from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Osram Licht AG

legal form Corporation
founding October 28, 1918 in Berlin
as Osramwerke GmbH
Seat Munich , GermanyGermanyGermany 
Number of employees 25,934
sales 3.5 billion euros (2018/19)
Branch Lighting technology
Website www.osram-group.com
As of September 30, 2017

The Osram Licht AG (proper spelling: OSRAM ) is a global German company based in Munich , the lamps and systems for special applications, semiconductor-based lighting products (LED) as well as professional lighting solutions and manufactures. The business with traditional light sources and LED retrofit lamps, on the other hand, is no longer part of the group following the sale to a Chinese consortium announced in July 2016. Osram was a wholly owned subsidiary of Siemens AG from 1978 to 2013 and was spun off in 2013. The company's share was included in the MDAX of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange on September 23, 2013 .

The company's operating company is Osram GmbH .


Partial bond for 1000 marks from Osram GmbH from January 1922


One of the fastest growing areas of the electrical industry prior to World War I was the manufacture of light bulbs . This development was the light bulb since 1905 produced added with a filament of tungsten in for their distribution Carl Auer von Welsbach, the fancy name Osram created. This case word from osmium (OS) and tungsten (RAM) referred to the two metals used for filaments because of their high melting point of over 3000 and 3400 degrees Celsius respectively. On 10 March 1906, the reported German Gasglühlicht-Anstalt the trademark Osram for "electrical incandescent and arc lamps" at the former Imperial Patent Office in Berlin on; on April 17, 1906, it was included in the trademark register of the Patent Office under the number 86,924.

Independently of the development in Germany, the Austrian Gasglühlicht-Elektrizitätsgesellschaft , which was also created for the commercial exploitation of the Auer patents, founded the osmium light company in 1904 in Vienna- Atzgersdorf in an abandoned ribbon weaving mill , patents Dr. Carl Freiherr Auer von Welsbach . In 1906, this company came under the influence of the US company Westinghouse Electric . On the converted Westinghouse metal filament light bulb factory Gs.mbH were George Westinghouse , involved employees Auer and Austrian industrialist. By the First World War , the company had around 1,800 employees.

Warschauer Strasse station in Berlin-Friedrichshain with Osram-Werk D (wire works) in the background (1930)
Berlin-Moabit, Sickingenstrasse 70/71;
built as AEG light bulb factory 1907–1912 (listed in the 21st century);
1920–1939: Osram incandescent lamp factory A
1939: Telefunken - factory for electron tubes and from 1952 to 1960 company headquarters;
since 2005 JobCenter Berlin-Mitte
Photo: June 2008
Bolzano advertisement for Osram lamps from 1925

In 1921 Westinghouse sold its manufacturing companies in Europe. The factory in Atzgersdorf, which in the meantime was called Vertex Elektrowerk Ges.mbH , also became the property of the Dutch Philips group and Osrams. Osram founded its own sales office in Austria, which acquired all shares in Vertex in 1931 and was renamed Osram Österreichische Glühlampenfabrik Ges.mbH .

In October 1918, Deutsche Gasglühlicht AG spun off its light bulb business into Osramwerke GmbH , based in the Berlin district of Friedrichshain (" Oberbaum City " since the 1990s ). After the loss of foreign markets as a result of the First World War, it made sense for the three leading German light bulb manufacturers AEG , Siemens & Halske (S&H) and Deutsche Gasglühlicht to bundle their common interests. The aim was to strengthen it against foreign competition from companies such as Philips and General Electric and to regain lost market shares. The decision was made easier by the fact that the lamp shapes and types had been standardized as early as 1911. On February 5, 1920, S & H together with AEG became limited partners of Osramwerke and transferred their light bulb production to the new limited partnership Osram GmbH & Co. KG . The date of establishment and the beginning of the first business year were retrospectively set to July 1, 1919.

The AEG and WOTAN brands were used in those states in which Osram was prohibited from using its own name due to the Versailles Treaty .

In 1924, Osram and other light bulb manufacturers founded the Phoebus Cartel , which artificially and under threat of punishment limited the life of the light bulbs to 1000 hours. Since the cartel was also a regional cartel , Osram was not only able to artificially increase sales, but also sell its light bulbs at much higher prices due to the restricted competition. In 1941 the cartel was dissolved and in 1942 there were lawsuits against members of the cartel for illegal price fixing and unfair competition.

As early as the 1930s, Osram was one of the world's largest manufacturers of light sources. The market share in Germany was a good 70%. In the Osram incandescent lamp factory A (formerly A EG) in Berlin-Moabit, the amplifier tubes for Telefunken were manufactured from 1920 ; the location went completely to Telefunken in 1939 .

In Austria the workforce fell steadily in the interwar period and in 1930 was only 500 employees.

When the National Socialists came to power, the architect who founded Osram, William Meinhardt, and the other Jewish board members had to leave management. Under his successor, Privy Councilor Hermann Schlüpmann, organizations close to the NSDAP, such as the DAF , gained greater influence over the workforce. In March 1933, the Osram company invested 40,000 Reichsmarks in a secret fund of large German industrialists to support the NSDAP election campaign.

Location development

In addition to the main plant in Berlin-Friedrichshain , Osram owned the two plants of S & H and AEG in Charlottenburg Helmholtzstrasse (Plant S; Siemens) and in Moabiter Sickingenstrasse (Plant A; AEG).

In the Spandau district , the company had a glass factory built on Nonnendammallee ( Siemensstadt district ) by 1927 . Since then, all the glass bodies required for the light bulbs have been manufactured here from the raw materials sand and quartz. The glassworks works year-round without interruptions and is equipped with eight kilns. Several thousand people were employed here at the height of light bulb production.

Parts of the production of the glass flasks were later relocated to Weißwasser / Oberlausitz (Plant W). The “Lamp City”, the main factory in Friedrichshain, became Osram-Werk D (wire factory) and was the company's headquarters until 1945. In 1935, Osram also opened a production facility in the former Bergmann Electricitäts-Werke factory on Seestrasse in Wedding (Plant B; Bergmann). Because of the ongoing bombing of Berlin during the Second World War, the production of products classified as essential to the war effort was partly relocated to East German cities from 1942 onwards. So came z. B. the production of molybdenum and tungsten precursors according to Plauen . After agreement between the Osram company and the SS , two subcamps were set up at the site to supply the factories with prisoners who were deported from Auschwitz , among others , as forced laborers . In the Leitmeritz subcamp , underground production rooms were to be built for Osram as part of the secret Richard project , but these were no longer used until the end of the war.

In Berlin-Friedrichshain, Osram used forced laborers and prisoners of war in production during the war.

Numerous sales outlets in the form of companies with the participation of foreign capital were founded to open up foreign markets. At that time there were already sales offices in Shanghai and Rio de Janeiro. Osram maintained its leading position on the world market, not least through an intensive exchange of experience with manufacturers on an international level.

From 1945 to 2000

Oberbaum City from the north with the egg cold store (top right) at the Osthafen

After 1945, the Osram factories in East Berlin and Weißwasser / OL were expropriated and partly dismantled by order of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) . The former Osram “Drahtwerk” in Berlin-Friedrichshain became public property in 1949 . The VEB Berliner Glühlampenwerk " Rosa Luxemburg " was created , which in 1969 was merged with other lamp manufacturers to form the GDR - Kombinat " Narva ". At that time, over 5000 people were employed at the Friedrichshain site. After German reunification , light bulb production ceased there in 1992 and the building complex was added to the monument database. The former Narva site has been marketed under the name " Oberbaum City " since 1999 .

Osram was unable to operate under its own name in Great Britain after 1945 because it was "expropriated" in 1945. The lamps have been marketed under the brand name Wotan since 1967 . This name was already used by Siemens & Halske at the beginning of the 20th century as a suitcase word made of tungsten (WO) and tantalum (TAN).

In the GDR, the lamps were originally sold in packaging with the white and orange Osram design and the name Berliner Glühlampenwerk , from 1963 under the NARVA brand .

Due to the expropriation after the Second World War, the Osram Group relocated its headquarters from Berlin to Munich in 1954 .

In 1956, Osram was converted into a GmbH for tax reasons and renamed Osram GmbH Berlin / Munich . At that time Siemens owned 43%, AEG 36% and International General Electric Company 21% of the shares.

The plant in Vienna, which had been badly damaged by bombs, was separated from the Osram Group and placed under the USIA . It was not until 1958 that the company was re-established by AEG, Siemens and General Electric under the old name Osram Österreichische Glühlampenfabrik GmbH . Production in Atzgersdorf ceased in 1988. A residential complex was built on the so-called Osram grounds . In 1976 AEG sold its shares to Siemens. From 1978 Osram was wholly owned by Siemens and from 1989 was managed as a division with its own legal form. Also in 1989, the company entered the Japanese market in a joint venture with Mitsubishi . From 2008, Osram GmbH was part of the " Industry " segment of Siemens AG .

On January 1, 1999, the Siemens Semiconductor Division (since April 1, 1999 Infineon Technologies AG ) and Osram founded the joint venture Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH & Co. OHG with headquarters in Regensburg . Osram Opto Semiconductors became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Osram GmbH after it had taken over all of Infineon's shares in August 2001.

21st century

Around 2005, drastic job cuts began at the Spandau glassworks. In 2017, around 800 people were still working here. In the meantime, the corporate management has reacted to the technical change, normal lamp glass bulbs - i.e. those without quartz glass - are no longer manufactured, but xenon lights are made for car headlights. Taking into account the supply of spare parts, these will be in demand for a few more years. The latest development, however, is towards LED headlights.

There is an Osram branch in Regensburg , which began producing light chips for car headlights at the beginning of the 21st century . In Berlin-Spandau, the former glassworks are to be turned into a development center for technologies for autonomous driving . The production of xenon lamps should be maintained as long as possible. The chairman of the works council formulated the goal of the Berlin Osram employees as follows: "The last xenon lamp that will be made in the world should come from Berlin because we can do it better and cheaper than others."

initial public offering

Siemens originally wanted to list Osram on the stock exchange in autumn 2011. However, the IPO was initially postponed “in view of the highly volatile environment on the capital markets and possible effects on the industry environment”. In November 2012 it was decided to spin off Osram on the stock exchange.

As part of the spin-off , Siemens shareholders received one Osram Licht AG share for every 10 Siemens shares. Siemens held a 17 percent stake in the company until 2017.

In the 2014 financial year, Osram invested 6.4 percent of sales in research and development, including 75 percent in developing the LED business.

In the 2016 financial year (October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016), Osram, with around 24,600 employees worldwide, achieved sales of EUR 3.8 billion (as of September 30, 2016), making it the second largest lamp manufacturer after Philips Lighting .

In November 2015, CEO Berlien announced a change in strategy that led to a collapse in prices and downgrades by analysts.


In April 2015 it was announced that Osram will spin off its business with private customers, i.e. the incandescent lamps and LED lamps for general lighting division with a good third of the employees. In the course of the carve-out, the light bulb symbol was also removed from the Osram logo.

At the beginning of 2016, the company management announced that the name of the new company would be Ledvance . It is made up of the two words "LED" (for the core business of light) and "Advance" for progress and is intended to reflect the upheaval in LED technology and the change from traditional lamps to LED lamps and integrated LED lights . Ledvance has been a legally independent company under CEO Jes Munk Hansen since July 2016 and is still allowed to use the Osram brand name for its products.

A Chinese consortium consisting of the strategic investor IDG, the Chinese lighting company MLS and the financial investor Yiwu is to be the new owner of the split-off division. The purchase price was over 400 million euros.

Ledvance's product portfolio will consist of traditional light sources , LED lamps , over-the-counter (OTC) lights, and lighting solutions from the smart home and smart building sectors . All relevant authorities have now given their approval and the Osram lamp business has a new owner. In connection with the sale of the company, a contract for the purchase of Osram LED chips worth EUR 300 million was signed.

Since 2017

In 2017, all of the divisions of the Osram Group worked together with the Group management to develop a long-term development program entitled “Osram's future concept”. The focus of the realization is seen in Berlin. The remaining Osram employees have been and are being retrained in the latest technologies, the machines and programs are now also called digital tools , the work orders are referred to as tickets and the executors are ticket managers . “The Osram lamp flickered. Ten years ago, just under two and a half thousand people worked for the Siemens subsidiary at the time, but less than 800 of them have stayed. Since 2008 there have only been layoffs, says [Works Council Chairman] Thomas Wetzel. "

In 2019 Osram sells its American service division Sylvania Lightning Solutions to Wesco Intl.

Planned takeover by Bain Capital and Carlyle

On July 4, 2019, the Management Board and the Supervisory Board approved a takeover of Osram by the US financial investors Bain Capital and Carlyle for around 3.4 billion US dollars. The takeover must be approved by 70% of the owners of the Osram shares by the end of September 2019.

Takeover by ams AG

In July 2019, the Austrian sensor manufacturer ams AG submitted a higher non-binding takeover offer. However, the Osram management board refused, whereupon the bid was withdrawn. The takeover succeeded in a second attempt. Ams owns 59.9% of shares, with hedge funds preventing further share purchases and speculating on higher compensation offers.

On July 6, 2020, the EU allowed the Osram takeover without any conditions and had no competition concerns.


Osram Opto Semiconductors

Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH produces light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for car and stage lights, office or street lighting, the smallest LEDs for mobile devices, semiconductor lasers, detectors and infrared diodes (IRED), e.g. B. for use in iris scanners or fitness bracelets. The infrared sensors from Osram Opto Semiconductors are used, for example, in safety applications in vehicles and, in the future, in self-driving cars. The production sites are Regensburg , Penang in Malaysia and Wuxi in China . A chip factory in Kulim, Malaysia went into operation in 2017.

Osram Lighting Solutions & Systems

The Lighting Solutions & Systems division includes the Lighting Solutions (LS) and Digital Systems (DS) divisions. With the three brands Osram, Siteco and Traxon Technologies, Lighting Solutions offers lighting solutions for professional use in the fields of industry, sport and leisure, smart cities , office lighting and retail. The portfolio includes lights and their control as well as a range of services such as B. Energy audits, project planning up to financing and maintenance. During the European Football Championship in France in 2016, Osram Lighting Solutions equipped the sports facilities in Marseille and Lille with lighting solutions in addition to the French national stadium in Paris . In addition, an LED concept from Osram was put into operation in October 2016 that illuminates St. Peter's Square in Rome. Digital Systems (DS) offers components for intelligent lighting solutions such as LED drivers, LED modules and light management systems, which are the basis for efficient and networked LED solutions.

Osram Specialty Lighting

Show car with aftermarket automotive lighting from Osram

The Specialty Lighting division develops, produces and sells lamps, components and systems in the automotive industry as well as in industrial and professional lighting. In addition to entertainment lighting, this also includes the medical sector and lighting solutions for industrial applications. In terms of sales, the largest business area is automotive lighting, in which Osram SP has been the world market leader for many years. On the one hand automobile manufacturers and suppliers in the original equipment business for cars, trucks and motorcycles are supplied, on the other hand in the replacement business companies that u. a. also sell to the end customer. In 2014, Osram SP, together with its partners BMW and Audi, put the world's first production cars with laser light on the road. Their range, brightness, aesthetics and energy efficiency heralded a new era in automotive lighting. In the entertainment sector, the product portfolio includes lamps, lights and spotlights, etc. a. for use at concerts, events and for architectural lighting. Headlights from the Italian Osram subsidiary Clay Paky were used, for example, at the 2015 Eurovision Song Contest in Vienna and the 2016 Eurovision Song Contest in Stockholm. In St. Peter's Basilica Osram installed 100,000 LEDs for better illumination of the angels in the aisles .

Stage lighting from Osram at the Eurovision Song Contest 2016

Osram provides various modern and professional lighting solutions for use in the medical sector, e.g. B. for use in endoscopy lighting. In the field of industrial applications, Osram offers high-energy UV-C lamps for disinfecting water, air and surfaces - without the use of chemical agents. In 2016 Osram developed the Air Zing 2020 especially for the Indian market, a UV light- based retrofit solution for air conditioning systems that effectively combats germs and pathogens.

Primary products

Osram also sells primary products for the lighting market and other branches of industry in the fields of refractory metals , chemical products, fluorescent materials as well as glass and quartz through the Schwabmünchen, Berlin and Bruntal plants .

Cultural engagement

Osram has been involved in the cultural field with its own gallery at the company's headquarters in Munich since 1966. In 2001, the establishment of a collection to promote young art began. On the occasion of its company anniversary in 2006, the company presented "Seven Screens", an LED platform for digital art projects in public spaces. The commitment has been operating under the name Osram Art Projects since 2006 . Since 2013 the commitment has been continued with the art prize "LIO - The Osram Light Art Award".

Web links

Commons : Osram  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Annual Report 2017 , accessed on December 13, 2018
  2. Kathrin Dahnke (59) is leaving the Werhahn family business and moving to Osram. Family Businesses in Focus (FiFo) , April 12, 2020, accessed on April 12, 2020 .
  3. https://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/261917/umfrage/umsatz-der-osram-licht-ag/
  4. Florian Langenscheidt , Bernd Venohr (Hrsg.): Lexicon of German world market leaders. The premier class of German companies in words and pictures . German Standards Editions, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-86936-221-2 .
  5. Osram finds best owner for lamp business - Osram Group website. In: www.osram-group.de. Retrieved November 25, 2016 .
  6. T-Online: K + S remain in the Dax - Osram, Evonik and RTL are new in the MDax. (No longer available online.) September 4, 2013, archived from the original on October 2, 2013 ; accessed on October 24, 2019 .
  7. a b c Big Business in Austria: Austrian Large Companies ( Memento from July 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) by Franz Mathis, page 219, 1987
  8. Brightly illuminated - The common history of Siemens and OSRAM. Siemens Historical Institute, accessed May 6, 2019 .
  9. a b c Anneliese Burghart, Bernhard Müller, Wilhelm Hanseder: 100 years of OSRAM - Light has a name . Ed .: OSRAM GmbH. Munich December 2006 (English, lamptech.co.uk [PDF; accessed January 20, 2020]).
  10. a b Documentary by Cosima Dannoritzer , Buy for the garbage dump , 75 minutes, 2010. Online ( memento from November 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) at Vimeo
  11. ^ Products for the throwaway society ( Memento from November 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Consumer Center Saxony, May 3, 2012
  12. Tschirbs, Rudolf: Das Phantom der Volksgemeinschaft: a critical literature and source report . In: Hans Böckler Foundation (Ed.): Böckler Research Monitoring . tape 10 . Düsseldorf 2015, ISBN 978-3-86593-201-3 ( boeckler.de [PDF; accessed on May 9, 2020]).
  13. ^ Entries in the account "National Trusteeship" Found in the Files of the Delbrueck, Schickter Co. Bank. In: NUERNBERG MILITARY TRIBUNAL Volume VII · Page 567. Mazal Library, accessed on May 9, 2020 (English).
  14. a b c d Jochen Knoblach: The new glow . In: Berliner Zeitung , December 18, 2017, p. 3.
  15. a b 100 years of Osram (PDF; 2.6 MB) from 2006, accessed on May 14, 2020.
  16. ^ Katherine Lukat: Forced labor in Plauen in the Vogtland: Living and working conditions of foreign civil workers, prisoners of war and concentration camp prisoners in World War II . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2020, ISBN 978-3-412-51742-7 ( google.de [accessed on May 9, 2020]).
  17. Marc Buggeln, Michael Wildt: Work in National Socialism . Walter de Gruyter, Munich, ISBN 978-3-486-85884-6 , p. 441 ( google.de [accessed on May 9, 2020]).
  18. ^ Work details with Italian military internees in Berlin and the surrounding area. Documentation Center Nazi Forced Labor, accessed on November 30, 2019 .
  19. ^ Jacobeit, Sigrid: OSRAM workers. German and foreign women in war production for the Berlin light bulb company from 1939 to 1945. In: Yearbook for History . tape 35 , 1987, pp. 369-388 .
  20. Former Osram company premises ( memento from November 18, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) accessed on December 11, 2010
  21. FAZ.NET : Siemens postpones the Osram IPO. September 14, 2011; Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  22. [1] (PDF; 13 kB) Siemens press release, November 28, 2012; Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  23. ^ [2] Siemens and Osram: How stock market spin-offs are treated for tax purposes , FAZ.net of September 7, 2013, accessed on September 12, 2013.
  24. Siemens AG: Siemens shareholders pave Osram for going public. Retrieved June 28, 2013 .
  25. OSRAM shares under pressure: Siemens sells shares - analysts divided. Retrieved September 25, 2019 .
  26. Annual Report 2014. In: www.osram-licht.ag. Accessed in 2015 .
  27. a b Annual Report 2016 of Osram Licht AG (PDF; 11.2 MB) Retrieved on November 25, 2016.
  28. Gerhard Hegmann: Osram is starting to shine again - Die Welt from November 12, 2013, accessed on January 2, 2015
  29. Share in view: The lighting technology company Osram in the middle of the analyst hail. FAZ No. 283 of December 4, 2015, p. 33.
  30. ORF.at: Osram splits off light bulb business , April 21, 2015.
  31. Handelsblatt: Osram - lamp division will be called Ledvance in future , last accessed on March 8, 2016.
  32. N24: Osram's lamp division is now called Ledvance , last accessed on March 8, 2016.
  33. n-tv: Osrams lamps become "Ledvance" , last accessed on March 8, 2016.
  34. Press release: Osram finds best owner for lamp business , accessed on November 25, 2016.
  35. Osram presents the name of the lamp business: LEDVANCE , last accessed on March 8, 2016.
  36. Takeover classified as harmless. March 5, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017 .
  37. M&A deals: Osram, Scope, Aroundhome. Retrieved January 23, 2019 .
  38. FOCUS Online: US investors reach for Osram - board of directors agrees takeover. Retrieved July 7, 2019 .
  39. Bidding battle for Osram: sensor manufacturer submits offer . ISSN  0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed July 16, 2019]).
  40. ↑ Takeover : After a few hours, the bidder withdraws his offer for Osram - WELT. Retrieved September 25, 2019 .
  41. ↑ Chip manufacturer AMS manages OSRAM takeover in the second attempt - The Standard. Retrieved December 6, 2019 .
  42. Wirtschaftswoche: Lighting company: AMS has 59.9 percent of Osram. Accessed January 2, 2020 .
  43. Economy, trade & finance: EU competition watchdogs approve Osram takeover by AMS. Retrieved July 6, 2020 .
  44. Trends of the future: Research association μAFS shows the intelligent car headlights of the future , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  45. a b Electronics: light on! - The show can begin , last accessed November 25, 2016.
  46. Mittelbayerische Zeitung: Look me in the eye, smartphone , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  47. Company Profile of Osram Opto Semiconductors , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  48. a b LEDs Magazine: Osram LED chip plans in Penang now in operation , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  49. Osram is expanding in China with an assembly plant for LEDs. In: elektronikpraxis.vogel.de. May 25, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2016 .
  50. Portfolio Osram Lighting Solutions ( Memento from November 26, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), last accessed on October 24, 2019.
  51. Products Osram Lighting Solutions ( Memento from November 26, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), last accessed on October 24, 2019.
  52. tz: Munich companies let the EM shine , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  53. Handelsblatt: Münchener install new lighting for Petersplatz , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  54. Press release: Digital lighting solutions for smart buildings , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  55. Münchner Merkur: Report on an investor from China drives Osram shares , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  56. Die Welt: The bizarre duel of the laser light blenders , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  57. ^ Spiegel Online: Star Wars on the Autobahn , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  58. Effect lighting , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  59. Süddeutsche Zeitung: How Osram illuminates the ESC , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  60. Thomas Fromm: The search for what is after . In: sueddeutsche.de . February 15, 2019, ISSN  0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed February 19, 2019]).
  61. ↑ Optical fiber and medical applications , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  62. LEDinside: Osram Provides UV Lighting System for Purification in Air Conditioning Systems , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  63. Primary products and components , last accessed on November 25, 2016.
  64. ^ The Osram light art award. In: www.osram.de. Retrieved January 2, 2015 .