|Deutsche Telekom AG
|founding||January 2, 1995|
|Seat||Bonn , Germany|
|Number of employees||211,000 (2019)|
|sales||80.5 billion euros (2019)|
|As of December 31, 2019|
The German Telekom AG ( telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn . In the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest listed companies, Deutsche Telekom ranks 116th (as of May 2019). The company had a market value of around $ 81 billion in early 2018.) is Europe's largest
The company has technical networks ( ISDN , xDSL , Satellite , Gigabit - Ethernet , ATM , 2G , 3G , 4G , 5G , etc.) for the operation of information and communication services (ICT), such as telephones ( landline and mobile ) data networks or Online services and the in-house television service MagentaTV .
After the privatization of the Deutsche Bundespost, Telekom emerged from its telecommunications and telecommunications sector ("gray post"). Timotheus Höttges has been CEO of Deutsche Telekom AG since January 1, 2014 , and Ulrich Lehner has been Chairman of the Supervisory Board since spring 2008 .
Deutsche Telekom AG in its current form emerged on January 2, 1995 with the entry into force of the second postal reform from the former Deutsche Bundespost TELEKOM - initially with the federal government as the sole shareholder.
The summer era
On May 16, 1995, Ron Sommer became CEO of Deutsche Telekom AG. Previously, Helmut Ricke, long-time CEO of DBP TELEKOM, had resigned from his post in December 1994 - allegedly due to differences of opinion with the then Post Minister Wolfgang Bötsch about the postal reform.
On November 18, 1996, Telekom went public under Ron Sommer . The term T-Share was coined in a previously unprecedented advertising campaign . The initial issue price was 28.50 DM (14.57 euros). That corresponded to proceeds of 10.0 billion euros. A second and third tranche followed later (June 28, 1999, unit price 39.50 euros, revenue 10.88 billion euros and June 19, 2000, unit price 63.50 euros, revenue 15 billion euros).
With the entry into force of the Telecommunications Act in January 1998, the state-guaranteed monopoly for telephone service in Germany in the Telecommunications Systems Act (FAG) fell . To create equal opportunities for competitors with the former monopoly, the regulatory authority RegTP (later Federal Network Agency , BNetzA ) was founded. Her powers included a. the formulation of conditions and the review and approval of tariff changes - especially the dominant Telekom. Also for competition law reasons, Telekom had to sell its nationwide broadband cable network under pressure from the EU Commission .
The broadband cable network was sold in several parts to different investors after it had previously been spun off into the following nine regional companies: Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, Berlin / Brandenburg, Saxony / Saxony-Anhalt / Thuringia, Bremen / Lower Saxony , Rhineland-Palatinate-Saarland and Hamburg / Schleswig-Holstein / Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. This process dragged on for several years from 1999 until the last shares were sold in mid-2003. In 2000, Kabel NRW GmbH was the first regional company to be sold to US investor Callahan, who renamed the company in 2001 to ish . Also in 2000, Telekom sold the Hessian regional company Hessen Kabel GmbH to British investors, who continued to run it as iesy .
In 2000 , 55% of the Baden-Württemberg network was sold to Callahan as Kabel BW ; the remaining 45% were sold in 2003. In the same year, the remaining six regional companies were sold as Kabel Deutschland to investors around Apax Partners , Providence Equity Partners and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners. In 2005, iesy was taken over by ish and in 2007 it was bundled into Unitymedia as a unified brand, which was finally bought by the British Liberty Global in 2007 . Liberty Global, whose interest in buying all nine Telekom regional companies had been blocked by the Federal Cartel Office in 2000 , finally acquired Kabel BW in 2011 . Since then, Unitymedia GmbH (only active in Baden-Württemberg, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia) and Vodafone Kabel Deutschland GmbH (active in all 13 federal states in which Unitymedia Kabel BW is not active) have formed the two largest cable network operators in Germany .
The spin-off of individual Telekom business areas (including DeTeMobil - today Telekom Mobilfunk and Online Pro Dienst GmbH - later T-Online) ultimately resulted in Ron Sommer's so-called four-pillar strategy (T-Com, T-Mobile, T- Online and T-Systems ) with the declared aim of bringing each of the four subsidiaries to the stock exchange as an independent AG. However, this was only implemented for T-Online (April 17, 2000, unit price € 27, revenue € 2.7 billion).
During Summer's tenure, T-Mobile bought the German UMTS licenses in July / August 2000 for DM 16.58 billion (EUR 8.48 billion) and bought the US wireless company Voicestream and in May 2001 Powertel for approx. 39.4 billion euros (including assumed debts). Because of the high price and the associated high debt burden of the group, the VoiceStream engagement in particular was heavily criticized in public. In 2005, however, the mobile communications division, now renamed T-Mobile USA , was considered very successful and profitable. At the beginning of 2001, an impairment of property values of 2.2 billion euros in the balance sheet for 2000 led to a wave of lawsuits from private shareholders who felt they had been betrayed.
Ron Sommer resigned from his position as Chairman of the Board on July 16, 2002. The reason was a "disturbed relationship of trust" with the supervisory board. The federal government, as the majority shareholder, had urged Sommer to resign after massive price losses as a result of the stock market crisis from 2001 and the now high corporate debt.
The Ricke era
Helmut Sihler became interim manager . This announced a tough austerity course. At the Annual General Meeting in May 2002 Ron Sommer had spoken of a surplus of 22,000 jobs, Sihler announced in October 2002 that a total of 50,000 jobs were to be cut in the group. On November 15, 2002, Kai-Uwe Ricke , son of the former DBP-TELEKOM boss Helmut Ricke, took over as CEO of Sihler. In October 2003, by renaming the group's own personnel service agency to Vivento, he completed the plan that had already been started to transfer employees to be cut to an employment company.
The main focus of Rickes management was initially on the reduction of co-privatized high debts. In April 2005, he revised Sommer's four-pillar strategy by buying back the 20.4% shares in T-Online, which had only been listed on the stock exchange 4½ years earlier, at a low price. In this way, the group-internal competition between T-Online and the DSL connections of T-Com was to be reduced and the group to be better aligned to the needs of customers. A lawsuit by forcibly expropriated small shareholders against the inadequate compensation offers in a re-merger failed in June 2006.
In November 2005, Telekom announced that 32,000 employees would leave the company again in the next three years. In April 2006 the state-owned Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) sold a 4.5% stake in Telekom for 2.7 billion euros to the New York private equity Blackstone Group , which was enough for a supervisory board position. It was assumed that the participation was also expected to have a positive effect on the low share prices from 2001 onwards. Ricke's resignation from chairmanship on November 12, 2006 was attributed to Blackstone's (federally desired) influence. In addition to the apparently poor share price, which continued to fall significantly from 2008 onwards, he was also accused of acting too timidly in view of a dramatic loss of fixed network customers.
The Obermann era
On November 13, 2006, René Obermann took over as the new Telekom CEO . As a focus, he announced the improvement of the service and a stronger integration of the fixed network and mobile radio divisions. His restructuring plan led to a massive collective bargaining dispute in the spring of 2007, as a result of which over 50,000 employees were outsourced to three independent service companies under the T-Service umbrella brand from July 1, 2007 .
In addition to the restructuring plan, Obermann implemented a cheap offshoot under the name congster (today congstar ) and aimed to sell the iPhone in order to reposition the Telekom brand.
The Bonn public prosecutor's office has been investigating the telecommunications surveillance affair since May 2008 . In this connection, the public prosecutor's office has initiated investigations against eight senior employees and members of the Supervisory Board of Deutsche Telekom. The accused are accused of, among other things, spying on journalists, employee supervisory boards, works councils and other Telekom employees, as well as the deputy supervisory board chairman of Deutsche Post AG during Rickes' term of office.
In October 2008, Telekom also moved into the public eye when, following an article in Spiegel, it admitted that around 30 million customer data from the mobile communications subsidiary T-Mobile could be accessed and manipulated via the Internet without great effort. In this context, two public prosecutors are investigating the theft of 17 million customer data, which was presumably stolen from a call center of the Telekom subsidiary Vivento.
On April 1, 2010, the dissolution of T-Mobile Deutschland GmbH and its sister company T-Home was finally completed with the start of the new Telekom Deutschland GmbH. This amalgamation goes back to the plan to create the One Company, which Obermann implemented with determination. This means that fixed line, cellular, Internet and IPTV products are offered from a single source.
In spring 2010, Deutsche Telekom introduced a quota of 30 percent women in top and middle management positions in the company, which should be implemented by 2015. The first two women were appointed to the Executive Board by the Supervisory Board in July 2011 . Claudia Nemat has been the board member for the Europe region since October 2011 . The former education minister of Baden-Württemberg, Marion Schick, was HR manager from 2012 to 2014.
On March 20, 2011, Deutsche Telekom announced that it wanted to sell its US mobile communications subsidiary T-Mobile USA to the American telecommunications group AT&T for a total of 39 billion US dollars , with AT&T 25 billion US dollars in cash and 14 billion US dollars. Dollars in the form of AT&T shares. As a result, Deutsche Telekom should hold up to 8 percent shares in AT&T after the transaction is completed. This would have made it the largest minority shareholder in the US industry leader. Deutsche Telekom wanted to use the proceeds to reduce its net debt by around EUR 13 billion and buy back its own shares for around EUR 5 billion . In December 2011, AT&T and Deutsche Telekom terminated the agreement to sell T-Mobile USA due to extensive opposition from US competition authorities.
On December 20, 2012, Obermann announced that he would resign from his position as CEO at the end of 2013. His successor on January 1, 2014 was Timotheus Höttges, the previous CFO of Deutsche Telekom AG.
Subsidiaries and holdings
Deutsche Telekom AG has subsidiaries and holdings on five continents.
The Telekom Germany GmbH bundles the business with private customers and small and medium business customers in Germany in the areas of mobile, fixed, Internet and IPTV. It was incorporated into it on April 1, 2010 through the change of name and incorporation of the T-Home fixed network business unit of Deutsche Telekom AG and T-Mobile Deutschland GmbH.
The Europe operating segment includes the following wireless and fixed network providers:
- Hrvatski Telekom - Croatia
- Magenta Telekom - Austria
- Magyar Telecom - Hungary
- Novatel - Ukraine
OTE ( Hellenic Telecommunications Organization SA ) - Greece
- Cosmote ( Cosmote Mobile Telecommunications SA ) - Greece
- Telecom Albania - Albania
- Telekom Romania ( Telekom Romania Communications SA and Telekom Romania Mobile Communications SA ) - Romania
- Slovak Telekom - Slovakia
- T-Mobile Czech Republic - Czech Republic
- T-Mobile Netherlands - Netherlands
- T-Mobile Polska - Poland
- British Telecom - United Kingdom
There is no connection to the Austrian telecommunications company Telekom Austria AG .
The T-Mobile US Inc. is for the mobile business in the United States responsible. The company was created in 2001 through the takeover of VoiceStream.
The T-Systems International GmbH sells products and services to medium to very large business customers. The focus is on the marketing of complex services and industry solutions.
Deutsche Telekom IT
The German Telekom IT GmbH is the internal IT service provider of the Group. It was created in April 2017 when the division, which had previously belonged to T-Systems International, was transferred to a new company.
|Traffic levels||10+ terabits / s|
Deutsche Telekom Global Carrier
Deutsche Telekom global Carrier (formerly Deutsche Telekom International Carrier Sales and Solutions or ICSS) is the international wholesale division of Deutsche Telekom and operates a global Internet backbone tier 1 network
Deutsche Telekom Capital Partners
When it was founded in 1997, T-Venture Holding GmbH was one of the largest corporate venture capital companies in Europe. It participated in new companies that showed synergies with T-Home, T-Mobile or T-Systems and promised growth potential. At the end of 2014, the T-Venture Fund for new investments was closed and the holding company was replaced by Deutsche Telekom Capital Partners (DTCP). Deutsche Telekom Capital Partners is continuing the work and at the beginning of 2015 had a total volume of 500 million euros.
German radio tower
The Deutsche Funkturm GmbH (DFMG) was founded in 2002. It is responsible for the planning, construction, conversion, operation and marketing of antenna support and technical areas at tower, mast and roof locations.
Deutsche Telekom Insurance
Deutsche Telekom Assekuranz Vermittlungsgesellschaft mbH is the internal insurance broker in the Deutsche Telekom Group. Since it was founded in October 1994, the range has included individual insurance solutions for both internal and external companies and private individuals.
Telekom MobilitySolutions (DeTeFleetServices GmbH)
The Telekom Mobility Solutions (DeTeFleetServices GmbH) serves multivendor the fleet of the Deutsche Telekom Group and yet another commercial customers.
In January 2020, Deutsche Telekom and EWE founded Glasfaser NordWest GmbH & Co. KG to promote fiber-optic expansion in north-west Germany.
- Scout Group , Munich: Acquired by Beisheim Holding in 2004, Deutsche Telekom transferred the job exchange operator JobScout24 to CareerBuilder in 2011 , and in 2013 the remaining areas (today: Scout24 AG ) to the private equity company Hellman & Friedman .
- Strato , Berlin: With around 500 employees and around 20 million managed domains, it is the second largest European web hosting provider. The sale for EUR 600 million to United Internet AG took place after approval by the antitrust authorities on April 1, 2017.
- DeTeMedien and subsidiaries such as solute GmbH with billiger.de . The sale took place on June 14, 2017 to a consortium of various publishers.
- T-Mobile UK , Hatfield : Merged on April 1, 2010 with Orange UK in the Everything Everywhere Ltd. joint venture . With effect from January 15, 2016, all shares were sold to the BT Group . The company has since been called EE Limited . Since the purchase price was mainly paid in shares, Deutsche Telekom has since held around 12% of the BT Group .
Cooperations and partnerships
Deutsche Telekom AG has been working with the live streaming providers Sky and maxdome for some time . In August 2017, an agreement was reached with Sky on a new cooperation for Bundesliga and sports packages. As part of this, Telekom customers receive discounted access to the live conferences and games of the Bundesliga and UEFA Champions League broadcast by Sky.
The German Telekom is a founding member of the Free Move Alliance , which in April 2003 as Mobile Alliance was established and received its current name in of 2004.
European Aviation Network
Together with Inmarsat and Nokia , Deutsche Telekom is developing the hybrid network to provide aircraft over Europe with high-speed Internet.
Telekom share, key figures and shareholders
The company's shares ( WKN 555750, ISIN DE0005557508) are listed on the German stock exchange under the symbol DTE and are part of the DAX and DivDax on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange . Due to the consistently above-average dividend yield over the years, the T-Share has been included in the DivDAX since September 2005.
When the AG was founded on January 2, 1995, the shares were not listed on the stock exchange. The stock market flotation followed on November 18, 1996. Deutsche Telekom shares , or T-shares for short , were referred to as people's shares when they were launched. In the context of the Internet boom at the time, many private investors invested in the T-Share. From an issue price of 14.57 euros determined in the bookbuilding process , the value of the share rose to 104.90 euros (March 6, 2000), but then fell again to a price that was temporarily below the issue price. The Federal Republic of Germany holds around 14.5 percent of the shares directly and a further 17.5 percent indirectly through KfW . Around 68 percent are in free float .
In October 2006 it became known that the Russian conglomerate Sistema wanted to become a major shareholder in DTAG. In return, Sistema was supposed to bring the Russian telecommunications division, which also includes Russia's largest mobile communications company MTS (almost 60 million customers, former minority stake of DTAG) as a majority stake (50.6%), into the group. Sistema was advised by, among others, Ron Sommer , the former CEO of DTAG. The entry was blocked by the federal government due to security concerns.
|Key figure (in billion euros)||2019||2018||2017||2016||2015||2014||2013||2012||2011||2010|
|Consolidated net income / (- deficit)||3.9||2.2||3.5||2.7||3.3||2.9||0.9||−5.4||0.5||1.7|
|Consolidated net income / (deficit) (adjusted for special items)||4.9||4.5||6.0||4.1||4.1||2.4||2.8||2.5||2.9||3.4|
|EBITDA (adjusted for special items)||28.7||23.3||22.2||21.4||19.9||17.6||17.4||18.0||18.7||19.5|
|EBITDA margin (adjusted for special factors) (%)||30.8||29.7||29.3||28.8||28.0||28.9||30.9||31.8||31.2|
|Annual average employees without trainees (thousand)||211||216||216||221||226||228||230||232||240||252|
|Sales per employee (thousand)||349.7||346.2||331.4||305.9||274.5||261.8||250.4||244.0||247.2|
|Earnings per share (basic and diluted) (euros)||0.46||0.74||0.58||0.71||0.65||0.21||−1.24||0.13||0.39|
|Dividend per share (euro)||0.70||0.65||0.60||0.55||0.50||0.50||0.70||0.70||0.70|
|Total number of ordinary shares on the reporting date (million)||4761||4761||4677||4607||4536||4451||4321||4321||4321|
|17.41%||KfW (state development bank)||Frankfurt am Main|
|14.48%||Federal Republic of Germany||Berlin|
|4.92%||BlackRock||New York City|
|1.69%||State Pension Fund (Norway)||Oslo|
“Telekom Magenta ” ( RAL 4010)
color code: # E20074
The corporate design of Deutsche Telekom is characterized by the uppercase - "T" written in the corporate color "Tele (kom) magenta " ( RAL 4010) , which is enclosed by several dots called digits in the Telekom brand language . Telekom led several lawsuits, including before the Federal Court of Justice , in which the color magenta and the letter T were worthy of protection . Domain names such as T-Wurst.de and T-Beutel.de have also been registered for Deutsche Telekom by DENIC .
Accordingly, the products of the subsidiaries were also provided with the letter T and written with digits. Typical examples of these artificial terms were T-NetBox and T-DSL . In the current alignment of the brand strategy, the “T” is gradually being removed from the product names. The symbol was adopted by the Deutsche Bundespost, which used a similar symbol as a symbol for the TELEKOM division. It consisted of the word "TELEKOM" with gray squares between the letters and the post horn . The color has not changed since then. For a long time, the general house font was a modified ITC Century Book , the Tele Antiqua . It has now been replaced by the sans serif Tele Grotesk .
In April 2008, the US blog Engadget Mobile was asked by Deutsche Telekom to change the color scheme of the logo and blog, as otherwise there could be confusion because of the color magenta.
Deutsche Telekom invests in promoting education by providing free internet access in 34,000 schools in Germany. It supports the use of online bills in order to save paper and costs and has started a mobile phone take-back campaign which, according to its own information, aims to recover recyclable materials from old, unused mobile phones.
The company is also a member of the “econsense” initiative, an association of 28 international German companies that set common goals for sustainable development in the German economy. Rating agencies give Deutsche Telekom good marks. In the sustainalytics report 2010 it is in third place after BMW and Henkel. According to the report, the company is more than 20 rating points above the international average in an industry comparison. In order to ensure better comparability of the sustainability report of Deutsche Telekom, Deutsche Telekom is committed to complying with the “ Global Reporting Initiative ” guidelines.
Historical group structure
Structure until 2004
Until the end of 2004, Deutsche Telekom was divided into four main business areas (the “4 pillars”), each with its own board of directors and largely autonomous. These were in detail:
- T-Com, the fixed line division. It offered voice telephony via the analog telephone network (former brand name: T-Net ) and the digital telephone network ( ISDN ) and data services via DSL and the DTAG-IPnet (high-performance Internet backbone based on fiber optics, see backbone ) with a total of 39 million telephone channels (2004: thereof 2 million rented to competitors).
- T-Mobile, the mobile communications division. It offered mobile voice and data services via its GSM network (since the end of 2007 EDGE nationwide ), as well as via its UMTS network .
- T-online.de , the internet division. As an internet service provider, T-Online offered access to the internet via analog modem , ISDN and DSL . A new source of income should be developed in the so-called non-access business by offering paid content.
- T-Systems , the system house (from the former debis system house and various sub-areas of Deutsche Telekom - for example T-Nova, DeTeCSM , DeTeSystem etc.). T-Systems takes on the support of Telekom's major customers and implements projects. Group-wide research and development ( R&D ) is also located there.
Structure from 2005
From the beginning of 2005, Telekom's “four pillars” have grown into three strategic business areas. The “T-Com” and “T-Online” pillars were merged under the T-Com brand to form the broadband / fixed network strategic business area. T-Online International AG was an independent, listed company until June 6, 2006. After approval by the Federal Court of Justice, the merger of T-Online International AG with Deutsche Telekom AG was entered in the commercial register on June 6, 2006. The restructuring is intended to make the provision of telephone and Internet easier for private customers, as these two products can now be offered from a single source.
T-Mobile continued to form the mobile communications business area and T-Systems was responsible for business customers, which meant that the business customer branches switched from T-Com to T-Systems. In 2005, the two subsidiaries DeTeLine and T-Data, which merged in 2003 to form “Deutsche Telekom Network Projects and Services GmbH”, were also integrated into T-Systems.
In addition to the strategic business areas, various business units remained under the umbrella of Deutsche Telekom AG, which assume central functions as so-called "shared services". These include a. Human Resources, Telekom Training (vocational training and further education), the Commundo conference hotels , the T-Labs R&D unit and the Group's own personnel service agency Vivento . Individual subsidiaries such as DeTe Immobilien and DeTe Medien , Deutsche Funkturm are also connected to the cross-sectional areas . DeTe Immobilien was sold in 2008 to the Austrian construction company Strabag .
Structure from 2007
In May 2007 the core business was restructured again and concentrated on the two brands "T-Home" and "T-Mobile". At the beginning of July 2007, T-Com and T-Online merged to form T-Home, with the T-Online brand still being used for the Group's Internet portal (but not for the Internet access business).
In mid-July 2007, the already existing second brand congster , under which inexpensive DSL Internet access had been marketed, was converted to congstar . Congstar also offers wireless services and is therefore in direct competition with both T-Home and T-Mobile.
In future, the technical aspect should no longer be decisive for the assignment to the business areas. All private customer offers for home should be bundled under the product brands T-Home and congstar. Individual products such as T-DSL were no longer advertised as a separate brand (with a prefixed "T-"). T-Systems is still responsible for system and major customers .
Structure from April 1, 2010
Telekom Germany GmbH
This company emerged from the T-Home business unit and the former T-Mobile Deutschland GmbH. The T-Home business unit was spun off from Deutsche Telekom AG on March 30, 2010 and transferred to the subsidiary T-Mobile Deutschland GmbH, which has been operating under the name Telekom Deutschland GmbH since April 1, 2010. Telekom Deutschland GmbH now offers the services of the T-Home and T-Mobile brands “from a single source” and now bundles all private and business customer transactions in the areas of mobile communications, fixed network, Internet and IPTV. The brands T-Mobile and T-Home have almost completely disappeared from the German market.
T-Systems International GmbH
T-Systems remained unaffected by the realignment of the group.
Telekom has made two out of three core pillars and, according to the press release, is increasingly investing in online services and new growth areas.
Historical pricing structure
Before Deutsche Telekom became an independent company as part of the second postal reform , telephone connections were provided by the Bundespost .
Basic and connection fees
Anyone who wanted a telephone connection from the post office had to pay a connection fee in addition to the basic fee. Since July 1974 this has been 200 DM (today, adjusted for inflation, 283.85 euros) and was reduced to 65 marks (60.42 euros) from December 1984. On January 1, 1996, the fee rose again to 100 DM (70.72 euros).
The monthly basic fee for a normal analog connection was 27 DM from 1979 to June 1990 (1979: 31.29 euros, 1990: 23.03 euros), before that it was 32 DM. This fee included 20 free units to compensate for interrupted calls Allow connections or misdialling. Unused free units could not be carried over to the next month. On January 1, 1996, the number of free units was reduced to 10 and ceased to exist around 1998.
From July 1990 the market for telephone sets was opened, so that the post office also had to allow third-party sets on its connections. Since the customers were able to return their standard phones, the 27.00 mark fee was added to the basic fee for the telephone connection at 24.60 DM (20.98 euros) and the monthly rent for the telephone at 2.40 DM (2.05 euros) ) divided up.
The sales tax increase in April 1998 from 15 to 16 percent was passed on in full to the customers, so that the basic and connection charges now showed inconsistent values (24.82 DM and 100.86 DM respectively), which were then converted into euros in 2002 .
In the following years, Deutsche Telekom added more and more bundled offers to its portfolio, so that the standard telephone connection no longer plays a major role today. The cheapest analog telephone connection, which can be compared with the above connections, is marketed today under the name Call Start. With a monthly A basic fee of 17.95 euros incurs call charges of 2.9 cents per minute in the domestic landline network and 19 cents per minute in mobile networks (tariff status: December 15, 2014). The deployment price is 69.95 euros.
The telephone calls were initially not billed at the minute intervals that are common today. Instead, there was a unit price for which customers could call for different lengths of time depending on the day of the week, time and distance. Until the tariff reform on January 1, 1996, the price per unit was 23 pfennigs (today, inflation-adjusted 16.3 cents), then 12 pfennigs (8.5 cents).
Tariff calculator 1996
The domestic tariff was divided into four distance levels: City (local network area), Region 50 (area 50 km), Region 200 (area 200 km) and Fern (area> 200 km). The most expensive tariff was in the morning (9: 00-12: 00): 0.12 / 0.36 / 0.60 / 0.72 DM per minute, the cheapest at night (2: 00-5: 00 Clock): 0.12 / 0.12 / 0.12 / 0.12 DM per minute.
For Telekom, a local call was not just a call to a connection with the same area code, but also applied to all local networks that were within a radius of around 20 km from their own local network.
|Period||Time of day||Tariff||
Arithmetical minute price and frequency adjusted for inflation
|until 1979 ( West Berlin until 1996)||23 pfennigs per connection|
|January 3, 1980||December 24, 1988||workdays 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.||23 pounds per8 min.||3.2 cents, 480/480 time|
|time left||23 Pf. 16min. Each||1.6 cents, 960/960 time|
|December 25, 1988||March 31, 1991||workdays 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.||23 pounds per8 min.||2.6 cents, 480/480 time|
|time left||23 pounds per 12min.||1.7 cents, 720/720 time|
|April 1, 1991||Dec 31, 1995||workdays 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.||23 Pf. Each6 min.||3.2 cents, 360/360 clock|
|time left||23 pounds per 12min.||1.6 cents, 720/720 time|
|January 1, 1996||June 30, 1999||weekdays 9 am–6pm||12 pounds per1.5 min.||10.8 cents,90/90 time|
|12 pounds per2.5 min.||6.5 cents, 150/150 cycles|
|9p.m. - 5 a.m.||12 Pf.4 min. Each||4.1 cents, 240/240 time|
Long distance calls
From April 1, 1991 to December 31, 1995, long-distance calls (all calls over a distance of 50 km) cost 23 pfennigs every 21 seconds on weekdays between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. (inflation-adjusted price per minute in today's currency: 54.1 cents), in the off-peak time it cost 23 pfennigs (27 cents) every 42 seconds. On January 1, 1996, Deutsche Telekom, then still a monopoly, introduced new prices and the 0.12 DM rate . Instead of two time zones, there were now five: on weekdays the morning tariff from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m., the afternoon tariff from 12:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m., the leisure tariff from 6:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. until 9:00 a.m., the moonlight tariff from 9:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. and the night tariff from 2:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m. On Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays the leisure tariff applied from 5:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., otherwise the moonlight tariff . At the same time, a further distance zone (region 200) was introduced, so that there were four distance areas with the self-explanatory names “local and near-area”, “region 50”, “region 200” and “far zone”. Converted to current tariff information, the call prices for long-distance calls (all calls over a distance of 200 km) were between 3 ct / min at 120/120 intervals (between 9:00 p.m. and 5:00 a.m.) and 30 ct / min at 12/12 Cycle (between 9:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m.).
In 1996 there were two time zones for calls to the cellular network and different prices were charged for calls to the C network , D network and E network (at that time only E-Plus ). The cycle times, for which the unit price of 12 pfennigs was calculated, were between 5.3 and 13 seconds depending on the target network, day of the week and time, which corresponds to calculated minute prices between 55 pfennigs and 1.36 DM. Today the prices (converted into euros and adjusted for inflation) would be between 39.2 and 96.1 cents.
In 1981 the calculated minute prices for calls to Great Britain, Spain and Italy were DM 1.29 (today, adjusted for inflation, 91.2 cents). To France, Austria and Switzerland, the minute prices on weekdays between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. were 1.15 DM (81.3 cents), the rest of the time DM 0.86 (60.8 cents).
The surveillance affair of Deutsche Telekom AG in 2005 and 2006 was the surveillance of supervisory boards, a member of the Telekom Board of Management, members and employees of works councils as well as union officials and journalists. According to the then Telekom CEO Kai-Uwe Ricke, the aim of the monitoring was to identify leaks in the group that were responsible for the repeated disclosure of confidential information.
There is always criticism of the international subsidiaries of Deutsche Telekom, especially the US subsidiary T-Mobile US , with regard to a lack of corporate responsibility . Numerous trade unions, human rights and labor rights organizations repeatedly accuse Deutsche Telekom of labor law violations and union hostility. Non-governmental organizations such as American Rights at Work and Human Rights Watch have published reports showing that Deutsche Telekom is putting enormous pressure on intimidating workers who want to unionize. The US telecommunications union Communications Workers of America and the United Services Union ver.di founded an international union for T-Mobile workers, the T-Mobile Workers Union, in April 2008.
The US Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC) accused the Hungarian telecom subsidiary Magyar of violating the anti-corruption law and of having gained an advantage through bribes in Montenegro and Macedonia in 2005 and 2006. The SEC filed a lawsuit against three Magyar managers. The investigation was stopped at the end of 2011 in return for a cash payment: Magyar paid a fine of 90 million dollars and Deutsche Telekom just under 4.4 million dollars. The SEC and the American Justice Department justified the penalty payment by Telekom with the fact that the group had not adequately controlled its 60 percent subsidiary. In addition, Telekom was accused of violating bookkeeping and reporting obligations . The only accusation of bribery was against Magyar.
Data throttling and network neutrality
On April 22, 2013, Telekom Deutschland , the subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom AG responsible for private customers as well as small and medium-sized business customers in Germany, announced in a press release, "as in mobile communications" for new contracts or contract extensions from May 2, 2013, the future data transmission rate to throttle to 384 Kbit / s as soon as a certain monthly data volume is exceeded. While there were no changes for existing customers whose contract was signed before May 2, 2013, new customers and customers who actively renew their contract received an adjusted service description as part of the tariff. Telekom Deutschland assured that the technical activation of the data throttling would not have been carried out before 2016. Due to vehement protests from customers, the company increased the planned reduced data transmission rate for tariffs from 384 Kbit / s to 2 Mbit / s on June 12, 2013.
Throttling clauses for new contracts have existed since 2012 in the Call & Surf Comfort Speed tariff and since 2011 in the Call & Surf Comfort VDSL tariff . Only in the Call & Surf Comfort tariff (with the exception of the fiber option), which includes a telephone and internal connection on ADSL or ADSL2 + basis with up to 16 Mbit / s, was a throttling clause in the tariff's description of services for the first time on May 2, 2013 introduced.
The company stated that the data traffic caused by the company's own products such as Entertain would not be counted towards the inclusive volume, which is why the company was criticized primarily for the potential violation of network neutrality .
An online petition submitted on April 23, 2013, calling on the Bundestag to oblige internet providers to be net neutral, reached the required quorum of 50,000 signatories on the fourth day , so that the petitions committee dealt with the issue.
Since December 5, 2013, due to a court ruling, the speed limit when a certain data volume is reached has been removed from the product descriptions and restriction clauses in existing contracts have been declared invalid. The Cologne Regional Court found that the consumer perception of the term Internet flat rate for wired Internet access does not expect a speed limit when a certain data volume is reached.
“First of all, it depends on the interpretation of the term“ flat rate ”. From the point of view of an average customer, this term is to be understood in the fixed network area concerned here in such a way that it means a fixed price for Internet access at a certain bandwidth speed and without restrictions or hidden costs. In the opinion of the Chamber, the understanding of the term "flat rate" for Internet access services via the fixed network has not changed in contrast to the mobile communications sector in such a way that restrictions are associated with it per se. "
However, since the company did not want to do without the term "Internet flat rate" when advertising its Internet access, it overturned corresponding clauses in existing and new contracts. Until then, these clauses had not been applied, making it a purely formal act. In a blog entry by the company, concessions were also made so that in the future they wanted to work on more transparency in tariffs for the entire industry.
Access by secret services to the networks of Deutsche Telekom
Secret documents of the NSA and the British GCHQ , which were published by Edward Snowden , are supposed to prove that the secret services of the USA and Great Britain have covert access to the networks of Deutsche Telekom and the Cologne-based provider NetCologne . In a letter from the Federal Chancellery to CEO Ricke , he is said to have been asked to “allow and support continuous mass surveillance of German and international Internet and telecommunications data at the Frankfurt hub of Deutsche Telekom AG”.
Network interconnection on the Internet
Deutsche Telekom was repeatedly criticized for not expanding its network interconnection capacities on the Internet, or only expanding it at a multiple of the market prices. Deutsche Telekom is a Tier 1 carrier , which means that it does not buy IP transit from other network operators in order to reach all Internet hosts . Instead, it has cost-neutral (zero settlement basis) network interconnections ( peerings ) with the other tier 1 carriers.
In December 2015, Cogent filed a lawsuit against Telekom for an alleged breach of contract. Cogent accuses Telekom of not expanding its network interconnection points sufficiently. Cogent sees this as an abuse of Deutsche Telekom's market position. Telekom argues against it that Cogent is handing significantly more data traffic into its network and that Telekom does not want to bear the costs for the expansion alone.
As early as 2014, Level 3 , Tier 1 carrier, accused Deutsche Telekom of not expanding its network interconnection capacities sufficiently.
Init7, a Swiss telecommunications provider, complained in 2015 that at certain times of the day there is a packet loss of almost 100%, which corresponds to a complete blocking of the peering connection. At that time, Init7's contract for the purchase of IP Transit with Global Crossing (now Level 3) expired . TeliaSonera became the new IP transit provider, but the contract contained the clause that Init7 was not allowed to send any traffic over the TeliaSonera network to the Deutsche Telekom and Orange networks. For this reason, Init7 had to route the traffic in the direction of the autonomous system of Deutsche Telekom, number 3320, via another IP transit provider, XO Communications. However, since XO did not have sufficient capacity for the network of Deutsche Telekom (AS3320), there was a bottleneck. According to Init7, XO was unable to resolve this bottleneck because Deutsche Telekom would not be cooperative. According to Init7, Deutsche Telekom demanded double the price for the direct purchase of IP transit compared to the offer from TeliaSonera, with increasing price per Mbit / s with increasing capacity. Init7 could not afford this price level.
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