Chaos Computer Club
|Chaos Computer Club
|legal form||registered association|
|founding||September 12, 1981 (informal)|
|founder||Wau Holland , Steffen Wernéry|
|purpose||Education , information security , freedom of information , freedom of communication|
|main emphasis||Education and Information Security|
The Chaos Computer Club ( CCC ) is a German association in which hackers have come together. The association has developed into an authoritative non-governmental organization (NGO) in all questions of computer security .
The information society - according to the CCC - requires “a new human right to worldwide, unhindered communication ”, which is why the club “works across borders for freedom of information and deals with the effects of technologies on society and individual living beings”.
Membership is open to anyone who can identify with these goals. The CCC is a registered association under German law with its seat in Hamburg and according to its own information has approx. 7900 members. It was founded to give hackers a platform and to report on activities. Participation in the CCC is not tied to membership.
Structure and events
The CCC e. V. sees itself as a "galactic community of living beings" and is organized decentrally in regional groups. Smaller groups are called Chaostreffs , while more active and larger groups of experience (experience exchange groups ) call themselves.
Members and interested parties have met annually for the Chaos Communication Congress since 1984 . In addition, the Chaos Communication Camp took place in the summer of 1999 and 2003 on the Paulshof near the small town of Altlandsberg in the countryside. Following the 4-year cycle, it has taken place on the premises of the Aviation Museum Finowfurt since 2007 , and in 2015 it moved to the Mildenberg brickworks park . The international character of the camp has meanwhile been carried over to the congress, so that it follows its subtitle “The European Hacker Party” and English dominates as the conference language. In addition to the many lectures on technical and socio-political topics, there are also workshops, for example on lock picking . The four-day goulash programming night in Karlsruhe is organized by Entropia eV and has recently been the second largest annual event with over 1500 participants. At Easter, the workshop-oriented Easterhegg takes place regularly on a smaller scale . In addition, since the beginning of the decade there have been many small events with up to 200 people that are organized by regional groups and are partly an open gathering of the community, partly offering lectures on a specific topic.
The surveillance-critical demonstrations, freedom instead of fear, are supported by the Chaos Computer Club and sometimes accompanied by their own mobiles.
Publications, radio, podcasts
The CCC publishes the journal Die Datenschleuder , the scientific journal for data travelers . In addition, the Hackerbibel was published in two editions in the 1980s , an extensive compendium and hodgepodge with numerous documents from the hacker scene. From 1989 to 1992 the association published one of the first German-language electronic magazines, Chalisti . The Hackerbibles and all editions of the Datenschleuder up to the year 2000 have been digitized and are available on the Chaos CD. In addition, since the 21st Chaos Communication Congress (2004), a conference proceedings have been written and published.
Chaosradio has been broadcast on the Fritz radio station from Potsdam since 1995 , usually on the last Thursday of the month as part of the “Blue Moon” program. Other radio broadcasts from the CCC are C-RaDaR from Darmstadt , / dev / radio from Ulm , Radio Chaotica from Karlsruhe , Freibyte from Freiburg im Breisgau , Fnordfunk from Mainz , Pentaradio from Dresden , Sibylline news from Essen , Nerds on Air from Vienna and Hackerfunk from Zurich . In Chaos Radio Podcast Network many are podcasts of CCC offered.
The Chaos Computer Club founded the Chaos Computer Club Veranstaltungsgesellschaft mbH in 1999 to organize the Chaos Communication Camp . Tim Pritlove was its managing director until 2006 . Since then, it has hosted the major CCC events.Constanze Kurz is a volunteer spokesperson for the association .
In 2003, the Wau Holland Foundation was added as a non-profit organization that has been supporting CCC events and projects ever since.
As a kind of "regional branches" there are so-called Erfa circles (experience exchange circle) and chaos get-togethers . The Erfa circles are firmly anchored in the statutes and usually form local associations with club rooms. Erfa circles are currently (as of 2017) in the German cities of Aachen, Bamberg, Berlin, Bremen, Darmstadt, Dresden, Düsseldorf, Erlangen / Nuremberg / Fürth, Essen, Frankfurt am Main, Freiburg, Göttingen, Hamburg, Hanover, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Kassel, Cologne, Mainz / Wiesbaden, Mannheim, Munich, Paderborn, Stuttgart, Ulm, Würzburg as well as in Salzburg, Vienna ( C3W ) and Zurich ( CCCZH ). Chaostreffs are looser gatherings of members and interested parties without a registered association.
The CCC often works together with other organizations that campaign against censorship , for freedom of information or data protection , such as FITUG and digitalcourage (formerly FoeBuD). He is also a co-signatory of the joint declaration of the AK reserve on the draft law on data retention .
The local association D23 of the DARC , also called Chaoswelle, is a community of radio amateurs close to the CCC.
Chaos Computer Club France
The Chaos Computer Club France (CCCF) existed from 1989 to 1993. It was founded and led by Jean-Bernard Condat under the direction of Jean-Luc Delacour, a secret agent of the French intelligence service Direction de la surveillance du territoire . The primary aim was to monitor the French hacker community and gather information about them.
The CCCF published a digital magazine called Chaos Digest (ChaosD) from January 4, 1993 to August 5, 1993 with a total of 73 issues ().
The CCC was founded on September 12, 1981 in West Berlin at the table of Commune I in the editorial offices of the taz . However, the club developed mainly in Hamburg in the following years, as the founding members Wau Holland and Klaus Schleisiek alias Tom Twiddlebit stayed there.
At the beginning of 1984 the first edition of the club magazine Die Datenschleuder was published. In mid-1984, a self-built modem that was not approved by the Bundespost was developed, the data toilet , the instructions for which were printed in the Hackerbibel in 1985 .
The CCC gained public notoriety on November 19, 1984 with the BTX hack , which generated a lot of media coverage. Due to a data overflow in the Btx system, which the Bundespost had designated as secure, a subscriber received parts of the main memory content of the relevant Series 1 access computer on his terminal. An analysis of the dump revealed that it contained the access ID of a user account of the Hamburger Sparkasse (Haspa) including the password in plain text. A member of the CCC then logged in as this Haspa user and repeatedly called up a chargeable website of the CCC. As a result, almost DM 135,000 of the Hamburger Sparkasse (Haspa) was due in one night in favor of the association's account, which was repaid after the discovery.
This was preceded by a demonstration of a similar security gap by Wau Holland at the 8th DAFTA , but the problem was not fixed at the post office. After the hack, Haspa board member Benno Schölermann stated that the Post's assurance that Btx was safe was wrong, and that the CCC's efficiency was highly respected.
After the Btx hack, the call for an event became louder and louder at which one could devote oneself to the known and upcoming hacks. So at the end of December 1984 the first Chaos Communication Congress was held in the Eidelstedt community center in Hamburg-Eidelstedt .
Lawsuit brought by Vorwerk Elektrowerke GmbH & Co. KG
In 1985 the club became embroiled in a matter of freedom of information - one of the CCC's later focus areas. With reference to freedom of information, various texts on controversial topics accumulated on the club's BTX pages.
An excerpt from Michael Alschibaja Theimuras' dissertation “ Penis injuries during masturbation with vacuum cleaners ” from 1978 could also be called up. Since, in particular vacuum cleaner of the type Kobold of Vorwerk led to injuries, was afraid of the traditional business negative headlines and therefore looked damaged by the CCC. He sued the club for DM 500,000 in damages for damage to its reputation and demanded that the Bundespost, as the operator of the BTX system, block the site. Only after the doctoral supervisor of the dissertation and a person concerned had been proven, the company withdrew the lawsuit.
On April 14, 1986 the Chaos Computer Club e. V. was founded and entered in the register of associations at the Hamburg District Court under number 10940. However , the Hamburg tax office did not recognize non-profit status. An article in Datenschleuder 60 sums up the motivation for founding the association: "The investigative proceedings that were in prospect at the time (because of NASA / Span-Hack etc.) should be clearly channeled in order to prevent further criminalization of the hacker scene ( § 129a ) and above all to direct the investigative proceedings to (lawyers) prepared bodies (board of directors). That has worked quite well so far. "
The association is the financial backbone of the data thrower and for projects to research new technologies. In addition, its speakers are active as mouthpieces for the hacker scene.
Several mainframe computers, especially those from Digital, were connected to the SPANet (Space Physics Analysis Network) operated by NASA and ESA . Due to a security gap in the VMS operating system , which was fixed in the USA in 1986, but only in Europe in mid-1987, hackers in northern Germany succeeded in gaining access to the systems and several computers in this network. These included machines from NASA, ESA, computers from the French Atomic Energy Commission ( Commissariat à l'énergie atomique ), universities and research institutions. Evidently, however, damage could only be discovered on computers of the “Hacker-Fahrschule” christened CERN , from where other networks could be reached.
The north German hackers turned to the CCC when the situation got too “hot” for them. This in turn contacted the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in August 1987 , which passed on a list compiled by the club of all Vaxen "visited" to the American colleagues at the CIA . As a result, in September 1987 there were several house searches by the BKA in cooperation with the French public prosecutor's office on the basis of criminal charges from CERN in Switzerland and Philips France . The allegation was made that the computers of the defense company Thomson , now part of Thales , had been cracked in Grenoble, the databases of the Lafarge cement factory were deleted and construction plans for a chip were possibly spied on at Philips .
It may have turned out to be happy that CCC press spokesman Steffen Wernéry met a nearby TV team from the station Sat.1 during the house search . This made the house search part of the live reporting on the station's evening news.
On March 14, 1988, Wernéry traveled to SECURICOM 88, the 6th International Congress on Data Protection and Data Security, in Paris. Upon arrival at the airport, he was arrested on a criminal complaint from Philips France and held for questioning. He was released on May 20, 1988 and was able to return to Germany.
The KGB hack emerged from the NASA hack , or rather both took place in parallel and the same people were involved to a small extent. In summary, data spotted from western computers was sold to the east. The main person involved, Karl Koch , was found dead in a forest in the Gifhorn district in Lower Saxony in June 1989 after several therapies to recover from his drug addiction and according to statements made to the Office for the Protection of the Constitution . Officially, self-immolation was given as the cause of death .
As a result of the KGB hack and the investigative work carried out by the Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the distrust among its own members grew, especially in the Hamburg Club. The next few years were characterized by the fact that hardly any major campaigns were undertaken. Regardless of this, the annual Chaos Communication Congress continued to be held regularly , also Die Datenschleuder mostly appeared four times a year, and at CEBIT they met annually on Chaos Tuesday to “siege” the post office, and later the Telekom.
Reunion among hackers
The CCC used the political change in Germany after the fall of the Berlin Wall to forge links with what was then the GDR . Although the East had caught up in computer technology in the late 1980s (which was mainly due to replicas of Western computers), access to and procurement of Western technology through the CoCom list remained prohibited or was prohibitively expensive.
As early as February 1990, a “Hacker Reunification” under the name KoKon (“Communication Congress ”; the reference to CoCom was definitely intended) was organized in the House of Young Talents in East Berlin. The two day event was organized by the Computer Club im HdjT together with the Chaos Computer Club . As a result, a new CCC Berlin was founded, which was able to get hold of a club room in Berlin-Mitte, between Friedrichstrasse and the Reichstag, in the turmoil of reunification. In addition, it helped to set up the first data communication network in the former GDR.
Decentralization of the club
Due to various differences of opinion, especially with the parent club in Hamburg, more and more regional groups of the CCC developed in the early 1990s, which, however, often could not be brought to work with Hamburg. In addition to the re-establishment in Berlin , there was a CCC in Oldenburg , in Lübeck (which temporarily coordinated the publication of the data thrower), and a group in Ulm . In Bielefeld in 1987 was initiated by the artist Rena tangent and padeluun of the CCC related, but focused on other priorities club Digitalcourage (formerly FoeBuD), which now houses the Big Brother Awards aligning and cooperating in areas of data protection and monitoring with the CCC.
Decentralization was never perceived as problematic, as the hacker ethic emphasizes the promotion of decentralization as an important goal. Even the statutes of the CCC e. V. envisaged the establishment of independent exchange of experience circles (Erfa circles). Only "rivalry fights" that still occur today, such as between Hamburg and Berlin, influenced productivity and led to some comrades-in-arms completely turning their backs on the CCC.
At the time of the onset of the Internet boom, the business with technically ill-advised people was particularly good. People like Sönke Ungerbühler jumped on this train. As an alleged member of the CCC, he alleged to board members of banks and commercial enterprises that he had stumbled across sensitive information through hacking that the press found food. In return for payment of several thousand DM, however, he would remain silent and hand over the material discovered. The meetings were mostly arranged in London , Cambridge or Brussels , where Ungerbühler then handed over a set of blank diskettes . For fear of damaging their reputation, these cases of fraud were rarely reported. So Ungerbühler was up to mischief in the name of the CCC for a long time without the association knowing about it. From the first detention, which was initiated by a cautious journalist, Ungerbühler was able to flee to London. There were further meetings there, but a sporting goods manufacturer was able to persuade him to hand it over in Germany, where he was overpowered by the police. After his arrest, Ungerbühler reported that some of the unsettled executives had forced the hush money on him. In addition, Ungerbühler said he had no knowledge of computers.
During this time, Kim Schmitz alias Kimble, who posed as a security advisor, was often to be found in the CCC environment . He participated in the newsgroup de.org.ccc on Usenet and was thus often associated with the CCC. After being convicted of fraud, he was banned from attending CCC events, which continues to this day.
At the end of 1997 the algorithm COMP128 became known, which was used for the encryption of the so-called identification code on GSM cards - in Germany only by Mannesmann Mobilfunk . This made it technically possible to clone a GSM card, which the CCC proved in spring 1998.
Cloned cards not only allow calls to be made at the expense of the original subscriber, calls can also be made with his or her identity. A PIN that has been entered once does not have to be entered again. GSM card dealers in particular were therefore suspected of being able to exploit the vulnerability that had been discovered; because they had undisturbed access to cards and the corresponding PINs, since the letters used at the time could easily be opened non-destructively and later closed again.
The problem could only be solved by changing the encryption method and replacing the card. However, according to the world market leader in SIM cards, Schlumberger , even in 2002 around 30% of the cards in circulation were still equipped with the vulnerable COMP128 algorithm.
Camp and regional events
At Easter 2001 the CCC returned to the Eidelstedt community center with the first Easter hedge . In 2002, the annual goulash programming night (GPN) of the Karlsruhe Erfa district and the Intergalactic Club-Mate Party (ICMP) of the Erlangen Erfa district were added, a small hacker camp that takes place every two years in Münchsteinach near Erlangen. Since 2004 the Erfa-Kreis Dresden has organized the two-day information event data traces every year . The Chaos Computer Club Vienna has been organizing the PrivacyWeek since 2016 .
In 2001 the club celebrated its 20th anniversary with the interactive light installation Blinkenlights at the teacher's house on Alexanderplatz in Berlin. In October 2002, the follow-up project Blinkenlights Arcade was created on the facade of the new Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris with 3,370 m², the largest display of all time. In 2008 another sequel was implemented in Toronto : Blinkenlights Stereoscope .
Internet censorship in North Rhine-Westphalia
In the fall of 2001 showed district government Dusseldorf with their provincial government Juergen Buessow at the head of efforts, relying on the Media Services Agreement "unwanted" at least in North Rhine-Westphalia to block content on the Internet . One of the actions of the CCC in April 2002 was the first street demonstration it organized in its history. Around 400 participants marched through Düsseldorf's old town with a rally in front of the castle tower and a final rally during a direct conversation with Jürgen Büssow in front of the district government building. He was given a red network card and a printout of the list of signatures against network censorship drawn up by the ODEM initiative .
On July 26, 2004, the freelance IT entrepreneur Dirk Heringhaus published a report in Datenschleuder about security holes in Deutsche Telekom's OBSOC order processing system . Heringhaus called this action a T-Hack . It was about access to modified URLs , which enabled access to protected data in the OBSOC database. The problem could only be resolved after the initial reluctance of Deutsche Telekom. The affected user groups included the Federal Intelligence Service and the GSG 9 .
Members of the CCC and the Dutch foundation "Wij vertrouwen stemcomputers niet" ( "We trust voting computers do not") demonstrated in December 2006, how easily a voting machine company Nedap can manipulate. The effects of the hack included increased security measures in several elections in Germany, the city of Cottbus and other small communities not buying voting computers, and the revocation of approval for voting computers from SDU and Nedap in the Netherlands. As a result of the hack, an election review complaint was filed with the Federal Constitutional Court in Germany at the beginning of 2007 . To this end, the CCC, in cooperation with the “Wij vertrouwen stemcomputers niet” foundation, carried out an investigation that was published in May 2007 following a request from the court. The investigation summarizes the deficiencies that have already been identified, describes new attack scenarios and advises against the use of Nedap voting computers. With the ruling of March 3, 2009, the Federal Constitutional Court declared the use of voting computers in the 2005 Bundestag election to be unconstitutional.
On January 23, 2008, the State Court of Hesse rejected the CCC's application for an interim order and allowed the voting computers for the Hessian state elections. After the state elections in Hesse on January 27, 2008, the CCC appealed against the election to the State Court of Hesse. Due to early elections, the matter was no longer decided. From the state elections on January 18, 2009, the Hessian Ministry of the Interior no longer issued a permit for the use of voting computers.
At the end of March 2008, the CCC published an alleged fingerprint of Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble in its members' magazine . This was done in protest against the planned expansion of the use of biometric data, e.g. B. in the so-called E-Pass . The CCC wanted to make it clear how easily one's own fingerprint can be "stolen" and used by other people. In the present case, the fingerprints were taken from a glass of water that Wolfgang Schäuble is said to have drunk from during a panel discussion. Schäuble commented on the report: "My fingerprint is not a secret, anyone can have it".
Chaos goes to school
Chaos macht Schule is an initiative of several experience groups of the CCC that has existed since 2007 and that work together with various educational institutions. The aim of this initiative is to strengthen students, parents and teachers in the areas of media skills and understanding of technology.
The data letter is a request of the Chaos Computer Club to improve data protection. The concept sparked political discussions, especially in early 2010.
At the beginning of October 2011, the Chaos Computer Club published a technical analysis of an assumed version of state espionage software ; one of the variants examined was used in an investigation in Bavaria. In the analysis, the CCC came to the conclusion that the constitutionally required powers had been exceeded in many ways. So be it z. For example, contrary to previous assurances, it is possible to change data on the infected system or to use connected devices (microphone, camera) for a " major eavesdropping ". On October 10, the responsible Bavarian Minister of the Interior, Joachim Herrmann , confirmed that the software came from Bavaria and was used there by the State Criminal Police Office . However, this action could have criminal consequences. "Overall, it does not appear to be ruled out that the publication of the source code of a so-called state Trojan will be viewed as an act of obstruction of punishment in accordance with Section 258 of the Criminal Code."
PC election hack
On November 7, 2017, the Chaos Computer Club published a technical analysis of the PC-Wahl 10 software used in various elections. The analysis revealed several serious security flaws. The update mechanism, the security of the update server and the vulnerability of the export of the election results were criticized.
Security gap in the health network and in hotel locks
Assess contact tracking apps
In April 2020, the Chaos Computer Club published ten touchstones for assessing apps for contact person tracking from a technical and socio-political perspective. Among other things, the association calls for completely anonymous contact person tracking, data economy and openness to sources .
The Luca app , which was developed as part of the corona pandemic, received a devastating verdict from the CCC in April 2021. The CCC criticizes a “dubious business model, defective software, irregularities in the award of contracts” and the obligation to use the app as ordered in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In addition, the Luca app would not meet any of the CCC's touchstones.
Spokespersons and better known members of the CCC
- Wau Holland (1951-2001)
- Bernd Fix (* 1962)
- Martin Haase (* 1962)
- Karl Koch (1965–1989)
- Jan Krissler
- Constanze Kurz (* 1974)
- Andy Müller-Maguhn (* 1971)
- Karsten Nohl (* 1981)
- Tim Pritlove (* 1967)
- Linus Neumann (* 1983)
- Steffen Wernéry
- Daniel Domscheit-Berg (* 1978)
- Frank Rieger (* 1971)
- Rena Tangens
- Jörg Tauss (* 1953)
- Tron (1972-1998)
- Fefe (* 1973; member until 2016)
Well-known honorary members of the Chaos Computer Club are:
- Peter Glaser (* 1957)
- Wau Holland (1951-2001)
- Günther Leue (1924-2010)
- Ralf Prehn
- Sven Gohdes
- Marc-André Janizewski († 2020)
- Markus Ossevorth
- Hartmut Schröder
- Rena Tangens
- Horst Völz (* 1930)
- Steffen Wernéry
- John Young (born 1935)
- Michael Gerdes (better known as " Papillon Butterfrog ")
- Werner Pieper (* 1948)
- Konrad Zuse (1910–1995), according to the resolution of the general meeting in 1995, was no longer notified to him during his lifetime
- Chelsea Manning (* 1987)
- Edward Snowden (* 1983)
There are three logos / symbols in the CCC and its surroundings:
- The “chaos knot” or “data knot” as the official logo of the CCC e. V., designed by Wau Holland ; it is a mirror image of the logo of the Bundespost- Kabel-TV with an extended and knotted cable outlet (see picture above).
- The “plague squirrel” or the “data pirate” as the community's logo; Originally designed by Reinhard Schrutzki in 1990 for the FoeBuD , it represents an old Bundespost logo that has mutated into a skull (still with telecommunication flashes).
- The “Fairydust” rocket as the logo of CCC events; The bulbous and tripod rocket was already used as the logo for the 1st Chaos Communication Camp 1999, but was only given its name at the 2nd Camp 2003 and is now, as a seven-meter-tall and accessible replica, to be found at the Chaos Communication Congress and other events.
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- All Creatures Welcome. Documentary, Germany 2018, 87 min., Written and directed by Sandra Trostel
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- data tracks
- PrivacyWeek | October 22-28, 2018 | Folklore Museum Vienna. Retrieved January 6, 2019 (German).
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- The Nedap Hack ( Memento from December 13, 2018 in the Internet Archive ).
- Demonstration of the manipulability of Nedap voting computers .
- Cottbus says goodbye to voting computers heise.de, January 29, 2007
- SDU voting computer excluded from Dutch parliamentary elections heise.de, October 30, 2006.
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- Surveillance Trojan probably comes from Bavaria . In Zeit Online, notification of October 10, 2011; Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Chaos Computer Club analyzes state Trojans . News from October 8, 2011 on ccc.de, accessed on December 28, 2016.
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- SPIEGEL ONLINE: Health: This is how hackers got an electronic doctor's ID. Retrieved December 28, 2019 .
- CCC | CCC hacks the latest generation of hotel locks. Retrieved December 28, 2019 .
- Patrick Beuth, DER SPIEGEL: Contact Tracing Apps: The Chaos Computer Club asks the question of trust. Retrieved April 20, 2021 .
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- Chaos Computer Club supports Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden - online publication . CCC website. Retrieved August 28, 2014
- Pesthörnchen: The development of the Pesthörnchen ( memento from February 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) on Reinhard Schrutzki's website