|legal form||Public Limited Company|
privatized as a UN organization in 1999
|Seat||London , UK|
|management||Andrew Sukawaty (Chairman)
Rupert Pearce (CEO)
|Number of employees||over 1600|
|sales||1.3 billion US dollars|
|As of December 31, 2012|
Inmarsat is a British company that operates a satellite cellular service that covers most of the earth's surface. It is on the London Stock Exchange listed company and a member of the FTSE 100 Index .
Inmarsat emerged from the international organization INMARSAT ( Internationale Seefunksatelliten-Organization , BGBl. 1979 II p. 1081, 1082 ). This was in 1979 by the Convention of Parties to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) of the United Nations as " In ternational Mar itime satellite founded ellite Organization" for the purpose, to provide what is necessary to improve the network for the shipping space segment available and thereby To contribute to improving the distress and safety radio links to protect human life at sea, the efficiency and use of ships, the public maritime radio services and radio location options (Article 3 (1) of the Convention). Areas that were not covered by short or medium wave radio in particular benefited from this . The organization's activities were restricted to peaceful purposes (para. 3).
Initially, Inmarsat rented satellites. It has been operating its own satellites since 1983, which it controls via more than 20 ground stations. In December 1994 the name "INMARSAT" was changed to "Inmarsat"; this was accompanied by a change of name for the organization to “International Mobile Satellite Organization”. In April 1999 Inmarsat was privatized as "Inmarsat plc" and placed under the supervision of the International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO). The company has been listed on the stock exchange since June 2005.
In addition to commercial services for satellite-supported telephony and data transmission (Internet connection, fax, telex services, etc.), Inmarsat also offers distress communication services (GMDSS) . The Inmarsat satellites are also used for air traffic control ( FANS ) in remote regions. Since 1996, some Inmarsat satellites have been equipped with transponders in order to improve satellite-based positioning ( GPS or Galileo ) ( EGNOS ).
Inmarsat uses a satellite fleet consisting of several geostationary satellites, i. In other words, the position of the satellites in the sky is always the same. With three geostationary satellites, network coverage can be achieved that covers almost the entire surface of the earth. Only the two polar regions are not supplied with Inmarsat services.
The following table lists all satellites that Inmarsat has ever operated, is still operating or is planned for operation:
|satellite||Start date ( UTC )||Launcher||Launch site||Satellite bus||position||NSSDC ID||Remarks|
|Marisat 1||02/19/1976||Delta 2914||CC LC-17B||HS-356 ( Hughes Aircraft )||92.3 ° West||1976-017A||Inmarsat predecessor Marisat operated|
|Marisat 2||06/10/1976||Delta 2914||CC LC-17A||HS-356 ( Hughes Aircraft )||4.4 ° East||1976-053A||Inmarsat predecessor Marisat operated|
|Marisat 3||10/14/1976||Delta 2914||CC LC-17A||HS-356 ( Hughes Aircraft )||69.9 ° West||1976-101A||Inmarsat predecessor Marisat operated|
|MARECS series ( 1st generation )|
|MARECS-A||December 20, 1981||Ariane 1||CSG ELA-1||ECS ( British Aerospace )||90.5 ° west||1981-122A||Also MARECS 1|
|MARECS-B||09/09/1982||Ariane 1||CSG ELA-1||ECS ( British Aerospace )||
|1982-F06||Lost in case of false start|
|MARECS-B2||11/10/1984||Ariane 3||CSG ELA-1||ECS ( British Aerospace )||6.8 ° East||1984-114B||Also MARECS 2|
|Inmarsat-2 ( 2nd generation )|
|Inmarsat-2 F1||10/30/1990||Delta II 6925||CC LC-17B||Eurostar-1000 ( Matra Marconi )||178.8 ° West||1990-093A|
|Inmarsat-2 F2||03/08/1991||Delta II 6925||CC LC-17B||Eurostar-1000 ( Matra Marconi )||146.4 ° East||1991-018A|
|Inmarsat-2 F3||December 16, 1991||Ariane 44L H10||CSG ELA-2||Eurostar-1000 ( Matra Marconi )||138.8 ° West||1991-084B||Start together with Telecom 2A|
|Inmarsat-2 F4||04/15/1992||Ariane 44L H10 +||CSG ELA-2||Eurostar-1000 ( Matra Marconi )||98.8 ° West||1992-021B||Start together with Telecom 2B|
|Inmarsat-3 ( 3rd generation )|
|Inmarsat-3 F1||04/03/1996||Atlas IIA||CC LC-36A||AS-4000 ( Lockheed Martin )||64.4 ° East||1996-020A|
|Inmarsat-3 F2||09/06/1996||Proton-K / Blok-DM1||Ba 81/23||AS-4000 ( Lockheed Martin )||15.4 ° West||1996-053A|
|Inmarsat-3 F3||12/18/1996||Atlas IIA||CC LC-36B||AS-4000 ( Lockheed Martin )||178.2 ° East||1996-070A|
|Inmarsat-3 F4||06/03/1997||Ariane 44L H10-3||CSG ELA-2||AS-4000 ( Lockheed Martin )||42.5 ° East||1997-027A||Start together with Insat 2D|
|Inmarsat-3 F5||02/04/1998||Ariane 44LP H10-3||CSG ELA-2||AS-4000 ( Lockheed Martin )||53.9 ° West||1998-006B||Start together with Brasilsat B3|
|Inmarsat-4 ( 4th generation )|
|Inmarsat-4 F1||03/11/2005, 9:42 pm||Atlas V (531)||CC LC-41||Eurostar-3000GM ( Astrium )||143.5 ° East||2005-009A|
|Inmarsat-4 F2||08.11.2005, 14:07||Zenit-3SL||SL Odyssey||Eurostar-3000GM ( Astrium )||63.8 ° East||2005-044A|
|Inmarsat-4 F3||08/18/2008, 10:46 pm||Proton-M / Bris-M||Ba 200/39||Eurostar-3000GM ( Astrium )||97.9 ° West||2008-039A|
|Inmarsat-4A (Alphasat) ( 4.2th generation )|
|Inmarsat-4A F4||07/25/2013, 19:41||Ariane 5 ECA||CSG ELA-3||Alphabus ( Thales Alenia , EADS Astrium )||24.8 ° East||2013-038A||Operation in cooperation with ESA ,
also Alphasat , Alphasat I-XL ,
start together with Insat 3D
|Inmarsat-5 ( 5th generation )|
|Inmarsat-5 F1||December 8th, 2013, 12:12 pm||Proton-M / Bris-M||Ba 200/39||BSS-702HP ( Boeing Satellite Systems )||62.6 ° East||2013-073A||Also GX 1|
|Inmarsat-5 F2||02/01/2015, 12:31||Proton-M / Bris-M||Ba 200/39||BSS-702HP ( Boeing Satellite Systems )||55 ° west||2015-005A||Also GX 2|
|Inmarsat-5 F3||08/28/2015, 11:44 am||Proton-M / Bris-M||Ba 200/39||BSS-702HP ( Boeing Satellite Systems )||179.6 ° East||2015-042A||Also GX 3|
|Inmarsat-5 F4||05/15/2017, 23:21||Falcon 9 v1.2||KSC LC-39A||BSS-702HP ( Boeing Satellite Systems )||56.5 ° East||2017-025A||Also GX 4|
|Inmarsat-5 F5||11/26/2019, 9:23 pm||Ariane 5 ECA||CSG ELA-3||Spacebus-4000B2 ( Thales Alenia Space )||2019-080B||Also GX 5|
|Inmarsat-6 ( 6th generation )|
|Inmarsat-6 F1||2021 (planned)||H-IIA-204||Ta YLP-1||Eurostar-3000EOR ( Astrium )||
|Not started yet|
|Eurostar-3000EOR ( Astrium )||
|Not started yet|
|EuropaSat||Not started||Proton-M / Bris-M (pl.)||Ba 200/39 (planned)||Spacebus-4000C3 ( Thales Alenia Space )||
Not started , converted
|Inmarsat-S-EAN||06/28/2017, 9:15 pm||Ariane 5 ECA||CSG ELA-3||Spacebus-4000C4 ( Thales Alenia Space )||38.9 ° East||2017-040A||Also Hellas-Sat 3 , EuropaSat|
The satellites of the Inmarsat 4 series were developed for the expansion of Inmarsat's satellite-based broadband network Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN), which enables its users worldwide to use high quality mobile voice and broadband data communication on land, on water and in the air. For this purpose, the satellites, with their 9 m antenna, can form 19 individually controllable and programmable transmission and reception areas that are large and 200 narrowly defined. They were manufactured by EADS Astrium on the basis of the Eurostar-3000GM satellite bus . The cuboid base has a size of 7.0 m × 2.9 m × 2.3 m and is equipped with two solar cell booms with a span of 45 m and an output of 14 kW. A combination of silicon and gallium arsenide is used as the solar cell material . The satellites have both chemical and ion thrusters for propulsion and attitude control . The design service life is 13 years.
Network coverage BGAN / IsatPhone on the plane, elevation angle 5 °
Over time, Inmarsat has developed various services:
- Inmarsat A was the first Inmarsat service introduced in 1982. This only analog service provided voice connections, telex and fax as well as emergency traffic at 9.6 - 64 kbit / s. Inmarsat A was discontinued on December 31, 2007 at 23:59 UTC .
- Inmarsat B has been providing the same services with digital data transmission since 1993 and was GMDSS compatible. This service was discontinued on December 30, 2016.
- Inmarsat C is a packet-based service that z. B. e-mail traffic and telex can be handled or weather information can be received. Inmarsat C also offers some safety functions within the framework of the GMDSS, such as the reception of nautical warning messages.
- Inmarsat D + offers similar services as Inmarsat-C, but with lower transmission rates.
- Inmarsat E / E + was used to receive emergency signals sent by emergency beacons . Inmarsat E + was an extension of Inmarsat E, in which an acknowledgment of receipt was sent back to the emergency beacon. Inmarsat decided to discontinue the service on December 1, 2006 after consulting the IMSO. There were around 1300 Inmarsat E distress beacons around the world.
- Inmarsat M offered the transmission of voice, fax and data at low transmission rates (2.4-4.8 kbit / s). This service was discontinued on December 30, 2014.
- Inmarsat Mini M offered the same services, but was dependent on the more strongly bundled satellite signals ( spot beam as opposed to global beam ). The "Land Mini-M" service was discontinued on June 30, 2015 and the "Maritime Mini-M" service on December 30, 2016.
- Inmarsat Fleet comprises several systems: Inmarsat Fleet 77, Inmarsat Fleet 55 and Inmarsat Fleet 33. These systems, named after the antenna diameter in centimeters, provide various services from slow voice transmission to packet-based ISDN service with 128 kbit / s, Fleet 77 also includes GMDSS . The Inmarsat Fleet 33 & 55 services were discontinued on March 31, 2018. Inmarsat Fleet 77 will be in operation until December 1, 2020.
Inmarsat 4 offers broadband services for land, sea and airborne communication under different names. These three I-4 satellites provide global coverage, with the exception of the polar ice caps:
- BGAN stands for Broadband Global Area Network and is a voice and data service with high transmission rates, which is intended for land areas without an appropriate infrastructure. The transmission speed is up to 492 k bit / s .
- FleetBroadband will provide packet-oriented services with a data rate of 432 kbit / s and line-oriented services (ISDN) with 64 kbit / s at sea.
- SwiftBroadband will provide packet-oriented services with a data rate of 432 kbit / s and circuit-oriented services (ISDN) with 64 kbit / s for aircraft.
- IsatPhone Pro is a product that has also been implemented via Inmarsat 4 and is the result of cooperation with the ACeS satellite network , which offers voice and data services (2.4 kbit / s for voice telephony) with a compact handset.
The ITU had assigned the international prefixes +870 to +874 to Inmarsat. Originally, the prefixes +871 to +874 were only the access codes for the four satellites:
- +871 Atlantic Ocean (East)
- +872 Pacific Ocean
- +873 Indian Ocean
- +874 Atlantic Ocean (West)
From 2005 to the end of 2008, Inmarsat worked on reaching all participants under the area code +870 ( English Single Network Access Code , SNAC) , which has been unique worldwide since the beginning of 2009 , and a 9-digit participant number. The ITU assigned Mobile Network Code (MNC) is 901-11.
- other satellite phone providers :
- ACeS (Asian provider)
- Ellipso (planned, American provider)
- Global star
- Thuraya (provider from Abu Dhabi)
- Orbcomm (data communication network)
- COSPAS-SARSAT (search and rescue system for the detection and localization of emergency beacons )
- Inmarsat site (English)
- Inmarsat: Overview of the radio services in 2012 ( Memento from May 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- Telescopic mirror: Inmarsat's primaries
- ↑ a b Board of Directors. Inmarsat, archived from the original on May 18, 2015 ; accessed on May 10, 2015 .
- ↑ a b Annual Report and Accounts 2012. (PDF) Inmarsat, March 28, 2013, accessed on September 4, 2013 (English, PDF; 9.95 MB).
- ↑ Changes to the IMSO Convention ( Memento of July 14, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (English; PDF file; 2.8 MB)
- ↑ Our history. inmarsat.com, accessed September 4, 2013 (no longer available online).
- ↑ Positions according to N2YO ( GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES ) (English).
- ↑ a b c Gunter Krebs: Inmarsat-6 F1, 2 (GX 6A, 6B). In: Gunter's Space Page. June 27, 2020, accessed on July 17, 2020 .
- ↑ BGAN. Inmarsat, 2012, accessed December 16, 2012 .
- ↑ Inmarsat: Technical data and footprints of Inmarsat 4 ( Memento from August 23, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- ↑ Gunter's Space Page: Inmarsat 4 (English)
- ^ Inmarsat B. In: Inmarsat. Retrieved February 14, 2017 .
- ↑ a b Inmarsat Legacy Services Closure Dates. September 17, 2014, accessed October 12, 2015 .
- ^ Inmarsat Fleet 77. In: Ocens. Retrieved January 25, 2015 .
- ^ Inmarsat: Fleet 33, 55, 77 and MPDS Closure dates announcement. Inmarsat, February 7, 2018, accessed on February 7, 2018 .
- ↑ Handset specifications ( Memento from August 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Inmarsat IsatPhone Pro, accessed on August 30, 2010.
- ^ One world, one number. Inmarsat, archived from the original on July 13, 2011 ; Retrieved April 18, 2011 .
- ↑ Status of reserved or assigned ITU-T E.212 shared Mobile Country Codes (MCC) and associated Mobile Network Codes (MNC). ITU, March 5, 2010, accessed December 16, 2012 .