little more than three pawn units (3.25 according to Larry Kaufman), the value of a knight roughly corresponds to that of a bishop . The respective strength of the two pieces depends on the specific situation, mostly on the pawn structure .


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Moves of the peasants

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The white pawn can capture the black rook, advance one square or capture the black knight.

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En-passant capture : Here the black pawn has taken a double step from c7 to c5 and thus skipped the c6 square that the white pawn dominated. The white pawn can now - but only directly on the next move - capture to c6 and take the black pawn from the c5 square.

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  • The pawn can move one step forward if the target space is empty.
  • If the pawn has not yet been moved and is therefore still in the starting position, he can optionally also advance two steps, provided that the field in front of him and the target field are empty.
  • The pawn moves forward one square diagonally. However, if a square diagonally in front of him is empty, he cannot move to it (except for an en-passant stroke). It is the only piece that hits in a different direction than it moves.
  • The pawn is the only piece that can capture en passant . If an opposing pawn has made a double step in the immediately preceding opposing half-move and if one of his own pawns is in such a way that he attacks the square he has jumped over, he can capture the opposing pawn as if he had only advanced one square from the starting position.
  • If a farmer enters the opponent's back rank, he must form part of this campaign in the so-called conversion be a queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same color replaced. The pawn is removed from the game and the new piece is placed on the space to which the pawn was moved this turn. The properties of the new piece take effect immediately, this can also lead to an immediate checkmate. The conversion does not depend on whether the selected piece has been captured in the course of the game. By converting, a player can get more copies of a type of figure than are available in the basic position.

At the beginning of the game, each player has eight pawns who, in the basic position, form a wall in front of the other pieces . The pawn can only move forward, so he is the only piece that can never return to a previously entered field.

The world chess federation FIDE also refers to the pawn as a "piece" in its official chess rules, however, chess players mostly differentiate between pawns and the other pieces, and only the latter are referred to as pieces. Because of his limited possibilities of moving and capturing, the pawn is considered to be the weakest piece in chess. However, the importance of pawns increases in the course of a game of chess because he can threaten pieces of higher value with less risk or block their path. There is also the possibility of converting him into a stronger piece when he reaches the opposing back row .

If a pawn reaches the last row, he is usually converted into a queen, as this is the strongest piece. If the player still has his original queen (and thus converts a second one), the converted queen is often represented by an upside-down rook. This is illegal in tournaments; you have to get an additional queen, possibly from another play set. A transformation into another figure is called a sub-transformation . This is most often done in a knight, usually with a chess bid and often combined with a knight's fork . Converting to a rook or bishop can be useful to avoid a stalemate .

It is common in chess literature to measure the empirical value of the pieces queen, rook, bishop and knight in so-called pawn units. A pawn has the value of one pawn unit.

In the Persian game the pawn was called sæɾbɒːz /سرباز / 'Soldier' ​​and represented as such.

Farmers are particularly strong when they

  • are movable, in particular are not blocked by opposing pawns on the same line and there are no opposing pawns on adjacent lines that could capture the pawn (“passed pawn”);
  • appear in groups on adjacent lines, thereby driving opposing pieces in front of you and being able to cover each other ("pawn duo" or "pawn chain");
  • are well advanced, making the potential for transformation more meaningful.

the end of the game

A game ends either by checkmate or a player surrendering or by a draw or stalemate . Is played with a chess clock, also by exceeding the time.

The winner is the player who the opponent's king in checkmate sets (from Persian: Shah MAT = "The king is delivered / helpless"). This is achieved when the opponent's king is threatened by his own stone and the opponent cannot fend off the threat in the next half move and thus has no more regular move available.

Another possibility to win the game is the abandonment of the opponent, this is possible at any time during the game. It is part of chess etiquette that the loser extends his hand to the winner and congratulates him on the victory. In tournament chess, which is played with a fixed time and chess clocks, a player loses if he exceeds his available time. This only applies if his opponent can still checkmate him with a regular sequence of moves; but if the opponent can no longer checkmate even against the most clumsy game - i.e. there is not even a theoretical possibility to checkmate - the game ends in a draw despite the timeout.

A game can also end in a stalemate: the party to move can no longer make a legal move, but its king is not threatened. The game then ends in a draw.

The game ends with a technical draw if, in addition to the two kings, there is at most one minor piece (bishop or knight) on the board. Then a mate is theoretically no longer possible with any bad game by the opponent.

For the other possibilities of a tie, see the article Draw .


Algebraic notation

Different types of notation are possible for recording the course of the game. All moves within a game are numbered consecutively and written down according to the same pattern:

1. <first move> <first answer>
2. <second move> <second answer>
3. etc.

It is easier to understand, but not necessary, to put each pair of moves on a separate line.

Algebraic notation is commonly used today . The chessboard is assigned a coordinate system. A game of chess is recorded in writing by recording the moving piece, the starting square and the target square of the individual moves.

In algebraic notation, the type of figure is given first:

  • German: K = king, D = queen, T = rook, L = bishop, S = knight
  • English: K = king ( King ), Q = Dame ( Queen ), R = Tower ( Rook ), B = runner ( Bishop ), N = knight ( Knight ). (A list of piece names in other languages ​​can be found in the article Chess Piece .)
  • In the case of a pawn, this information is omitted.

Then the source and target fields are noted in the detailed algebraic notation ; In the abbreviated algebraic notation , one usually only notes the target field.

Moves on a free space are marked with a “-”, move moves with an “x” (or a “:”) between the starting and destination space. A check bid receives a "+" behind the move, a checkmate "++", "‡" or "#". If a pawn is converted into another piece, the letter of this piece is indicated after the move. Small castling is indicated by “0–0”, large castling with “0–0–0”. The en-passant striking is indicated by a trailing "ep". An offer of a draw is indicated by "(=)".

In the literature, trains are often marked with a rating, for example “!” For a strong move or “?” For a bad move. For example, “Bc5 – d4?” Means: “The bishop on c5 moves to d4 - this is a weak move.”

Extensive algebraic notation

The detailed algebraic notation used to be widely used in printed works (chess books and magazines).


e2 – e4 Bauer moves from e2 to e4.
Nb1xc3 + The knight on b1 moves to c3, captures the opposing piece there and offers check.
Rd1 – d8 # Rook moves from d1 to d8 and mates.
e7 – e8D Pawn on e7 moves to e8 and transforms into a queen.
f5xg6 ep Pawn f5 beats the opposing pawn on g5 in passing (en passant) and moves to g6.
Qd1xf3 Queen d1 captures an opponent's stone on the f3 square.

Abbreviated algebraic notation

In the short notation , the starting field is omitted. If a move is no longer clearly described, the starting line (if this is not identical) or the starting row (if both pieces are on the same line) are added.

The abbreviated form of the notation is common in the handwritten notation of the game of chess and has largely established itself in chess books and magazines.


Bc4 Bishop moves to c4.
Bxc4 The bishop moves to c4 and captures an opposing piece there.
b4 Pawn moves to b4.
axb4 Pawn a3 moves to b4 and captures an opposing piece there.
fxg6 ep Pawn f5 moves to g6 and captures the opposing pawn on g5 in passing.
Sec4 The knight on the e-file moves to c4.
Sexc4 The knight on the e-file takes on c4.
T1c7 The rook on the first row moves to c7.
cxd8D Pawn on c7 takes on d8 and turns into a queen.
cxd8S + The pawn on c7 takes on d8, turns into a knight and offers check.


After the last move, the result of the game is noted, a 1: 0 stands for the victory of the player with the white pieces, a 0: 1 for the victory of the player with the black pieces, a ½: ½ for an undecided result (draw ). Games won without a fight are noted with +: - or -: +.

A summary of several game results - for example from a player in a round- robin tournament , a fight between two teams , or a statistic between two players - is displayed with the notation of, for example (+3 = 2 −4): Nine games are from this player or this player Team, three of which were won, two ended in a draw and four were lost.

Rules for chess tournaments

Chess tournaments are often in a tournament of the Swiss system organized. As a rule, a player receives one point for every game won, half a point for every draw game and zero points for every game loss. For a discussion of the three-point rule, see draw . If a team competition is held on several boards, the team with the most points from the games played receives one team point.

A mechanical chess clock
Digital chess clock DGT2010 that is officially FIDE certified

The chess clock

A chess clock is used in tournament chess to limit and display the time available for both players to think about. It has separate time displays ("clocks") for the two players, only one of which is running at a time. If a player has exceeded the time available to him, the game is considered to be lost; Exceptions to this are explained in the main article using the chess clocks . In tournament chess , the time to think about is usually 120 minutes for the first 40 moves, in rapid chess, on the other hand, between 10 and 60 and in blitz chess tournaments usually only five minutes, each for the entire game. In an even faster variant, the bullet , players only have three minutes or less to think about it.

Electronic clocks have also been used since the mid-1990s, offering new options for regulating the time to think about. For example, you can set a base time of 90 minutes for 40 moves and a time surcharge of 30 seconds per move. This should make it less likely that games in an even position in the endgame are decided by time constraints .

Touched - guided

Taking back moves that have already been made is not permitted. If a player touches his own piece on purpose, he must make a move (touched - guided) with it , if there is a legal possibility to do so. This also applies if an opposing figure is deliberately touched - it must be captured if this is legally possible. If you touch a piece with which no legal move is possible, this has no effect, you can make any rule-compliant move. If a player only wants to adjust the figure, he must announce this beforehand. The French expression j'adoube has been used for this.

The draw

In principle, the players are allowed to agree a draw (tie) at any time . In some tournaments, however, special rules set by the organizer apply to avoid short draws. The player in the move can demand a draw if the same position exists for the third time with the same player to move and the same moves, or if neither a piece has been captured nor a pawn has been moved for at least 50 moves ( 50- move rule ).

Prohibited resources

It is forbidden to use your own notes or advice from third parties or to analyze it on another board during a game. Since there are now very strong chess programs , the monitoring of this rule at chess tournaments is given particular importance. It is not allowed to leave the designated tournament area without the approval of a referee . According to the FIDE rules of July 1, 2005, if a player's cell phone rings during a game, the game is lost immediately. If, however, the opponent could no longer checkmate by any rule-compliant sequence of moves, the game is counted as a draw. Players are also prohibited from taking all technical devices - including those that are switched off - that can be used for telecommunications or data processing into the gaming area. Only the use of mobile phones is prohibited for spectators.

The referee

In larger tournaments as well as in team fights in higher leagues, a referee monitors compliance with the FIDE chess rules and the tournament regulations that apply in addition. He controls compliance with the reflection period and makes decisions in the event of rule violations. Only the player whose turn it is may call the referee.


Before the start and after the end of a game, it is common for opponents to shake hands. Refusing to shake hands, as Anatoly Karpov did in a game of the 1978 World Chess Championship with his challenger Viktor Korchnoi , is considered unsporting. According to a decision of the Presidential Board of FIDE on June 26, 2007, this can even be punished with loss of the game.

During the game it is forbidden to disturb the opponent in any way. This also includes frequent draw offers. No actions may be taken that damage the reputation of chess. Permanent disregard of the chess rules can be punished with loss of the game, whereby the score of the opponent is determined by the referee.

Results display

In tournaments with spectators, the outcome of a game is indicated by the position of a king in the center of the board. All other pieces and pawns are put back on the starting grid. So that electronic chessboards register this as a result display, the following tables are used, which cannot appear during the game due to the distance between the two kings:

  • Draw: White king on e4, black king on e5
  • 1-0: White king on e4, black king on d5
  • 0-1: White king on d4, black king on e5

Basic concepts of strategy and tactics

Game phases

The first 10 to 15 moves of a game of chess are called the opening . The strategic goals during the opening are to mobilize the characters, keep the king safe and control the center . The openings are divided into open games , semi-open games and closed games . A sacrifice (often a pawn) in the opening with the aim of gaining other advantages (e.g. attack or development advantage) is called a gambit (e.g. Scottish gambit , queen's gambit , king's gambit ).

In the middlegame , the players try to use strategy and tactics to influence the course of the game in their favor. Well-known strategic and tactical motives make the game easier for chess players.

If only a few pieces are left on the chessboard, it is called the endgame . The strategic goal in the endgame is often to enforce the conversion of a pawn. Usually your own king helps as an active figure. With the resulting material preponderance, the game can usually easily be led to victory.

Value of the figures

On the basis of exchange values existing on the board figures a rough position judgment can be made. The value of the pieces is extremely dependent on the current position on the board (principle of relative exchange value).


A victim is the deliberate surrender of material in order to gain other strategic or tactical advantages. A sacrifice already in the opening , usually a pawn sacrifice , is called a gambit . Usually it serves a faster development, weakening of the opposing king position or control of the center.


A bond exists when two pieces stand one behind the other on the line of action of a long-stepped opposing piece (queen, rook or bishop) and moving the front piece would be illegal or a shift in effect to the back piece with serious consequences. It is illegal to move the front piece if the back piece is a king who would be put into check. In this case one speaks of a real or absolute bondage, otherwise of a false or relative bondage.

A bondage is disadvantageous in two ways: on the one hand, the intrinsic effect of the tied figure is restricted; on the other hand, since it cannot be pulled away, it can itself become a target and be lost.


The spear is closely related to the bondage : a figure (e.g. king) is attacked by a line figure (queen, rook or bishop) and forced to move away. This extends the attacker's line of action and affects a second object. This object can be an (uncovered) piece or a field (e.g. mating field). In contrast to the bondage, the situation is immediately eliminated with a spear, since the more valuable figure moves away (a bondage can be maintained as long as desired without direct losses).

Fork attack

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Fork attack on rook and queen by the white knight on f7

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A situation in which a piece attacks two or more pieces of the opponent at the same time is called a fork attack or fork for short . A fork attack, especially by a pawn or a knight, can be a decisive tactical twist if it results in z. B. a more valuable figure is captured. If a knight offers chess and threatens the queen at the same time, one speaks of "family chess".

Trigger chess

If you can move a piece in such a way that by moving away the line of action of your own piece behind it becomes free on the opposing king, then one speaks of a withdrawal check. If the withdrawing piece in turn gives check, one speaks of a double check .

Withdrawal chess and double chess can have a decisive effect because the opponent has to react to the chess command and has to accept the consequences of the move of the withdrawing piece. In double chess, the king must move, since the move of another piece cannot capture both pieces or block both pieces at the same time.

Matt turns

Demonstration of a beginner's mistake (by Schwarz) in the Schäfermatt
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One of the oldest chess problems, by al-Adli. Black to move is apparently lost, because White threatens mate with 1. Ra2 – a1, 1. Ra2 – b2 or 1. Re2 – b2. Still, black can checkmate.

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The shortest possible mate is the two- move fool mate (also called idiot mate ), which is made after the move order 1. f2 – f3? e7 – e5 2. g2 – g4 ?? Qd8 – h4 # comes about.

Beginners sometimes fall for the shepherd mate, in which the queen, covered by the bishop, captures the pawn on f7 or f2 and mates. Another opening trap is the sea ​​cadet mat . In this turn, White sacrifices his queen in order to gain a tempo for a mate combination against the black king remaining in the middle.

A checkmate in the late middlegame is the checkmate of the basic row : a rook or queen penetrates the basic row and checksmate the king caught behind a pawn chain.

A king who is offered check by an opposing knight cannot evade this check if he is completely enclosed by his own pieces. If the attacking knight cannot be captured, the king is checkmated. This situation is called suffocated mate because the king is in a sense suffocated in his cramped environment.

In the endgame there are various elementary mate guides , depending on the remaining material.

Pawns and pawn formations

The position and mobility of the pawns play a major role in chess.

A farmer who can reach the opposing basic series without and opposite it on its own line or on a line immediately adjacent an opponent's Bauer, is pawn . Such a pawn can only be prevented from reaching the opponent's back row and thus from converting by opposing pieces . Is in a portion of the board a formation of farmers a less numerous Formation opposing farmers over, so one speaks of a Bauer majority (also: Bauer majority , or only majority ). Having a majority of the pawns is often an advantage because a passed pawn can develop from it.

Two peasants standing next to each other in a party are called a peasant duo . A pawn duo is a very effective formation because it controls the four squares in front of it. If the pawn duo is mobile, i.e. not inhibited by opposing pawns, its advance can drive opposing pieces apart and destroy the cohesion of the opposing position.

A peasant who has no peasants from his own party on an adjacent line is called an isolated peasant . An isolated pawn (Isolani) can be a disadvantage as it can easily be blocked by opposing pieces: They can settle on the field in front of him without being able to be driven away by a pawn. In addition, the isolated pawn can only be covered by more valuable pieces and not by a "colleague".

Two pawns of the same color that are on a line behind each other are called double pawns . A double pawn is usually a disadvantage, as the two pawns make it difficult for each other to cover each other with their own pieces and at the same time make it easier to blockade by opposing pieces. An isolated double pawn is also called a double isolani, three isolated pawns standing one behind the other are called triple isolani .

Two or more pawns in a diagonal arrangement is called a pawn chain . Here the next back covers the front pawn. A pair of pawns of opposite color, facing each other and blocking each other, is called a ram . A pair of pawns of opposite color, facing each other diagonally so that each can capture the other, is called a lever . Correctly positioned levers are an important means of opening a blocked position in chess.

Chess psychology

In addition to the playful aspects, the game of chess also has special psychological components. Among other things, these deal with the effects of psychological patterns on playing strength and on the perception of positions. Other studies deal with questions as to whether and to what extent chess occupation has an influence on the ability to learn. Even moral aspects of chess were examined, first by the natural philosopher and later US founding father Benjamin Franklin in his 1779 work The Morals of Chess .

The modern world of chess

Associations and World Championships

Fondation Neva Women's Grand Prix Geneva 11-05-2013 - Ju Wenjun during the press conference.jpg
Carlsen Magnus (30238051906) .jpg

The reigning world chess champion
Ju Wenjun since 2018 and the reigning world chess champion
Magnus Carlsen since 2013

The international umbrella organization for chess players is FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs). She is responsible for the official chess rules, organizes the world chess championship, awards titles and measures the skill level of internationally active chess players with the help of Elo numbers . FIDE is an association recognized by the International Olympic Committee .

FIDE has awarded the title of world chess champion since 1927, and the title of world chess champion since 1948 , although world championships have been held since 1886. In 1993, the then reigning world champion Garri Kasparow did not hold the upcoming competition against his challenger Nigel Short under the aegis of FIDE in protest against the low prize money, but under the Professional Chess Association (PCA) founded especially for this purpose . The division of the chess world that had begun, continued by the founding of the short-lived World Chess Council as the successor organization to the PCA, was ended by the reunification battle in 2006 between the classic world champion Vladimir Kramnik and the FIDE world champion Wesselin Topalow , which Kramnik won. At the 2007 World Cup in Mexico City, however, Kramnik had to pass on the world championship crown to Viswanathan Anand , who won undefeated and one point ahead of Kramnik.

According to clearly defined requirements, FIDE awards the following titles for life: candidate for master (CM), FIDE master (FM), international master (IM) and grand master (GM). There are separate titles for women: Women's Champion Candidate (WCM), Women's FIDE Master (WFM), International Women's Master (WIM) and Women's Grand Master (WGM). The qualification criteria for these titles are reduced compared to those of the general class. Nona Gaprindashvili was the first woman to receive the general grandmaster title. On August 5, 1895, the world's first women's chess tournament took place in Hastings / Great Britain , which Edith Thomas won.

The strength of the players is determined according to the rating system developed by Arpad Elo in the 1960s , the so-called Elo number . This rating is based on the methods of statistics and probability theory . The DWZ ( German valuation number ) has existed in Germany since 1992 . Previously, the playing strength in the Federal Republic of Germany was measured with the help of the Ingo number (developed in 1947 by Anton Hößlinger from Ingolstadt , hence the name "Ingo"), in the GDR by dividing the players into performance classes and the NWZ .

Leagues have formed in many countries . The top division in Germany is the German Chess League , which has created its own association of the same name and is one of the strongest chess leagues in the world thanks to the use of top international players. Austria also has its own national chess league as the top division. At the European level, the strongest teams are determined in the European Club Cup .

Chess as a sport

The German Chess Federation (with 17 regional associations) was a member of the German Sports Federation and is a member of the successor organization of the German Olympic Sports Federation , which means that chess is officially recognized as a sport in Germany. In 1977, Willi Weyer, President of the German Sports Federation , spoke about the history of chess and stated that the idea of ​​sport can only be found in modern times, but that in the Middle Ages chess was still viewed as a means of education and knight games. At least in tournaments, chess is "undeniably to be regarded as a sport". He stated that “chess [was] not always a sport, but with this objective and the changed laws of our time it has become a sport.” Chess and sport have a lot in common, and the physical strain during a chess game has also been proven by studies. In the speech, Weyer also advocated the recognition of the charitable status of chess clubs. In 1980 chess was recognized as a non-profit in amateur clubs.

Frank Holzke , himself a grandmaster, analyzed in his legal dissertation from 2001 the use of the term sport in German and European law as a double term for both physical and competitive activities. He came to the conclusion that this understanding of the term was also appropriate as a legal term. On a website about German sports law , the legal scholar Peter W. Heermann and the lawyer Stephan Götze state that the legislature has the option of legally defining activities such as chess as sports that do not include all the properties of the term sporting used in case law, such as physical Own activity, playfulness, performance, organization, rules and ethical components. According to the tax code , chess is considered a sport, but ultimately there are always debates about it.

Computer chess

Tandy radio shack 1650 from the 1980s

Chess computers have also been built for as long as there have been mechanical calculating machines . For example, the Turk playing chess is known , a chess machine in which, however, a person hid and acted. Konrad Zuse learned chess specifically in order to be able to write a chess program, as he saw this as the right challenge for his computers and the Plankalkül . With the development of ever faster computers and sophisticated software, there are now chess programs running on a PC that are far superior to the average player. You can now play chess on mobile phones , PDAs and other handhelds. For most master players, the computer has become indispensable when preparing for the opening and analyzing their games.

In 1997, the specially developed Deep Blue chess machine from IBM even defeated the then world chess champion Kasparov in a contest over six games with tournament time . Many grandmasters try to use a special anti-computer chess in games against computers. It is becoming apparent, however, that humans will not be able to withstand the steadily increasing computing power of computers in the long term. Since the game of chess has acquired a deep cultural meaning in the western world and mastering the game is associated with imagination and intelligence , the triumph of the computer in this sport has a noticeable psychological effect.

It remains to be seen whether the chess programs, whose playing strength is constantly increasing, will make the game of chess uninteresting in the foreseeable future. The number of experts predicting the imminent final victory of the programs over every human gamer is constantly growing. However, there are also voices that claim that top players and computer programs get better in equal measure. Others argue that even with invincible computer programs, the game of chess remains interesting - after all, people would also compete in sprints or marathons, although many motorized vehicles are faster.

Strategically, a person can occasionally (still) operate successfully against a computer with long-term maneuvers, the objectives of which are not recognizable to the computer within the scope of its computing depth. On the other hand, speculative combinatorial attacks in the game against computers are not promising. A typical competition was between Kramnik and Deep Fritz ( Brains in Bahrain, 2002). Kramnik's two winning games resulted from precise positional play. The first defeat was due to a tactical error, the second due to an unclear figure sacrifice, which led to a (probably not compelling) failure against the exact defense of the computer.

Chess math

The chessboard geometry has led to our own investigations, which fall under the term "chess mathematics". For example, they researched how many pieces can be placed on a board without attacking each other. Other research has dealt with the possibilities of certain pieces to visit all squares of the chessboard without entering a square several times. Examples are the ladies problem and the knight problem . Other topics such as the calculation of the maximum number of possible positions and the course of the game also fall into this area.

Chess composition

Chess compositions are tasks devised by one or more authors that pose a chess requirement to be fulfilled. Chess puzzles before the wide spread of the printing press and Mansuben mentioned tasks for the former Arab chess are usually from manuscripts and treatises like the Göttingen manuscript survived, while from the end of the 15th century books and from the middle of the 19th century chess magazines for publishing Tasks served. Chess composers have their own umbrella organization, the Standing Commission for Chess Composition at FIDE . Separate tournaments are organized where judges award prizes. Usually prizes, honorable mentions and praises as well as corresponding special awards are given.

According to the Code of Chess Composition, chess compositions are divided into different groups, including:

  • Checkmate tasks in which White has to checkmate in a certain number of moves
  • Auxiliary matting tasks in which both sides cooperate so that black is mated.
  • Self-mating tasks where white forces you to be mated. Black tries to prevent this from happening.
  • Studies with a profit or a draw claim
  • Fairytale chess problems with special conditions such as chess variants and unorthodox pieces
  • retro-analytical tasks
  • chess mathematical tasks
  • Construction tasks in which, for example, a position has to be reconstructed based on the requirement

Analogous to the titles for local and correspondence chess players, separate titles as FIDE master, international master and grandmaster are also awarded for chess composition for composers and solvers. In the case of composers, these are based on a point system for tasks that are sent to FIDE albums serving as anthologies (collections of selected tasks) and evaluated by three judges. Each judge can award up to four points in half-point steps. Tasks with a total of at least eight points are included in the albums and earn the composer one point, or 1.66 points for studies, on a separate list of points, with titles being awarded if there are enough points. Solvers must achieve an elo-like rating number for the title in solving competitions by participating in official competitions. The titles are then awarded, if appropriate, at the annual meetings of the Standing Commission .

Special forms of chess

In the official rules of FIDE - in addition to the general rules of chess, which also apply to casual players, a distinction is made between three forms of chess, the rules of which are tightened for the purpose of competitive practice. These differ mainly in the length of the reflection period . The usual form of chess, as it has been practiced since the introduction of the chess clock , is called tournament chess in the rules . Based on the original English name chess standard is also used by standard chess spoken. It is characterized by a reflection time of more than 60 minutes per game. As a rule, however, the reflection period is considerably longer. Both players (unlike in rapid and blitz chess) must record their moves during the game. The rule " touched - guided " applies . The use of aids, especially electronic devices and tips from fellow players or spectators, is strictly prohibited. A referee monitors compliance with the rules and clarifies any disputes. He also decides on requests from the players, for example for a draw because of three repetitions of positions or because of the 50-move rule . It used to be common for particularly long games to be interrupted and postponed after a certain playing time. One spoke of a hanging game . Today this is hardly used any more. Although the exact regulations of standard chess have changed several times in the meantime, it is seen in the tradition of competitive chess and - in contrast to more recent forms of chess and chess variants - referred to as classic chess . The world championship title, which goes back to Wilhelm Steinitz and is currently (as of 2020) held by Magnus Carlsen , is determined in standard chess. Also Großmeister- and other titles can be purchased only in this chess form.

Chess forms with a shorter thinking time are called rapid chess (10 to 60 minutes thinking time) or blitz chess (less than 10 minutes thinking time). In the meantime, world championships are also held in these forms of chess, the popularity of which has increased significantly in recent decades, and their own Elo numbers are determined that are independent of classic chess . Bullet chess with a cooling-off time of less than 3 minutes is not (yet) recognized by FIDE. In contrast to the other forms of chess mentioned so far, it can hardly be played on a board for practical reasons. Instead, the opponents each play on a computer, enter their moves with the mouse and exchange them via a chess server .

There are also other forms of chess, none of which are recognized by FIDE:

  • Live chess : In this form of chess, the pieces are represented by people on large boards, usually outdoors.
  • Online chess via a chess server : There are a number of chess sites on the Internet that offer chess against other people. Similar to the German valuation number (DWZ) and the Elo number, chess servers usually determine the skill level of each player. Although such ratings cannot be directly compared with one another, they allow the player to find an opponent of his skill level on the server. It is also common for the players to be able to talk to each other ( chat ) and analyze each other's games.
  • Correspondence chess : As in online chess, the opponents are spatially separated from each other. However, the cooling off period is usually between 30 and 60 days for ten trains. The moves are transmitted to the opponent either via email, a chess server or by post. In correspondence chess - in contrast to the rest of chess - it is common and permitted to analyze the current position of the game by dragging the piecesand to use chess programs , databases and books.
  • Simultaneous chess : A player competes on several boards against several opponents at the same time. The individual player is much stronger than his opponent. For example, a grandmaster often plays against many amateurs. The simultaneous player usually plays against all opponents with the same color (mostly white). The opponents always have the same amount of time to think until the simultaneous player comes to their board for the next move, then they have to move. If a simultaneous event is held with limited time to think it over, it is called the handicap simultaneous or watch handicap.
  • Blind chess : In blind chess, one or both players play without looking at the board. Blind-simultaneous chess is a combination of simultaneous and blind chess .
  • Blind Chess : If one of the players is blind or extremely visually impaired, special rules apply. The blind player uses a special game of stick chess to feel the pieces. A figure is only considered to be “touched” (in the sense of the touched-guided rule) when he takes the stone out of the hole. The moves made are announced aloud by both players.
  • Consultation games : Here a party consists of several players who are allowed to discuss - consult - with one another.
  • Freestyle chess : The players mayusea chess program for analysisduring the game.
  • Handicap games : The weaker player is granted an advantage, e.g. B. in the right of the suit (i.e., the weaker player receives white) or - especially in blitz or rapid chess - can insist on a time limit on the chess clock.

Chess variants

There are numerous variants and varieties of the game of chess. Some well known are:

  • Peasant chess is seen primarily as an exercise for beginners. It is only played with pawns, the aim is to reach the opposing back row with a pawn.
  • Robber Chess : There is a compulsion to hit and the goal is to lose all pieces.
  • Chess960 or Schach960: The placement of the pieces on the basic row is determined anew for each game. This is intended to reduce the importance of opening theory.
  • Tandem Chess (also Einsetzschach known): In tandem chess teams of two compete against each other two boards. One player per team plays with white and the other with black. If a player defeats an opposing piece, he gives it to his teammate. He may then place this figure on a free space with his figures instead of a move.
  • Handicap games : To compensate for a difference in skill level, the weaker player can be granted a material advantage. Most of the time, the stronger player does without part of his material, e.g. B. on a minor figure or a tower, d. H. the starting position is changed accordingly.

Cultural references

Chess as the object of a political caricature by Wilhelm Scholz in 1875, at the time of the Kulturkampf


Motifs from the game of chess are used in heraldry . The Roch , as the tower was called in the Middle Ages , was particularly popular as the heraldic figure . One speaks of " Schacht " when the shield is divided according to the principle of a checkerboard pattern . Of the current national coats of arms, that of the Republic of Croatia shows a checkerboard pattern. In Germany, for example, the municipality of Borstendorf / Erzgebirge has a heraldic chessboard , as does the well-known chess village Ströbeck . From the noble families z. B. the Counts of Altena or the Counts of Sponheim a chessboard in the coat of arms. For the noble families, the chessboard stood as a symbol of nobility and wisdom.

Chess in the movie

The game of chess is often used in films - often to underline the intelligence, unfamiliarity or position of power of the person concerned, or to stage a conflict between the respective characters. A topic that has been popular since the second half of the 20th century is to demonstrate the mental superiority or inferiority of humans compared to a computer. An example is Stanley Kubrick's 2001 film : A Space Odyssey , in which the on-board computer of the spaceship wins against a crew member. The game follows a chess game actually played between people ( Roesch – Schlage, Hamburg 1910 ).

Some films have real chess players on the subject, for example Pawns - Game of Kings about the life of Bobby Fischer , show fictional chess players as the main characters (e.g. the thriller Knight Moves - A Murderous Game ) or have chess as the main motif in other ways, such as the Stefan Zweig film Chess novella .

In Thomas Crown is unbelievable , a game of chess serves as an erotic prelude between the main characters, played by Steve McQueen and Faye Dunaway . The existentialist drama The Seventh Seal by Swedish director Ingmar Bergman revolves around a knight who plays for his life against personified death. In Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone , Harry and his friends Hermione and Ron have to win a game as pieces on a life-size, magic-controlled chessboard at risk of death in order to get to the Philosopher's Stone. Several episodes of the television series Raumschiff Enterprise from 1965 show the main characters Kirk and Spock playing a three-dimensional chess game that is intended to demonstrate the further development of society in the fictional future. Other well-known films with the chess motif are James Bond 007 - Greetings from Moscow , 1984 , Blade Runner and Independence Day .

Chess in Fiction

Rehder woodcut for the chess novella by Stefan Zweig

Literary works in which chess is a main theme and even appears in the title are, for example, the chess novella by Stefan Zweig , Der Schachautomat by Robert Löhr , Die Schachspielerin by Bertina Henrichs and Zugzwang by Ronan Bennett . Chess players are also the protagonists in Lushin's Defense by Vladimir Nabokov and The Last Game by Fabio Stassi , a biography of the Cuban world chess champion José Raúl Capablanca .

Chess in the fine arts

Game of Chess, painting by Charles Webb, 19th century

The game of chess has always been a popular topic in the fine arts . Among the surrealists were z. B. with Joan Miró , Marcel Duchamp or Max Ernst enthusiastic players who have used chess motifs in their works. The sculptor Germaine Richier and Alfred Hrdlicka , who was also a strong player, also emerged with the theme . Elke Rehder is particularly concerned with this subject among contemporary artists .

Numerous caricatures take chess as a symbol or as a main object. There are both works in which other topics about the game of chess are characterized, as well as caricatures about well-known chess players.

The painter A. Paul Weber started his series of pictures The Chess Players in 1937 , which occupied him for over 40 years until his death.

The Bauhaus chess game , which was designed by the sculptor Josef Hartwig , who works at the Bauhaus , is an example of the fact that a chess game can itself represent an object of art . The figures are composed of stereometric basic forms such as cubes , cuboids and spheres , whereby the type of composition corresponds to the movement possibilities of the respective figure.

Chess in music

Under the title Tafel-Lieder for the Chess Society founded in 1827 , a collection of song verses has been published that can be sung to existing melodies.

The musical Chess (English for chess) from 1984 deals with the rivalry between two chess players, for whom Bobby Fischer and Viktor Kortschnoi, among others , provided inspiration.


General chess literature



Web links

Portal: Chess  - Central contact point for those interested in chess in Wikipedia
Wikibooks: Chess  - learning and teaching materials
Commons : Chess  album with pictures, videos and audio files
File category Files: Chess  - local collection of images and media files
Wiktionary: Chess  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: Chess  - Sources and Full Texts

Chess rules

Chess associations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Lars Clausen : Hypotheses on a sociology of chess. In: Ders .: Krasser social change. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1994, p. 130 ff.
  2. Membership statistics of the German Chess Federation. ( Memento of February 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). Status 2005 (PDF; 8 kB).
  3. So the title of a well-known book about chess compositions:
    Herbert Grasemann : Schach ohne Partner. Humboldt Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1977.
  4. Stefan Klein: How predictable is the game of chess? (PDF; 105 kB), p. 2.
  5. ^ Eero Bonsdorff, Karl Fabel , Olavi Riihimaa: Chess and Numbers . 3rd edition, Rau, Düsseldorf 1978.
  6. Chess Assistant database , as of 2006, percentages rounded.
  7. ^ Translation of the designation of chess pieces into international languages. At:
  8. Dictionary Persian – German: Soldat (with IPA transcription).
  9. Behavioral norms of players in chess events. PB decision. FIDE on the mutual greeting of the players before the game.
  10. cf. Ulrich Schädler and Ricardo Calvo (eds.): Alfonso X .: The book of games. Lit Verlag, Münster 2009, p. 144. Solution: 1.… Nb6 – a4 + 2. Ra2 × a4 Rb8 × b3 + 3. K × b3 Rd8 – d3 matt.
  11. Schachlexikon, accessed on February 24, 2019.
  12. ↑ List of members of the Association of the IOC Recognized International Sports Federations , accessed July 8, 2015.
  13. Alfred Diel : The game of kings. Interesting and entertaining facts from the world of chess. Bamberger Schachverlag, Bamberg 1983, ISBN 3-923113-03-X , p. 33.
  14. ^ Günther Berger: Relazioni. International Vienna. Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-56922-1 , p. 95.
  15. ^ Willy Weyer: Chess as Sport - Contribution of the Occident. 1977. Reprinted on the website of the German Chess Federation, accessed on December 5, 2012.
  16. Deutsche Schachzeitung, June 1980, page 192
  17. Frank Holzke: The term sport in German and European law. Dissertation, University of Cologne, 2001.
  18. Can you define sport legally? On: accessed on January 18, 2019.
  19. § 52 Tax Code, Paragraph 2, Number 21.
  20. Is chess a sport? In: The time. June 6, 2014, accessed August 23, 2018.
  21. Chess History. ( Memento from June 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) On:
  22. ^ Codex of Chess Composition. (English).
  23. ^ Arno Nickel: Surreal and Abstract. The chess pictures by Elke Rehder. In: Chess Journal. No. 1/2 1992, ISSN  0940-6484 .
  24. ^ Friedrich Wolfenter: Chess art at the Frankfurt Book Fair. Encounter with the artist Elke Rehder. In: Rochade Europa . March 1998, ISSN  0943-4356 .
  25. ^ Harry Schaack: Parlor game in color. The passion of the artist Elke Rehder. In: Karl (chess magazine) . 3/2004, ISSN  1438-9673 .
  26. ^ Tafel-Lieder for the chess society founded in 1827. Written by some well-meaning members . CF Brettschneider, 1832, p. 4 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on December 29, 2009 .