district of Berlin
|Residents||80,495 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||10,427 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Jan. 1, 1861|
|Postcodes||10551, 10553, 10555, 10557, 10559, 13353|
Moabit [ [ moaˈbiːt ] ] is a Berlin district in the Mitte district . First settled in 1685 and incorporated into Berlin in 1861, the former industrial and working-class district is completely surrounded by waterways and canals. Between 1920 and 2001 Moabit was a part of the Tiergarten district , while Berlin was divided it was part of the British sector .
Moabit is surrounded by the Spree , Berlin-Spandauer Schifffahrtskanal , Westhafenkanal and Charlottenburg connecting canal . The artificial island is connected to the surrounding urban landscape by 25 road, rail and pedestrian bridges. These are (order starting in the north and then continuing clockwise):
Föhrer bridge Torfstraßensteg bridge the ring road , bridge of the mainline, Fennbrücke, North Harbor Bridge, Kiel bridge Sandkrugbrücke , railway bridge at the central station , Hugo Preuss Bridge , Gustav-Heinemann Bridge , Moltke Bridge , chancellery bar , Luther Bridge , railway bridge at the S-Bahn station Bellevue , Gerickesteg , Moabiter Bridge , Lessing Bridge , Hansabrücke , Wullenwebersteg , Gotzkowsky Bridge , Kaiserin Augusta Bridge, Sickingen Bridge, railway bridge over the connecting canal and Ludwig Hoffmann Bridge .
The separating effect of the watercourses is reinforced in the north and east by extensive railway systems and the Westhafen , Berlin's largest port. The neighboring districts are Wedding in the north, Mitte in the east, Tiergarten and Hansaviertel in the south (all in the Mitte district ), as well as Charlottenburg in the west and Charlottenburg-Nord in the northwest (in each case the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf district ). The land borders make up around 5 percent, all other borders are formed by waterways.
The largest green area is the Fritz-Schloß-Park - named after a former district mayor - which was created as a mountain of rubble on a former parade ground . Smaller green spaces are the Kleine Tiergarten and the Ottopark , both of which are located exactly between Turmstrasse and Alt-Moabit .
Moabit is divided into several locations , including the star-shaped Stephankiez around Stephanplatz near the new main train station , a Wilhelminian-style district with 90 percent of the historical building fabric preserved, and in future the Europacity . Other neighborhoods are the Beusselkiez, the Huttenkiez (also Hutteninsel, as it is separated by the industrial area), the Westphalian Quarter (between Stromstraße, Alt-Moabit, Gotzkowskystraße and Spree) and the Lehrter-Straße-Kiez .
The origin of the name Moabit is traced back to the first inhabitants of this area, the Huguenots . The French religious refugees called their new residence terre de Moab , based on the Old Testament , because they found refuge here as did Elimelech and his family in the land of Moab . Explanations according to which the name Moabit mockingly originated from la terre maudite (cursed land) because of its sandy soil, or whether the settlers, disappointed by the failure of their mulberry trees planted on the sandy soil of the Brandenburg region , chose it after the biblical land of Moab because of its desert resemblance , or whether it is derived from the Slavic moch , are considered untenable. Another theory says that the Huguenots called the area mon habit , which is supposed to be a shortened version of mon habitation , which can be translated in German as "my home".
Until the administrative reform in 2001, Moabit was a part of the Tiergarten district .
Beginning of settlement
The area of today's Moabit was from the 13th century as a large city heath under Berlin administration and served as a pasture. In the 15th century, the lands west of Berlin became the property of the Brandenburg electors, who made the forests south of the Spree, rich in game, their hunting ground, the zoo . Parts of the zoo fell victim to the growth of the royal seat under the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm , which was compensated for by the expansion of the Kleiner Tiergarten north of the Spree. The entire hunting area was provided with a surrounding game gate by 1859.
The settlement of today's Moabit began in 1685 with the construction of the Staakensetzerhaus on the western border of the wildlife park. In 1698, Elector Friedrich III. the on the site of today's Humboldthafen vineyard which lies Huguenots Menardie, who ran an inn here. In 1717 King Friedrich Wilhelm I settled Huguenots between today's Alt-Moabit street and the Spree. According to their own ideas and on his behalf, they planted mulberry trees for sericulture . The experiment failed around 1725 due to the inadequate quality of the soil. The plots were then mostly used for gardening purposes. The silk farmers sold their houses to Berlin citizens as summer apartments. In connection with the redesign of the zoo into a public park, King Friedrich II allowed two Huguenots to set up the first Berlin garden bars in 1745. They served mocca faux , literally the wrong, because cheap, counterfeit coffee that soon became a Muckefuck . From this the excursion area in the tents developed .
In the first decades of the 18th century, large parts of the Moabit area were also used for military purposes. The royal powder mills west of the Moabit vineyard started in 1717 and by 1734 the military facilities extended right up to the Huguenot colony. The term powder meadows for the Spreewiesen south of the military installations lasted until the end of the 19th century. The military area acted like a bolt and prevented a direct connection between Moabit and Berlin .
In the western part of today's Moabit, which until 1938 still belonged to the Charlottenburg district , a Frenchman opened a tavern in 1735. The landlord, called petit Martin or Martinicken in Berlin because of its small size , gave the then undeveloped field the name Martinickenfelde . The factory district of Moabit later developed in this area.
Around 1769, two Westphalia received lands from Friedrich II in the area of today's Westphalian quarter of Moabit. They were ordered to teach the Brandenburgers to create living hedges in the Westphalian style to enclose their yards. The Westphalians built restaurants on their property, which enjoyed increasing popularity with the urban population at the end of the 18th century. At that time, Moabit was a recreational area with a rural character.
In a first wave of expansion, the industrial companies that could no longer find any land in Berlin and whose odor and noise pollution were no longer tolerated in the growing city ( Tierra del Fuego ) moved to Moabit in the first half of the 19th century. The location on the Spree as a transport route for coal, raw materials and products was decisive.
As early as 1836, the mechanical engineering company of the Royal Sea Trade began its expansion on the banks of the Spree east of Kirchstrasse; In 1850 it was taken over by Borsig as the second Moabit location, closed and demolished in 1898 for the construction of tenement houses. August Borsig himself had started building an ironworks south of the Alt-Moabit road to the banks of the Spree, roughly from today's Elberfelder Strasse to Krefelder Strasse, and expanded it several times and built his Villa Borsig there.
Moabit was increasingly populated, especially at the end of the 19th century. In 1861 it was incorporated into Berlin, the populated area increased and many large industries were displaced by the construction of new tenements in Wedding . The big industrialists calculated that more money could be earned with rent than with the production of goods. In addition, rental apartments are less dependent on the economic situation and always bring a regular income. In this way, the former production area became a purely workers' residential area. Only in the west of Moabit have industrial plants such as the famous AEG turbine factory been preserved.
In 1867, with the support of the factory owner August Julius Albert Borsig , the son of August Borsig , the first post-Reformation monastery in Berlin was founded, the Dominican monastery of St. Paul with the parish church of the same name, to provide spiritual care for the Catholic workers in the Moabit industrial areas, who came mainly from Silesia . In the years 1892/1893, today's church building was built in the neo-Gothic style based on plans by Engelbert Seibertz on the corner of Oldenburg and Waldenserstraße. In 1920 Moabit became part of the newly formed Tiergarten district.
Large parts of Moabit are traditional workers' living quarters; Parts thereof were politically active residents, such as the Red Beusselkiez or neighboring Rostock neighborhood, where after the " seizure of power " by the Nazis Communist resistance in 1933 cells were active.
Persecution of the Jews
More than 1900 Jews were deported from the area of today's Moabit between 1941 and 1945. Most of them were murdered in the Auschwitz , Theresienstadt or Minsk camps . It is estimated that about as many Jews escaped deportation and murder by fleeing abroad.
Military and railway
The former powder mill area - a swampy wasteland on which powder factories and depots for gunpowder were set up at safety intervals - was built with barracks for guard regiments after 1850 (Invalidenstrasse, Rathenower, Perleberger, Lehrter Strasse) and connected to the Spreebogen . Houses for the officers were built nearby. Parts of the state-owned land went to the judiciary (Turmstrasse), and train stations and the packing yard were built on the southern edge. The Moabiter Werder remained a difficult building site.
Despite the development of Berlin, the area of today's district of Moabit was almost uninhabited for a long time. Even after it was no longer used as pasture, the population grew only slowly. Only after the incorporation to Berlin in 1861 did it increase rapidly. Before the Second World War , Moabit was one of the extremely densely populated working-class neighborhoods with very densely built-up areas. Around two thirds of the buildings were destroyed by the air raids in World War II; a complete reconstruction was dispensed with in favor of a more open development.
1716: Creation of the Moabit colony ('Alt-Moabit')
1801: 120 inhabitants
1805: 201 inhabitants
1818: Creation of Neu-Moabit, merging with Old Moabit to form an industrial suburb
1835: 709 inhabitants
1861: 6,534 inhabitants, incorporation into Berlin
1871 : 14,818 inhabitants
1880: 29,693 inhabitants
1910: 190,000 inhabitants
2004: 74,631 inhabitants
2005: 68,908 inhabitants
2006: 75,181 inhabitants
2007: 69,491 inhabitants
The district has 80,495 inhabitants (as of December 30, 2019), making it the fourth most populous district (of six) in the Mitte district. The average age in Moabit is between 38 and 40 years.
In the north runs the S-Bahn-Ring with the S-Bahn stations Beusselstraße and Westhafen . The Moabit freight yard was also located here . Between 1941 and 1945, over 30,000 Berlin Jews were driven from the Levetzowstrasse synagogue, which had been converted into a collection point, through Moabiter Strasse to the Moabit freight yard on Quitzowstrasse. From there the deportation trains went to the ghettos and extermination camps of the National Socialists .
In the south, the tram crosses the district with the Hauptbahnhof station . The underground line U9 crosses Moabit in the middle in a north-south direction with the stations Westhafen , Birkenstraße and Turmstraße . In addition, the northern section of the Berlin regional and long-distance train network runs parallel to the S-Bahn with a branch to the main train station.
As part of the better transport connections to the main train station, it is planned to extend the M10 tram along Invalidenstraße, Alt-Moabit, Rathenower Straße and Turmstraße to the Turmstraße underground station by 2021 .
As part of the so-called 200-kilometer plan , an extension of today's U5 subway line from Alexanderplatz to Jungfernheide station and on to Tegel Airport was planned. This extension should also cross the Turmstraße underground station with the option to change to the U9. For this purpose, a mezzanine floor has already been built at the Turmstrasse underground station, which is now partially used for an additional exit to the southern side of the Turmstrasse. According to current plans, the extension of the U5 to Jungfernheide or Tegel Airport will no longer be pursued. Instead, an extension from Alexanderplatz to the main train station is under construction. The section from the Brandenburg Gate via Platz der Republik to the main train station was put into operation on August 8, 2009 as the U55 shuttle line .
Since December 14, 2014, passengers have been able to take the M5 line from the main train station to Moabit by tram. An extension to the Turmstrasse underground station is planned .
Arts and Culture
In Moabit there are numerous opportunities for artists to exhibit their works and make them accessible to a wide audience. The Moabiter Kulturtage 'Inselglück' has taken place once a year since 2006, organized by the Kunstverein Tiergarten e. V. , who also runs the Galerie Nord . The Kulturfabrik Moabit is also known beyond Moabit: Numerous cultural events, concerts and readings take place here. In summer, current films and classics are shown free of charge in the Kulturfabrik's open-air cinema .
The former cinemas in the district - as a former working-class area, Moabit had a high concentration of cinemas from the beginning of cinema history until the 1960s - were all closed by the end of the 1970s. In 1991, the Filmrauschpalast in the Kulturfabrik Moabit on Lehrter Straße was a new art house cinema . Since 2011 the initiative “Kino für Moabit” has been sponsored by Moabiter Filmkultur e. V. for a renewal of the Moabit film culture and organizes regular film evenings as a traveling cinema.
The Center for Art and Urbanism (ZK / U) has been located on the grounds of the Moabit City Garden in the former Berlin-Moabit freight yard since 2012 . Founded by the artist collective KUNSTrePUBLIK , the ZK / U invites you to regular events such as the goods market, dining cinema and the monthly OPENHAUS. International artists and urban researchers work and live on site and deal with the phenomenon of the 'city' along contemporary issues.
The Dodo House has set itself the task of promoting art in the neighborhood. The Afrikahaus is a meeting place with changing exhibitions and cultural events. The Kurt-Kurt project is dedicated to art in public space and is located in Kurt Tucholsky's birthplace on Lübecker Straße. In 2014 the reading stage for young literature “Hauser & Tiger” was created in Moabit , named after Tucholsky's pseudonyms Kaspar Hauser and Theobald Tiger.
The Moabit Hospital , which was known far beyond Moabit's borders in Turmstrasse 21 for decades, no longer exists as a general hospital . After the closure in 2001, numerous medical practices and a physiotherapy school moved there.
- 1. Moabiter Elementary School, Paulstraße 28
- James Krüss Primary School , Siemensstrasse 20, 3rd Primary School in Moabit
- Anne Frank Primary School, Paulstraße 20b (formerly on Turmstraße)
- Miriam-Makeba-Grundschule , Zinzendorfstraße 15/16 (merger of the Wartburg and the Gotzkowsky school)
- Catholic School Sankt Paulus , private primary school, Waldenserstraße 27
- Kurt Tucholsky Primary School, Rathenowerstrasse 18
- Carl Bolle Primary School, Waldenserstraße 21
- State technical school, Bochumer Straße 8b
- Heinrich von Stephan Community School , Neues Ufer 6
- Moses-Mendelssohn-Oberschule, Stephanstraße 2
- Upper School Center for Banking and Insurance , Alt-Moabit 10
- Hedwig-Dohm-Oberschule, Stephanstraße 27
- Administrative Academy Berlin , since 2014 at Turmstrasse 68
- Evangelical Church of St. Johannis on Alt-Moabit Street , built in 1835 by Karl Friedrich Schinkel , expanded in 1857 by Friedrich August Stüler and in 1896 by Max Spitta ; The church forms the point de vue at the end of Kirchstrasse. Since June 16, 2017, the Ibn-Rushd-Goethe-Mosque has been housed in an adjoining building of the church , a liberal mosque whose founding is largely due to the commitment of the human rights activist Seyran Ateş , who also works here as an imam .
- Evangelical Church of the Savior on Thusneldaallee between Turmstrasse and Alt-Moabit, built by Friedrich Schulze in 1892–1894
- Evangelical Reformation Church on the corner of Beussel- and Wiclefstraße, built 1905–1907 by August Dinklage and Ernst Paulus according to plans by the cathedral builder Ernst Schwartzkopff
- Evangelical Church of the Redeemer at the Gotzkowsky Bridge
- Catholic Church and Dominican Monastery of St. Paul on Oldenburger Strasse (see above)
- Evangelical Holy Spirit Church on the corner of Perleberger Strasse and Birkenstrasse, 1905/1906 based on designs by August Dinklage and Ernst Paulus in red brick
Commercial, traffic and other buildings
- Hamburger Bahnhof , built 1846/1847, since the renovation by Josef Paul Kleihues in 1990–1996, Museum für Gegenwart
- Prison Moabit and Criminal Court Moabit , 1877–1882, extension of the Criminal Court by the still-preserved new building 1902–1906 based on plans by Karl Vohl in the Wilhelmine style
- Moabiter Markthalle by Hermann Blankenstein , completed in 1891
- Kraftwerk Moabit , built in 1899-1901 as the second Berlin three-phase - power plant , designed by Franz Schwechten
- Westhafen , built 1914–1927 in several stages according to plans by the city building officer Friedrich Krause with port buildings designed by Richard Wolffenstein ; largest port in Berlin
- AEG turbine factory , an important example of industrial architecture in Germany, built in 1909 by Peter Behrens
- Berlin Central Station , built between 1995 and 2006, designed by Meinhard von Gerkan
- Federal Ministry of the Interior new building in Alt-Moabit 140
- Schultheiss Brewery , Stromstrasse, also known as the Sudhaus , built by Friedrich Koch in 1871/1896
- Poststadion , monument, venue for the finals of the German soccer championship in 1934 and 1936 , currently home ground a. a. of the Berliner AK and one of the venues of the International Easter Cup Berlin-Moabit , a renowned basketball tournament in popular sports.
- Alt-Moabit sewage pumping station, designed in 1978 and built 1985–1987 by Oswald Mathias Ungers
- Combined building for the Mwt signal box and water tower of the Moabit freight yard in 1892 by Karl Cornelius on the Beusselbrücke
- Berlin wholesale market with Fruchthof Berlin in Beusselstrasse
- Reformed tenement house Sickingenstrasse 7/8 by Alfred Messel ,
- Home of Hans Kollhoff in Huttenstrasse from the 1990s,
- the Gründerzeit district in Stephankiez
- Home of Kurt Tucholsky in the Lübeckerstraße 13,
- The house in Stephankiez at Birkenstrasse 49 was built in 1872 by Julius Albert Egerland, in 1884 it was bought by Albert Borsig, the son of the founder of the Borsig works , August Borsig . The house is characterized by a slender, axially structured stucco facade in the classical tradition. The late classicist style of construction was influenced by the Schinkel School . The window frames consist of Corinthian pilasters with gable beams , on the first floor there is a relief of fighting lions. The decor is the console cornice , meander and foliage friezes , tooth cuts and rosette friezes. In 1988/1989 the building was carefully renovated and the facade restored,
- the 'Abussy-Schlange' or 'Wohnschlange', an elongated and wave-shaped residential building for members of the Bundestag and for federal employees in Berlin on the Moabiter Werder .
In 1880, Stephanplatz was created as the center of the Stephankiez . In the surrounding streets there are many houses from the Wilhelminian era with richly decorated stucco facades from the years 1880 to 1890, almost all of which have now been restored. Window parapets adorned with terracotta serve as eye-catching facade elements , the bricks partially glazed.
There is a playground with a soccer field and a skate park on the square, as well as seating. Here also the district charging the association has brush ( Bür ger for the Ste phankiez in center) is located.
Also on St. Stephen's Square, there is a " Cafe octagon ": On an octagonal one was here in 1899 urinal erected. The outer walls consist of cast iron walls painted green and decorated with ornaments , which are clamped between cast iron posts. On the top there is a row of windows with glazed and cross-barred openings. An eight-sided ventilation hood serves as the roof crown. The three needs are separated by slate and have grooves in the floor. The entrance is covered by a three-sided protective wall. At the end of the 19th century, the establishment of public lavatories resulted in a significant improvement in hygienic conditions. Today the Café Achteck serves as a typical Berlin photo motif.
- Corten steel memorial in front of the site of the former synagogue , Levetzowstraße 7/8
- Deportationsmahnmal Putlitzbrücke , a memorial in memory of the deportation of Jews from Germany on the east side of the Putlitzbrücke
- Monument with a portrait bust of Wilhelm Schwartz made of bronze on the playground at Wilsnacker Straße (currently damaged)
- Historical Park ' Former Cell Prison Moabit '
Waters in the district
- Westhafenkanal , northern border,
- Berlin-Spandauer Schifffahrtskanal , northern and eastern border,
- Spree , southern boundary,
- Charlottenburg connecting canal , western district boundary.
- Kurt Tucholsky (1890–1935), writer
- Brothers Sass (1904–1940 and 1906–1940), burglar duo known as “safe crackers”
- Herbert Meschkowski (1909–1990), mathematician
- Wolfgang Scheunemann (1933–1948), first fatality at the sector border
- Hans-Christian Ströbele (* 1939), politician (Bündnis90 / Die Grünen)
- Michael Wendt (1955–2011), politician (Bündnis90 / Die Grünen)
- Farin Urlaub (* 1963), punk musician
- Jury Everhartz (* 1971), composer
- Sawsan Chebli (* 1978), political officer (SPD)
- Moab riots in September 1910
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Moabit
- List of cinemas in Berlin-Moabit
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Moabit
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Moabit
- List of street fountains in the Mitte district of Berlin
- H. Engel , St. Jersch-Wenzel, W. Treue (Ed.): Tiergarten. Part 2. Moabit. Nicolai, Berlin 1987, Berlin History Landscape - Places and Events. Volume 3, ISBN 3-87584-221-9 .
- Olaf Saeger: Moabit details - shadows in paradise. Weidler, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-925191-59-3 .
- Jürgen Karwelat: Moabit Island. A three-quarter round trip by ship. Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-925702-06-7 .
- W. Oehlert: Moabiter Chronik. Presentation to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Moabit district in Berlin. Berlin 1910, new edition 2011, ISBN 978-3-86541-441-0 .
- Olaf Schnur: Local social capital for the “social” city. Political geographies of social district development using the example of Berlin-Moabit . Opladen 2003, ISBN 978-3-8100-3846-3 .
- Alfred B. Gottwaldt: Dunning place Moabit freight yard. The deportation of Jews from Berlin , Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-95565-054-4 .
- Bernd Hildebrandt, Ernst Haiger: End of the war in Tiergarten. The history of the war grave cemetery Wilsnacker Straße , Lehmanns Media 2008, ISBN 978-3-86541-312-3
- Moabit on berlin.de
- Moabit Online
- Moabit.net - News, addresses and photos from Moabit
- They were neighbors - deportations of Jews from Moabit
- So Valentin Heinrich Schmidt and Valentin Friedrich Schnakenburg: Description of the royal residence cities Berlin and Potsdam , Volume 1, Nikolai, Berlin 1769, p. 58
- As with Hans-Gert Kramer and Günter Linde: Sprachen die Neandertaler Englisch , Aufbau Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-7466-8003-4 , p. 200.
- Paul Ortwin Rave , (Introduction); Irmgard Wirth (edit.): The buildings and art monuments of Berlin. Tiergarten district. Gebr. Mann, Berlin, 1955, p. 20.
- the Neanderthals speak English? Hans-Gert Kramer / Günter Linde, Construction Taschenbuch Verlag 1993, ISBN 3-7466-8003-4 , p. 200.
- Paul Ortwin Rave , (Introduction); Irmgard Wirth (edit.): The buildings and art monuments of Berlin. Tiergarten district. Gebr. Mann, Berlin, 1955, p. 21; to the tents p. 196 f.
- They were neighbors . Website with the fate of Jews from Moabit.
- Fritz Wolff and Hermann Keller: The buildings of the new Packhof facility in Berlin . In: Journal of Construction . Vol. 35 (1885), Col. 1-40, Plates 1-4. Digitized in the holdings of the Central and State Library Berlin .
- Moabit district: center of industry, law and politics
- The population of the Mitte district ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg ( Memento from August 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 149 kB)
- Inhabitants registered under registration law in the state of Berlin on June 30, 2011 (PDF; 2.7 MB)
- Tram reaches Moabit - MoabitOnline. In: www.moabitonline.de. Retrieved May 31, 2015 .
- Sylvaine Hänsel, Angelika Schmitt (ed.): Kinoarchitektur in Berlin 1885-1995 . Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-496-01129-7 , "Tiergarten", p. 188-198 .
- Kulturfabrik Moabit Filmrauschpalast. Retrieved November 22, 2017 .
- Moabit film culture. Retrieved November 22, 2017 .
- Relocation to the new building in Moabiter Werder .
- Sleeping beauties . In: Der Tagesspiegel , December 22, 2012, accessed on April 7, 2016.
- Example from the Berliner Morgenpost