Konrad Zuse

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Konrad Zuse (1992)
Autograph Konrad Zuse svg.svg

Konrad Ernst Otto Zuse (born June 22, 1910 in Deutsch-Wilmersdorf , today in Berlin ; † December 18, 1995 in Hünfeld ) was a German civil engineer , inventor and entrepreneur ( Zuse KG ). With his development of the Z3 in 1941, Zuse built the first functional, fully automatic, program-controlled and freely programmable computer working in binary floating-point arithmetic and thus the first functional computer in the world.


Image of Konrad Zuses in Bundesallee Berlin with mention of his place of birth in Tübinger Straße 2.
Replica of the Z1 in the German Museum of Technology in Berlin . The original was set up in his parents' living room and was destroyed along with the plans in the bombing war. Between 1987 and 1989, Zuse, who was almost 80 years old at the time, recreated his Z1 from memory.
Berlin memorial plaque on Methfesselstrasse 10 in Berlin-Kreuzberg

Konrad Zuse was born as the son of Maria and Emil Zuse. He had an older sister about whom he said: "She was unlucky to be born an intelligent person and woman at that time." When he was two years old, the family moved to Braunsberg in East Prussia , where his father was Post clerk worked in middle service. There he attended the humanistic high school Hosianum . When he was in the 9th grade in 1923, the Zuse family moved to Hoyerswerda , where he attended the Reform-Realgymnasium, today's Lessing-Gymnasium. At the age of 14 he was already working on inventions; "Zuse's mandarine vending machine" issued fruit and change when coins were inserted. At the age of 18, he assembled a coal loading crane with the metal construction kit from Stabil , for which he received the company's certificate of honor. In 1927 he passed his Abitur.

Zuse has described himself as a "strolling student". At the age of 17 he studied mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Berlin-Charlottenburg (today Technical University of Berlin ), then switched to architecture and finally to civil engineering. In between he worked as an advertising artist for almost a year. During his studies he became a member of the Berlin student association AV Motiv . He discovered his love for technology and art early on.

In 1935 Zuse completed his engineering studies with a diploma. He then worked as a structural engineer at Henschel Flugzeug-Werke AG in Schönefeld near Berlin , but soon gave up this position and set up an inventor's workshop in his parents' apartment. This is where the Z1 was created , a programmable calculating machine that was not yet fully functional because it worked mechanically. Zuse then adopted the principle of the Z1 for the Z3 , which he built with relays . This was the first fully functional computer in the world (see section “Services”). Zuse had the gift of infecting people with his enthusiasm in such a way that they kept giving him money - his father even had himself reactivated from retirement to help finance development - or donated working time.

During the Second World War, Konrad Zuse was called up twice, but never took part in acts of war. With the help of Herbert Wagner - head of the special department F at Henschel Flugzeug-Werke AG, in which remote-controlled glide bombs were developed - he was able to ensure that he was “indispensable” and employed by the Henschel works. There he worked on the glide bomb Hs 293 and developed special computers for wing measurements. The importance of Zuse's work is also shown by the fact that in the middle of the war in 1941 he was able to found "Zuse Ingenieurbüro und Apparatebau, Berlin", which last had 20 employees. It was the only company allowed to develop computers in Germany.

Even if Zuse never became a member of the NSDAP , he did not show any recognizable reservations about working in the armaments industry during the war. Documents from Zuse's estate show how "armaments factories and Nazi institutions financed Zuse's computers with over 250,000 Reichsmarks". In retrospect, Zuse summed up his experiences with the military as follows: “All too often the inventor is the Faustian idealist who wants to improve the world but fails because of the harsh realities. If he wants to get his ideas through, he has to get involved with powers whose sense of reality is sharper and more pronounced. At the present time such powers, without my wishing to express a value judgment, are primarily military and managers. [...] In my experience, the chances of individuals to defend themselves against such agreements are slim. "

In January 1945 he married his wife Gisela, b. Brandes (1919–2013), in Berlin, with whom he later had five children. The eldest son Horst became a university lecturer for computer science. The family managed to escape from Berlin via Göttingen into the Allgäu, whereby Konrad Zuse was able to save the last computer, the Z4 . It formed the basis for building the first German computer company, "Zuse KG", after the war. Whenever one of his calculating machines broke down somewhere in the country, the family was invited to the VW Beetle for the weekend for a “repair trip”. After rapid growth, Konrad Zuse had to give up his capital shares in 1964 due to over-indebtedness. Afterwards he worked as a consultant and wrote his book on the "Calculating Room".

In 1983 Zuse was invited to give a public lecture at the Technical University of Ilmenau in the GDR (today Thuringia). He was not allowed to visit the data center of the TH.

In retirement, Zuse devoted himself to his hobby, painting in the expressionist style .


Zuse built 251 calculating machines in his life.

Z1 - a "mechanical brain"

Since the static calculations in civil engineering were very monotonous and laborious, Zuse came up with the idea of ​​automating them. He quit his structural engineering activity in 1935 and devoted himself exclusively to the implementation of his plans, which he describes in a diary entry from June 1937: "For about a year I have been dealing with the idea of ​​the mechanical brain." driven mechanical computer Z1 . It was the first computer to work with binary numbers and already had an input / output unit, an arithmetic unit, a storage unit and a program unit that read the programs from perforated film strips. The Z1 never worked reliably due to problems with mechanical precision; the mechanical derailleurs jammed regularly. By Charles Babbage - recognizes the Zuse also as "the true father of the computer" - he has experienced long after the end of World War II.

For the Z1, Zuse developed the computer- compatible floating point method based on the mantissa and exponent . Every common computer, from pocket calculators to clusters , calculates floating point numbers with this method . The widely used IEEE - 754 standard, i. H. the definition of a specific floating point number format is a consequence of Zuse's basic work.

While he was still working on the Z1, he transferred the mechanical circuit to the electromechanical relay technology . Zuse initially only tested them with fixed-point numbers on a prototype Z2 , which he completed in 1939. In 1940 he demonstrated the device to Günther Bock , the technical director of the German Aviation Research Institute , who then agreed to help finance the development of the Z3.

Z3 - the world's first functional computer

In 1941 Zuse built the Z3 on the premises of the engineering office that he had since founded. On May 12, 1941, Zuse presented this Z3 calculating machine , which he built in collaboration with Helmut Schreyer . It was a fully automatic, binary floating point calculator with a memory and a central processing unit made up of telephone relays. Calculations could be programmed, but no conditional jumps and program loops were possible. Today, the Z3 is considered to be the world's first fully functional computer .

A note by Zuse from 1942 on possible fields of application of the calculator mentions the possibility of “calculating relationships between any two people A, B” under the keyword “kinship theory”. He saw practical importance in the "systematic [n] race research , genealogy [and as] the basis for [the] genetics ". For this purpose, the “registration of certain characteristic, clearly determinable properties, z. B. Hereditary diseases (hemophilia) ", for" relationships a clear shorthand [?] Is required. "

The device was practically used to compute a complex matrix needed to study the wing flutter that had caused numerous aircraft to crash. However, the Z3 was never classified as "urgent" and was never put into routine operation. After the original was destroyed in a bombing raid on December 21, 1943, a functional replica is in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. This replica was made in 1962 by Zuse KG for exhibition purposes.

The computer was not designed for it, Turing complete to be and was never used in this sense, what does not make sense would have been possible. However, in 1998 , Raúl Rojas proved that he had this property by using certain tricks, such as sticking the perforated tape together to form a loop. It is the first computer actually built to have this feature. Charles Babbag'sAnalytical Engine ” would also have been Turing-complete, but was not completed.

Process control idea

Konrad Zuse developed the permanently programmed special computers S1 (1942) and S2 (1943) for the wing measurement of the Henschel gliding bomb Hs 293 for the Henschel-Flugzeug-Werke . He came up with the idea of ​​mechanizing the reading of the dial indicators. The measuring devices built for this were the first analog-to-digital converters . In 1944, Zuse realized the first process control by computer in an outsourced plant of the Henschel-Flugzeug-Werke in Warnsdorf in the Sudetenland .

Z4 - the basis of a German computer industry

The further development of the Z3 was also funded by the German Aviation Research Institute. It was again an electromechanical computer made up of relays. Until then, all computers had been named with the initial letter Z such as "Zuse". An employee came up with the idea to call the device as V4 to suggest therefore that it was like the V1 and V2 to retaliatory weapons . Under this camouflage it was possible to organize a transport to Göttingen towards the end of the war, where the Z4 was completed in March 1945 in the aerodynamic research facility of the KWI for flow research . On this occasion Zuse also got to see the Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp and the working conditions of the forced laborers. He managed to join Wernher von Braun's group who fled to Bavaria.

After several intermediate stops, Zuse's group came to Hinterstein in the Allgäu. The Z4 was rebuilt in the flour store of a bakery in Hopferau near Füssen. The inventor kept his family afloat by painting chamois in oil for US tourists and helping local farmers to settle their milk yields. The rumor of the Z4 got around, however. The IBM was interested in the rights to suppress further development. A cooperation for program-controlled punch holes was established with Remington Rand from Zurich . In 1949, Prof. Eduard Stiefel from the ETH Zurich tracked Zuse in the Allgäu and had the suitability of the Z4 demonstrated for his research. A generous lease agreement was concluded with him that provided Konrad Zuse with the necessary funds to found Zuse KG . In 1950 the Z4 was the only working computer in Central Europe and the first commercial computer in the world. It was installed a few months earlier than UNIVAC . In Sweden in 1950 there was a similar board-controlled machine called the Bark. The Z4 was in operation at ETH Zurich from 1950 to 1955. On the occasion of Konrad Zuse's 100th birthday, ETH Zurich published a commemorative publication which describes in detail the use of the Z4 relay computer in Zurich, including: a. with a detailed eyewitness report by Prof. Urs Hochstrasser, a list of the institute's staff at the time and the surviving eyewitnesses as well as an overview of the 55 assignments and mathematical investigations that were carried out with the Z4 at ETH Zurich over the past five years. See: Herbert Bruderer, Konrad Zuse and Switzerland. The M9 (= Z9) arithmetic punch, which Zuse KG developed as a follow-up order for the Swiss company Remington Rand and built in series, is also discussed. The M9 was used in administration, industry and research. Experience with the Z4 made it easier to build the tube calculator ERMETH (ETH electronic calculator).

"Plankalkül" - a higher programming language

In 1937, while working on his first computer, Zuse rediscovered propositional calculus . While working on the Z4, he realized that programming in machine language was too time-consuming and that a higher-level programming language would therefore be necessary. At first he thought that Esperanto could do this. In the years 1942/46, when Zuse could not work practically due to the war events, he designed the " Plankalkül ", but could not publish it. In the winter semester of 1948/49 at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, Zuse was able to give a lecture on his applied logic in Wilhelm Britzelmayr's logic colloquia . The idea of ​​high-level programming languages ​​wasn't picked up again until ten years later when languages ​​like Fortran , Algol, and Cobol were designed. The "Plankalkül" would have been more universal than these languages, but only in the year 1975 as part of a dissertation by Joachim Hohmann implemented Service.

Failure of the patent claim

Zuse had already registered several patents before the war. Most importantly, however, was a patent application from 1941 in which he described the Z3. The German examiners did not object to Zuse's claims, and the patent was published in 1952. By contrast, raised triumph , and later IBM opposition. The process dragged itself through all instances until the Federal Patent Court in 1967 came to the final decision that the inventor of the computer could not be granted a patent “due to lack of inventive step”. Zuse never had the idea of ​​patenting the process control. Zuse applied for a total of 58 patents, but only eight were recognized.

Zuse KG

Konrad Zuse's workshop in Neukirchen (2010)
Zuse Z11

After the war, Zuse founded in 1949 in Neukirchen in the former district of Hünfeld the Zuse KG . More computers were built, the type designation was always a Z and a consecutive number. Leitz lenses calculated with the Z5 . Outstanding was the Z11 , which was still made with relay technology and was sold to the optical industry, universities and land consolidation authorities . With the introduction of electronics, a new count began, and in 1955 the Z22 became the first Zuse computer built using tube technology . The data was stored in a magnetic memory.

Logo of Zuse KG
Zuse Graphomat Z64

In 1957 the company headquarters was relocated from Neukirchen to Bad Hersfeld . By 1967, Zuse KG had built a total of 251 computers. Zuse also developed the first plotter , the "Graphomat Z64". However, the company's rapid growth was overwhelming; Banks were only willing to give loans for the unknown computer business at high interest rates, there was no government research funding yet, and when there were delays in the delivery of the Z25 , the manufacturer was facing ruin. As of 1964, Zuse left the company as an active partner; it was initially taken over by the German BBC in Mannheim , then by Siemens in early 1967 .

"Computing Room"

During his stay in Hinterstein in 1945/1946, Zuse first had the idea that the cosmos itself could be understood as a gigantic calculating machine. He developed it into the idea of ​​“computing space”. In 1969 Zuse wrote a book under this title in which he developed a theory of cellular automata and, similar to Stephen Wolfram later , also applied it to cosmology . He thus laid one of the cornerstones of digital physics .

Automatically controlled low beam

As early as 1958, Zuse was granted a patent under the registration number 1190413 with the title "Lighting device that can be controlled photoelectrically by backlighting". In it he describes how the maximum illumination of the road can be achieved with minimal disruption to oncoming traffic. Zuse wanted to use photodiodes z. B. Detect oncoming traffic and automatically dim it with a mirror construction. However, the implementation with the technology at the time was too unreliable. Only with the current LED technology did this invention become ready for series production.

Zuse as an artist

Flat computer part (with recess for the thumb) with splashes of paint.  In addition, an explanatory text
Konrad Zuse's color palette, which consists of an old computer part. (From the exhibition at ZCOM )

Even during his youth, Zuse had a talent for putting his visions on paper in artistic form. “I don't have an art degree, but I don't have a degree in computer science either,” he said of himself. He signed his oil paintings, chalk drawings and linocuts with the pseudonym Kuno See . In his entire life he has painted over 500 pictures. A large part of the artistic estate is in the State Graphic Collection in Munich . Some works are exhibited in the Konrad-Zuse-Museum in Huenfeld and in the Astronomical-Physical Cabinet in Kassel . On the occasion of Zuse's one hundredth birthday, the Further Education Institute (WbI) in Oberhausen presented an exhibition of more than 130 works by Zuse. In 2012, pictures by Konrad Zuse were exhibited at documenta 13 in Kassel.

He painted one of his last pictures of Bill Gates and gave him the portrait at Cebit 1995. Gates hung it up in his office.


Konrad Zuse memorial in front of the monastery ruins in Bad Hersfeld
Konrad Zuse monument in the Huenfeld city ​​park
Grave of Konrad Zuse (2010)

Konrad Zuse received a total of eight honorary doctorates (including the Technical University of Dresden in 1981, the Bauhaus University of Weimar in 1991 and the ETH Zurich in 1991) and two honorary professorships .

In 1966 he received the Harry H. Goode Memorial Award in Las Vegas.

In 1973 he was awarded the Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, in 1985 the star and in 1995 the shoulder ribbon. He was the recipient of the Werner von Siemens Ring (1964), the Wilhelm Leuschner Medal (1987) and the Wilhelm Exner Medal (1969). In 1972 he became a member of the Leopoldina . In 1985 he received the Cothenius Medal of the Leopoldina.

In 1980 Zuse received the 60,000 DM prize from the Aachener and Municher for technology and applied natural sciences .

In 1984 the Konrad Zuse Center for Information Technology Berlin was founded.

In 1985 Zuse became the first honorary member of the Society for Computer Science . Since 1987, it has awarded the Konrad Zuse Medal for services to computer science every two years . The Konrad Zuse Medal for services to computer science in the building industry is awarded by the Central Association of the German Building Industry for special achievements in the field of computer science .

In 1986 he received the VDE Honor Ring.

In 1995 the city of Hoyerswerda made him an honorary citizen .

The Chaos Computer Club made Zuse an honorary member. Konrad Zuse never had a PC of his own.

In 1998 experts at the World Mathematicians Conference in Paderborn gave him the highest recognition for his contributions to the development of computers.

In 1999, Zuse subsequently received the "Fellow" of the Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View , California. He received the award in particular for the connection between his calculating machines and the software supplied.

In the "ideas workshop" of the German Pavilion at the Expo 2000 in Hanover, Zuse was portrayed as one of the Germans whose ideas have taken the country forward.

In 2002 a media center dedicated to Konrad Zuse was opened at the Bauhaus University Weimar , which houses the university's computer center and various studios.

Zuse was voted 15th largest in Germany on ZDF in 2003 .

Since 2006, the city of Hünfeld has had the official additional designation "Konrad-Zuse-Stadt" on letterheads and place-name signs. The town square in Hünfeld has been named Konrad Zuses since 2010. The city paid tribute to Zuse, who had died 15 years earlier in his adopted home of Hünfeld and was buried there. In Hünfeld, the Deutsche Bahn train station, the local history museum and a four-star hotel are also named after Konrad Zuse.

There is a Konrad Zuse school in Hünfeld and Berlin-Pankow , both of which are vocational schools. In Hoyerswerda there is the “Konrad Zuse” vocational school center.

On June 22, 2009, the Technical University of Ilmenau named the new building for the Faculty of Computer Science and Automation Zusebau. The floor plan of the building is based on the character encryption of a punch card. The opening took place in summer 2011 in the presence of the son Horst Zuse.

In 2009 Zuse was accepted into the street of remembrance in Berlin.

On August 22, 2011 the new building of the Institute for Computer Science and the IT and Media Center of the University of Rostock, the Konrad-Zuse-Haus, was inaugurated at Albert-Einstein-Straße 22.

Various streets such as in Berlin , Braunschweig , Bremen , Bielefeld , Erfurt , Frankfurt am Main , Heilbronn , Herzogenrath , Hoyerswerda , Itzehoe , Kaiserslautern , Kempten (Allgäu) , Koblenz , Lüneburg , Leipzig , Immenstadt im Allgäu , Monheim am Rhein , Unterschleißheim and Dallgow -Döberitz were named after him.

In January 2015, the Deutsche Industrieforschungsgemeinschaft Konrad Zuse (Zuse Association for short) was founded. The Zuse Association represents the public interests of non-profit industrial research institutions in Germany.

Zuse year 2010

In 2010, for the 100th birthday of Konrad Zuse, exhibitions dedicated to his life and work were organized in German museums in Berlin, Dresden, Paderborn, Hünfeld, Hoyerswerda, Kiel and Munich as part of the “Zuse Year 2010”. Nationwide exhibitions, lectures and workshops commemorated the computer pioneer and draw attention to the relevance of his invention in the digital age. Furthermore, also praised the German Post AG Zuse with a published 10 June 2010 commemorative stamp . This stamp shows a likeness of Konrad Zuse made of roughly rasterized pixels with the dates of his life 1910–1995 and his name printed on it. A 10 euro commemorative coin was also released on the same day .

Zuse calculators in museums, exhibitions and collections

The world's first computer modeled by Konrad Zuse, the Z1, is in the Zuse exhibition at the German Museum of Technology in Berlin , along with its Z11, Z22, Z23, Z25, Z31, Z60 and Z64 computers . The Z4 as it was in 1950 and a functional replica of the Z3 are on display in the Deutsches Museum in Munich.

In Hünfeld there is the Konrad Zuse Museum , which shows some exhibits (for example Zuse Z22 , Z25, Z31, Z64 Graphomat). The Konrad Zuse Computer Museum in Hoyerswerda, which deals with the history of computing technology and the life of Zuse, has the computers Z11, Z22, Z22R, Z23 and Z64. Since January 2017 it has been open again after moving.

A complete Z22 was in operation at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences until 2005. At the beginning of 2005, it was set up to be operational as part of an exhibition in the Center for Art and Media Technology in Karlsruhe. The Arithmeum in Bonn has a Z25 from 1967 that is still functional today and the Museum for Communication Bern has a Z25 (currently in the depot) (taken over from the Swiss Science Center Technorama in Winterthur). In the Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum in Paderborn a Z11, a Z23 and a rare Z80 from 1960 for the calculation of surface areas can be seen.

There is also a Z11 in the astronomical and physical cabinet of the city of Kassel, department "Mathematics and Information Technology". This computer made of plastic and metal with the dimensions: width 200 cm, depth 90 cm, height 105 cm, was built in 1957 in Neukirchen.

The Museum für Kommunikation Bern has a Z9 computer punch ( camouflage name M9 , later also referred to as the Remington M9 computer punch with card station) from Zuse KG. The Z9 / M9 was a contract computer from the Swiss Remington Rand in Zurich, which was ordered at the ETHZ due to the success of the Z4. The code name M9 came about (the "M" comes from Mitra, which was based in the same building in Zurich) because Zuse had to bypass his own patents, as he had temporarily transferred them to the Remington branch in Frankfurt (Powers). It is very likely that it is the only surviving copy of the Z9 / M9. The computer is currently (as of February 2011) still in the MfK Bern depot. The program-controlled calculating machine Z9 / M9 no longer worked purely mechanically, but with electromagnetic relays. It consisted of a card reader, an arithmetic unit and a card punch . The relay machine could be controlled via an exchangeable control panel on which the respective operational sequence was wired. The Z9 / M9 was able to perform all four basic arithmetic operations.

The computers Z11, Z22, Z23, Z25 and the Graphomat Z64 are exhibited in the computer museum of the Kiel University of Applied Sciences .

A Z22R is also in the experience and participation world wordy in Bad Hersfeld .

In the head building of the University of Linz in Austria there is a no longer functioning copy of the Z22 in front of the lecture halls HS9 & 10. Another, no longer functional Z22 is in the Technikmuseum Berlin .

The Erlangen computer science collection probably currently has. The only working Z23 that was put back into operation in a ceremony in 2015 and is presented during guided tours in the company. We are constantly working on this Z23 to keep it running.

The Konrad Zuse Computer Museum was opened in 1995 in Zuse's life in Hoyerswerda . On January 28, 2017 it was reopened as ZCOM after moving and now has an exhibition area of ​​over 1000 m².

Publications (selection)

  • Konrad Zuse: Computing Room . In: Electronic data processing . tape 8 , 1967, p. 336–344 ( idsia.ch [PDF]).
  • Konrad Zuse: Computing Room (=  writings for data processing . Volume 1 ). Vieweg, Braunschweig 1969, ISBN 3-528-09609-8 .



Web links

Commons : Konrad Zuse  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Zuse 1993 , p. 2.
  2. a b c d e f g h i Kristina R. Zerges, S. Terp: Konrad Zuse . The father of the computer. Ed .: Press and information department of the Technical University of Berlin (=  famous alumni of the Technical University of Berlin ). omnisatz GmbH, Berlin.
  3. Zuse 1993 , p. 159.
  4. Zuse 1993 , p. 19.
  5. a b Zuse 1993 , p. 32.
  6. The Black Ring. Membership directory. Darmstadt 1930, p. 41.
  7. Zuse 1993 , p. 57f.
  8. Zuse 1993 , p. 67.
  9. ↑ Race research on the computer. In: Der Spiegel . 24, June 14, 2010, p. 118 f.
  10. ^ Zuse 1993 , SX
  11. Reinhold Schönefeld: Thüringer Allgemeine, June 22nd, 2010. Wat isn datte? Ex-Professor Reinhold Schönefeld remembers Konrad Zuse and his time in Ilmenau. ( Memento from January 10, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Zuse 1993 , p. 29.
  13. Zuse 1993 , p. 30.
  14. Zuse 1993 , p. 55.
  15. Zuse 1993 , p. 76f, writes that although he saw the possibility of conditional jumps, he was afraid of making them possible because it made the program sequence unmistakable.
  16. Interview with Konrad Zuse ( Memento from June 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  17. ^ Reprint of Zuse's note in the Deutsches Museum's catalog on the Zuse exhibition, p. 109.
  18. Zuse 1993 , p. 57.
  19. Andreas Stiller: Der Rechenplaner / For the hundredth birthday of Konrad Zuse
  20. Zuse 1993 , pp. 62-65.
  21. Zuse 1993 , p. 81f.
  22. Zuse 1993 , p. 102.
  23. Zuse 1993 , p. 91f.
  24. Joachim Hohmann: The Plankalkül compared with algorithmic languages. Computer science and operations research series, S. Toeche-Mittler Verlag, Darmstadt 1979, ISBN 3-87820-028-5 .
  25. Zuse 1993 , pp. 97-100.
  26. Susanne Faber: " Page no longer available , search in web archives: Konrad Zuse's efforts to register a patent for the Z3 ", 2000.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.uni-weimar.de
  27. Zuse 1993 , pp. 137f.
  28. Zuse 1993 , p. 93.
  29. Daimler-Benz AG: Let there be light: The luminosity of LED technology , accessed on November 5, 2016.
  30. WbI celebrates the artist Konrad Zuse. on: weiterbildungsinstitut.de
  31. ^ Matthias Lohr: Zuse is also there: Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev introduced documenta artists. Report to HNA.de from September 4, 2011; see also: exhibition catalog dOCUMENTA 13 , Kassel 2012.
  32. To draws Gates, Der Spiegel March 1, 1995
  33. Computer pioneer Konrad Zuse: Bitterness and Flight into Painting, Süddeutsche Zeitung, June 21, 2010
  34. Announcement of awards of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Federal Gazette . Vol. 25, No. 43, March 9, 1973.
  35. VDE ring of honor . Accessed January 31, 2018.
  36. “I'm too lazy to get used to such a device.” In: Rainer Ickler: A look back: A visit to Konrad Zuse. In: Fulda newspaper. July 5, 2010, accessed October 16, 2010.
  37. dp.expo2000.de
  38. zuse-museum-huenfeld.de
  39. "Konrad-Zuse-Platz" is supposed to keep memories of the inventor of the computer alive. ( Memento from November 23, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) on: Osthessen-News. June 22, 2010.
  40. ^ Website of the "Konrad Zuse Museum with town and district history" in Hünfeld , last accessed April 8, 2015.
  41. ^ Website of the "Best Western Konrad Zuse Hotel" in Hünfeld , last accessed April 8, 2015.
  42. ^ Topping- out ceremony for the "Zuse Bau" at the TU Ilmenau.
  43. ↑ The new building for the Faculty of Computer Science and Automation is given the name "Zusebau" ( Memento from December 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  44. ^ Institute for Computer Science, University of Rostock
  45. ^ Zuse community ( Memento from December 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  46. Website for the Zuse year 2010. https://www.deutsches-museum.de/de/ausstellungen/sonderausstellungen/rueckblick/2010/konrad-zuse/
  47. ^ Zuse -jahr 2010, on the 100th birthday of the computer pioneer Konrad Zuse.
  48. ^ Deutsches Technik Museum: On the 100th birthday of the computer pioneer Konrad Zuse.
  49. ^ Commemorative coin Germany 2010: Konrad Zuse - The father of the computer. May 31, 2010.
  50. zuse-computer-museum.com
  51. zuse-computer-museum.com
  52. see article c't 20/02, p. 100.
  53. heise.de
  54. The device originally came from the Winterthur city administration and was taken over from the closed collection of the Winterthur Technorama in June 2010.
  55. Based on research by Herbert Bruderer, Department of Computer Science, Professorship for Information Technology and Education at ETH Zurich ( memento of December 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) in Switzerland and abroad, it can be assumed that this copy is the only one in a museum. The German Museum in Munich, the German Museum of Technology in Berlin and the Heinz-Nixdorf-Museum Forum in Paderborn do not have a Z9 / M9 in their inventory.
  56. Herbert Bruderer: Innovative Investments. to: NZZ online. December 2, 2010 (accessed February 18, 2011). See also Konrad Zuse and the ETH Zurich ( Memento from February 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed February 17, 2011)
  57. ^ Information from the curator for communication technologies and digital culture at the MfK in Bern, February 17, 2011.
  58. H. Bruderer: Konrad Zuse and the ETH Zurich - On the 100th birthday of the computer science pioneer Konrad Zuse. Festschrift of the ETH Zurich, 2nd edition. February 2011, pp. 14–15.
  59. osthessen-news.de: “Z 22 has come home” - Original Zuse computer in the Wortreich Museum
  60. fau.de: ZUSE computing system runs after years of tinkering