Berlin tram

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Berlin tram
Low-floor articulated multiple units of the Flexity Berlin series
Basic information
Country GermanyGermany Germany
city Berlin
opening June 22, 1865
electrification September 10, 1895
operator BVG
Transport network VBB
Route length 193.6 km (2017)
Formerly the largest
634 km (1930)
Track length 425 km (2017)
Gauge 1435 mm ( standard gauge )
Power system 600 V = overhead line
Stops 803
Depots 5
Lines 22nd
Line length 300 km (2018)
Cruising speed 19.0 km / h (2017)
vehicles 40 Tatra KT4 D, 105 GT6N , 45 GT6N-ZR ,
152 Flexity Berlin
(as of December 31, 2017)
Passengers 204.0 million (2018)
Mileage 575.6 million pkm (2015)dep1
Network plan
Route network of the Berlin tram (September 2015)

The Berlin tram is one of the oldest and the third largest tram network in the world (as of 2017), after those in Melbourne and Saint Petersburg . The operators are the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), founded in 1929 . The standard gauge network has a route length of 193.6 kilometers and 808 directional stops. The contact wire voltage of the overhead line is currently still 600  V , with a switch to 750 V being discussed. 22 lines form a network of around 300 kilometers. In 2018, the Berlin tram carried 204 million passengers.

There was a horse tram in Berlin since 1865 . By the end of the 19th century, the network was converted to electrical operation. With the division of the city, the BVG was split into a western and an eastern company, which were reunited in 1992. All tram lines in West Berlin were shut down by 1967 . With the exception of three sections of the route that were extended to the former western part of the city after German reunification , the tram only operates in the former eastern part of the city .


Horse buses

Horse-drawn carriage of the Great Berlin Horse Railway , built in 1885
First electric tram in Lichterfelde, 1881
Railcar 5984 type T24 / 49
Motorcar type TM 34 from 1927

The first horse-drawn bus line ran in old Berlin from 1825 from the Brandenburg Gate to Charlottenburg , the first within the Berlin customs wall from 1840 between Alexanderplatz and Potsdamer Bahnhof . On January 1, 1847, the first line of the Concessionaires Berliner Omnibus Compagnie was opened. By 1864 the number of bus companies had grown to 36.

Horse trams

On June 22nd, 1865, the Berlin Horse Railway Company E. Besckow opened the first German horse tram line in Berlin . It led from the Brandenburg Gate via Charlottenburger Chaussee (now: Strasse des 17. Juni ) to Charlottenburg . It was extended on August 28 via Dorotheenstrasse to Kupfergraben on today's Museum Island . The terminal is still in operation.


On May 16, opened in 1881, Werner Siemens in the former town major light field , the first electric tram in the world .

The electrification of the horse-drawn tram lines began at the end of the 19th century. The first regularly operated line in the city was put into operation by Siemens & Halske . From September 10, 1895, it ran between the corner of Prinzenallee / Badstrasse in Gesundbrunnen and Breiten Strasse in Pankow . The conversion of previous horse-drawn tram lines to electrical operation was almost complete in 1902. There was now talk of going with the " electric ".

An unsuccessful project, on the other hand, was the electric tram-omnibus from Siemens & Halske, presented in 1898. It was a mixture between an electric tram and battery- powered bus , the two-way vehicle was able to move away from the rails in perambulator mode .

The tram in Berlin was operated by a variety of companies. In addition to private companies, which changed frequently due to takeovers , mergers and bankruptcies , Berlin and some of the then still independent parts of the city today had their own municipal tram companies, at least for a time.

The most important private operator was the Great Berlin Horse Railway, which called itself the Great Berlin Tram (GBS) after the start of electrification and which gradually bought up almost all other companies. On December 13, 1920, GBS merged with BESTAG and SSB to form the Berlin tram.

As a result of inflation, all Berlin tram lines were closed on September 8, 1923. The following day, with the exception of the Flachbahn and Schmöckwitz – Grünauer Uferbahn , there were no trams in Berlin . On September 10, 1923, traffic on a trunk network with 32 lines was resumed and expanded in the following years.

Berlin Transport Company (BVG)

On January 1, 1929, the Berlin tram was transferred to the newly founded urban Berliner Verkehrs-AG (BVG). The BVG also took over the elevated and underground railways as well as the bus routes mainly operated by the Allgemeine Berliner Omnibus-Actien-Gesellschaft (ABOAG).

On the very day of the BVG this 89 tram lines and a network operating with 634 kilometers length of the route , had 4,000 trams and employed 14,400 people alone in the tram. The tram covered 170 million kilometers per year. In 1929 the tram carried 929 million passengers; At the end of the same year there were 93 tram lines.

As a result of air raids during the Second World War and a lack of personnel and electricity, the tram's performance continued to decline from March 1943 until operations collapsed on April 23, 1945. Despite the immense destruction, trams again ran in the outskirts of Berlin on May 20, 1945. By the end of 1945, 328 kilometers of tram line could be reopened.

divided town

Short-articulated railcar KT4D of the BVB, built in 1980

As a result of the division of Berlin on August 1, 1949, the BVG was also divided. Two different companies emerged, BVG-West in the three western sectors (36 tram lines) and BVG-East (13 lines) in the Soviet sector, from 1969 VEB Kombinat Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVB). Lines 3, 23, 73, 74 and 95 were initially operated jointly. After the currency reform in 1948, the conductors changed at the sector border. On October 14, 1950, traffic on tram lines 47 and 96 from West Berlin to Schönefeld and Kleinmachnow , respectively, was suspended. The BVG-Ost operated the section of line 96 between Teltow and Machnower Schleuse in the Soviet occupation zone until 1961.

While BVG-West only employed male tram drivers due to legal regulations, female colleagues were also used in the eastern part of the city. When trains with female tram drivers were prevented from continuing their journey at the sector border, the tram lines crossing the sector border were interrupted on January 15, 1953. At the sector border, passengers had to transfer to a train belonging to the other administration with the same line number. The S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains, on the other hand, ran continuously across the sector borders until August 13, 1961.

West Berlin

From 1954, there was a change in traffic policy in West Berlin , aimed at replacing tram traffic by expanding the underground and bus routes . The tram was considered obsolete and redundant. From 1954 the tram lines were gradually replaced by omnibuses and in individual cases by the subway, which was generously expanded in the following decades. At the end of 1962 there were only 18 tram lines left in the western part of the city.

On October 2, 1967, in West Berlin, the last tram No. 55 from the Zoo Station on Ernst-Reuter-Platz  - Charlottenburg Town Hall  - S-Bahnhof Jungfernheide  Neuendorfer Avenue as far as - - Siemensdamm - Nonnendammallee - Falkenseer Place hook field led , shut down. It was not until 1984 that this section of the route was again served by rail with the expansion of the U7 underground line. As early as 1978 (until 1991) a tram of the type TM 33 commuted as a nostalgic vehicle on the then disused elevated railway section between the subway stations Nollendorfplatz and Bülowstrasse .

Many Metrobus lines follow the course of earlier tram lines.

East Berlin

Rekozug in Wöhlertstrasse (
Endschleife Stadion der Weltjugend), 1974
1985 ticket

In East Berlin , as the city became more and more divided, major problems arose with the maintenance of trams. The main tram workshop was on West Berlin Uferstrasse. From 1954, the Schöneweide raw material took over maintenance and repair tasks. Thus the Reichsbahn repair shop was responsible for the S-Bahn as well as for the underground and trams.

Moscow, with its wide, tram-free thoroughfares, served as a model for East Berlin's transport policy . As a result, numerous tram routes were shut down as part of the car-oriented traffic planning of the 1950s and 1960s. In 1967, with the completion of the new building on Alexanderplatz, the lines across the square were shut down. However, several tram lines continued to run as far as the vicinity of Friedrichstrasse station . At the end of the 1980s there were twelve lines in Berlin-Mitte that had the endpoints Am Kupfergraben , Stadion der Weltjugend ( Schwartzkopffstraße underground station again since 1991 ) and Hackescher Markt (four lines each). Direct service to the Friedrichstrasse station was avoided by using the Planckstrasse, which runs parallel to Friedrichstrasse .

The tram network was not intended to be abandoned. From the end of the 1970s, new tram routes were built to open up the new large estates such as Marzahn , later Hohenschönhausen and finally Hellersdorf .

Since the reunification

Tram on Köpenicker Strasse in Altglienicke, 1992
Since 1997, trams have been running directly to Friedrichstrasse station
Tram on Alexanderplatz , in the background the Urania world clock and the House of Travel
M5 line car on December 14, 2014, the opening day of regular tram service, at the main train station

After German reunification , BVG (West) and BVB (East) were reunited to form BVG in 1992, and the company is now called Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe. In addition to bus and subway lines, the new BVG operated the tram, which runs almost only in the eastern districts.

At the turn of the year 1992/1993, operations on the Adlershof – Altglienicke line were discontinued and then largely dismantled.

There were considerations to shut down the tram lines to Pankow , because on the one hand the trams in Schönhauser Allee run parallel to the underground line U2 and on the other hand the branch to Rosenthal is underutilized. However, this could not be enforced, and so soon afterwards the Senator for Transport Herwig Haase presented plans for reactivating the tram in the western districts.

The first route was opened in 1995 on Bornholmer Strasse in two stages to the west. The Rudolf Virchow Clinic and the Seestraße subway stations in Wedding and Osloer Straße , located in Gesundbrunnen , have since been reconnected to the tram network.

Since December 20, 1997, the trams have stopped directly at Friedrichstrasse station . Before that, a long walk had to be covered to get to the train station, which was renovated at the same time. The location of the turning loop "Am Kupfergraben" near the Humboldt University and the Museum Island remained unchanged.

The following year the tram reopened at Alexanderplatz . This now drives directly from the intersection of Mollstrasse / Otto-Braun-Strasse across the square and stops both at the underground station of the U2 and at the station building of the regional and S-Bahn, where there is a direct transition to the U5 and U8 . The increase in personal accidents with trams in the pedestrian zone, feared by critics, did not occur.

The tram tracks were extended in 2000 from the previous terminus on Revaler Straße via the Warschauer Straße S-Bahn station directly to the subway station of the same name . Since there was no space for a turning loop here, a blunt-ended sweeping track was set up. For this purpose, bidirectional vehicles were procured. The tracks that were laid on the Oberbaumbrücke in 1995 , however, remain unused, as an extension of the tram to Hermannplatz is only planned in the long term.

Since the same year, the tram in Pankow has been running via the previous terminus at French Buchholz, Church to Guyotstrasse, connecting the new development areas there to the network.

The second line was opened in 2006 in the western part of the city, the M10 line has since then led (until it was extended to the main station in August 2015) from its previous terminus Eberswalder Strasse through Bernauer Strasse along the wall strip to the north station in Mitte.

On 30 May 2007, a new line of was Prenzlauer Gate on Karl-Liebknecht-Straße taken to Alexanderplatz in operation where the M2 line directly on the Rail Station ends, instead of the current through the Rosa Luxembourg Platz to Hackescher Markt to run. The previous route in Alte and Neue Schönhauser Strasse is no longer operated as a regular service, but it has been retained as an operating route .

On September 4, 2011, the one and a half kilometer long new line from Adlershof S-Bahn station through the Adlershof science and business location to the provisional terminus at Karl-Ziegler-Strasse on the Adlershof campus of Humboldt University went into operation. The route with three newly built stops cost 13 million euros and was initially served by lines 60 and 61 in overlapping ten-minute intervals. Since December 13, 2015, line 63 has been running instead of line 60 to Karl-Ziegler-Straße. The connection was originally supposed to be completed in 1999. However, the plan approval procedure was not completed until 2002. Shortly before the planning approval decision would have become invalid after five years, the project was approved on August 9, 2007 and the first masts for the overhead line were erected shortly afterwards. 9,000 passengers are expected per working day.

Network expansion to the main train station

With the timetable change on December 14, 2014, a new tram line was opened from the Naturkundemuseum underground station through Invalidenstraße to Berlin Central Station with the final stop Lüneburger Straße on Alt-Moabit . The double-track line is 2.3 kilometers long to the main train station, new stops have been implemented on Chausseestrasse, Invalidenpark and the main train station. This is followed by a 1.1 kilometer long single-track block bypass with three additional stops on Lesser-Ury-Weg, on Lüneburger Strasse and on Clara-Jaschke-Strasse, as well as an installation system.

The planned opening date had already been postponed several times. Commissioning was originally planned for 2002. However, this planning was criticized by the administrative court and therefore canceled and revised in 2004. However, the first 80 meters of track had already been built when the main train station and the Tiergarten tunnel were being built.

A new plan approval procedure was completed on January 15, 2010. The preparatory construction work began in April 2011. The Federal Ministry of Transport had given a two-meter-wide strip of the garden to the State of Berlin over a length of about 50 meters in order to create enough space for all road users.

In the course of the work on the new line, the branch through the Chausseestrasse into Schwartzkopffstrasse and Pflugstrasse was permanently shut down on August 26, 2013. The new line was initially only commissioned with the M5 line. With the restoration of the connection from the Nordbahnhof to the Naturkundemuseum underground station, the new line could also be used by the M8 and M10 lines from August 28, 2015.

Line network

Following the redesign of the line network on December 12, 2004, there are 22 tram lines in Berlin. The network is divided into nine MetroTram and 13 tram lines. MetroTram lines together with MetroBus lines form the metro network. This is a range of trams and buses that have been introduced to complement the S-Bahn and U-Bahn network and travel on important axes that are not served by the S-Bahn and U-Bahn. MetroTram lines usually run 24 hours a day, seven days a week, at least every ten minutes during the day and at least every 30 minutes at night, although some lines have a shorter route. The other tram lines mainly serve the outskirts of the city and usually run every 20 minutes until a maximum of 1 a.m.

History of the line numbers

The first horse-drawn tram lines did not have any special marking, as they went off radially from the respective endpoints in the center and therefore had only a few points of contact with other lines. It was only with the expansion of the network into the city center that it became necessary to distinguish the lines from one another. Most major German cities therefore began using colored destination signs or signal boards from the 1880s, sometimes combining both. In Berlin these were always kept in the same combination. Red, yellow, green and white were used as identification colors, and from 1898 on blue was also used. The panels were one or two colored, the latter either half / half divided or divided into thirds with a line in the second color. However, the number of signal boards used was not sufficient to equip each line with its own identification color. In addition, lines that cross or run next to each other should run with different signal boards. This meant that individual lines had to change their identification color several times in the course of their existence. As a result of electrification and the takeover of the Neue Berliner Pferdebahn by the Große Berliner Pferde-Eisenbahn / Große Berliner Straßenbahn (GBPfE / GBS), the number of lines increased suddenly at the turn of the century. With a view to the Hamburg tram , where line numbers were first introduced in German-speaking countries in the summer of 1900, the GBS also experimented with the numbers from 1901. In the timetable booklets of that time, the lines were numbered, but their order could change annually. In addition to the GBS, the numbering scheme should also include its branch lines. At the same time, combinations of letters and numbers, such as those used in the timetable, should be avoided.

The scheme introduced on May 6, 1902 was relatively simple: single- digit numbers were reserved for the ring lines, two-digit numbers for the other lines. Initially, the tens digit gave information about where the line was going; 10 lines were to be found in Moabit , 60 lines in Weißensee and 70 lines in Lichtenberg . The lines of the western Berlin suburban railway were assigned the letters 'A' to 'M', those of the Berlin-Charlottenburg tram were assigned the letters 'N' to 'Z' and the lines of the southern Berlin suburban railway were numbered with Roman numerals . The north-eastern Berlin suburban railway , which was taken over by GBS in 1910 , was given the line designation 'NO' in 1913. The colored signal boards were also preserved until about 1904; In addition, the lines that were set up during this period were given colored signal boards with new, sometimes even three-color combinations.

Inserters were marked separately from March 1903. They had the letter 'E' behind the line number of their lineage. In later years these lines increasingly took over the tasks of amplifier trips and were therefore shown as separate lines in the timetables. On April 15, 1912, GBS introduced the first line with a three-digit number. The 164 was created by extending the 64, which was retained in parallel. In the following months, additional lines were given 100 numbers or newly set up, mostly as a pair of lines to the existing line.

HTw 10 of the Cöpenick municipal tram with line number and colored signal board, 2011

The surrounding businesses were not affected by the conversion in May 1902 and used their own labels. The lines of the city ​​trams and the meter-gauge lines of the Teltower Kreisbahnen continued to be marked with signal boards , whereas at BESTAG and in Heiligensee it was not the lines but only the destinations that were marked with different colored signs. In 1908 the Spandau tram introduced the line identification with letters, whereby these corresponded to the first letter of the destination (line P to Pichelsdorf etc.), in 1917 the operation switched to numbers. In Cöpenick , the lines were marked with numbers from 1906, and from 1910 onwards with colored signal boards for the individual routes (red lines to Friedrichshagen , etc.). The Berliner Ostbahnen used Roman numerals as line numbers from 1913, just like the SBV. The other operations, including the standard-gauge lines of the Teltower Kreisbahnen, did not use line markings.

With the merger of most of the companies to form the Berlin tram, the GBS numbering scheme was extended to the entire network. Usually those numbers were assigned whose lines were discontinued during the First World War. It came about, for example, that the lines operating in Köpenick were mainly given 80 numbers. Letters were used for tram lines until 1924, after which they were reserved for bus lines with suburban tariffs.

Railcar 5869 on line 128E, around 1945

With the outbreak of the Second World War, the Berlin transport company had to stop a large part of the bus service in order to save fuel. Tram traffic was expanded accordingly. The newly established reinforcement lines bore numbers 200 and 300 to distinguish them from the main lines. From 1941, the night network from omnibus to tram operation and the night lines were also designated with 400 numbers. The measures lasted until the end of the war. The last 100 lines were renamed on May 31, 1949.

After the administrative separation of the BVG, little changed at the beginning of the line scheme. Tram lines that ran between East and West Berlin kept their numbers even after the network was disconnected in January 1953. As a result of the network thinning, individual line numbers disappeared. From July 1, 1966, BVG-West did without the prefix 'A' on the bus routes, and BVG-Ost from January 1, 1968. While tram traffic in the west was completely stopped 15 months later, passengers in the east could use it cannot tell from the line number whether it was a tram or bus line. The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe therefore intended to systematize their route network in the 1970s. The inner city lines of the tram should get the line numbers 1 to 30, those in Köpenick should keep their 80 numbers. The remaining numbers were intended for bus routes. From 1973 night lines were given uniform numbers of 100, initially only numbers from 120 were provided for the tram. The changeover of the daily lines was only partially completed.

After the political change , a uniform numbering scheme was introduced in two steps, which included the lines in the state of Brandenburg . The Berlin tram was assigned the line number range from 1 to 86, followed by the overland operations in Woltersdorf , Schöneiche and Strausberg with the numbers 87 to 89. The Potsdam tram received the 90 line numbers. E-lines were no longer listed separately in the timetable, but the amplifiers continued to run as such until 2004. Night lines were identified by a preceding 'N' for both modes of transport and the three-digit line numbers were from now on provided for the bus lines. The first change on June 2, 1991 was followed by the Berlin tram lines on May 23, 1993. The line network was reorganized and divided into five number ranges. The main focus was the focus on the historical center. Single-digit lines formed the radial main network, 10 lines their supplementary network. Lines of 20 were provided for the ring and tangential lines. There were 50 lines in the Pankow district , 60 lines in the Köpenick district analogous to the bus routes there.

Numbering scheme since the 2000s

On December 12, 2004, the BVG introduced the BVG 2005 plus traffic concept . The main content was the introduction of metro lines on heavily traveled routes that have no underground or S-Bahn traffic. Nine MetroTram lines have therefore been introduced into the tram network and some of the remaining lines have been reorganized. The numbering scheme is based on that of 1993, but has undergone minor adjustments. MetroTram and MetroBus lines all have an 'M' in front of the line number.

Metro lines with a single-digit line number use the radial main network; usually the line number corresponds to that of 1993; lines 2, 3 and 4 became the M4, the 5 became the M5 and so on. In addition, the two Pankow lines 52 and 53 were included in the scheme as line M1. The supplementary lines of these radials continue to have 10 numbers, unless they have emerged as amplifiers of the respective metro line. Metro lines of the ring and tangential network were given a number in the range of 10, their supplementary lines kept the number 20. Line 37, which was subsequently set up, is an exception and travels a common route together with lines M17 and 27. Of the 50 lines, the 50 lines were the only ones remaining, the 60 lines were largely unaffected by the measures.

Line overview

Line overview, as of December 15, 2019
line course Length
(in km)
M1 Mitte , Am Kupfergraben - S + U Friedrichstraße - U Oranienburger Tor - S Oranienburger Straße - S Hackescher Markt - U Weinmeisterstraße - U Rosenthaler Platz - U Eberswalder Straße - S + U Schönhauser Allee - Schönhauser Allee / Bornholmer Straße  - S + U Pankow - Pankow Church - Grabbeallee / Pastor-Niemöller-Platz - Niederschönhausen , Schillerstraße or Rosenthal Nord 12.4 39
M2 S + U Alexanderplatz / Dircksenstrasse - Mollstrasse / Prenzlauer Allee  - Prenzlauer Allee / Danziger Strasse  - S Prenzlauer Allee - Prenzlauer Allee / Ostseestrasse - Am Steinberg - Heinersdorf 06.5 18th
M4 S Hackescher Markt - S + U Alexanderplatz / Gontardstraße - Mollstraße / Otto-Braun-Straße  - Greifswalder Straße / Danziger Straße - S Greifswalder Straße - Antonplatz  - Buschallee / Hansastraße - Prerower Platz - Falkenberg or Hohenschönhausen , Zingster Straße 11.4 29
M5 Moabit , Lüneburger Straße - S + U Hauptbahnhof  - U Naturkundemuseum  - U Oranienburger Tor - S Oranienburger Straße - S Hackescher Markt - S + U Alexanderplatz / Gontardstraße - Mollstraße / Otto-Braun-Straße - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Straße  - S Landsberger Allee  - Hohenschönhauser Strasse - Alt-Hohenschönhausen - Gehrenseestrasse - Prerower Platz - Hohenschönhausen, Zingster Strasse 38
M6 S Hackescher Markt - S + U Alexanderplatz / Gontardstraße - Mollstraße / Otto-Braun-Straße  - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Straße - S Landsberger Allee - Hohenschönhauser Straße - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstraße - S Marzahn  - Jan-Petersen-Straße - U Hellersdorf  - Hellersdorf , Riesaer Strasse 19.2 39
M8 Moabit, Lüneburger Straße - S + U Hauptbahnhof - U Naturkundemuseum - S Nordbahnhof - U Rosenthaler Platz - U Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz  - Mollstraße / Prenzlauer Allee - Mollstraße / Otto-Braun-Straße  - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Straße - S Landsberger Allee - Roederplatz - Herzbergstrasse / Siegfriedstrasse  - Allee der Kosmonauten / Rhinstrasse - S Springpfuhl  - Jan-Petersen-Strasse - Ahrensfelde / city limits 40
M10 Moabit, Lüneburger Straße - S + U Hauptbahnhof - U Naturkundemuseum - S Nordbahnhof - U Bernauer Straße  - Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark - U Eberswalder Straße - Prenzlauer Allee / Danziger Straße - Greifswalder Straße / Danziger Straße - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Straße - U Frankfurter Tor  - S + U Warschauer Strasse 10.6 27
M13 Wedding , Virchow-Klinikum - U Seestraße  - U Osloer Straße  - S Bornholmer Straße  - Schönhauser Allee / Bornholmer Straße - Prenzlauer Allee / Ostseestraße - Antonplatz - Hohenschönhauser Straße - Roederplatz - Loeperplatz  - S + U Frankfurter Allee  - S Warschauer Straße 17.1 39
M17 Falkenberg - Prerower Platz  - Gehrenseestrasse - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstrasse - Allee der Kosmonauten / Rhinstrasse - S Friedrichsfelde Ost  - U Tierpark  - S Karlshorst  - Wilhelminenhofstrasse / Edisonstrasse - S Schöneweide 15.5 32
Berlin Tram 12.svg Mitte, Am Kupfergraben - S + U Friedrichstrasse - U Oranienburger Tor - U Naturkundemuseum - S Nordbahnhof - U Eberswalder Strasse - Prenzlauer Allee / Ostseestrasse - Antonplatz - Weissensee , Pasedagplatz 10.7 28
Berlin Tram 16.svg S + U Frankfurter Allee - Loeperplatz - Roederplatz - Hohenschönhauser Strasse - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstrasse - S Marzahn - Ahrensfelde / city limits 13.6 25th
Berlin Tram 18.svg S Springpfuhl - U Hellersdorf - Hellersdorf, Riesaer Strasse 13.6 20th
Berlin Tram 21.svg S + U Lichtenberg / Gudrunstraße - Herzbergstraße / Siegfriedstraße - Loeperplatz - U Frankfurter Tor  - Boxhagener Straße / Holteistraße - S Rummelsburg Treskowallee / Ehrlichstraße - Wilhelminenhofstraße / Edisonstraße - S Schöneweide 16.5 41
Berlin Tram 27.svg Hospital Köpenick / south side - Schloßplatz Köpenick - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - Wilhelminenhofstraße / Edisonstraße - S Karlshorst - U Tierpark - S Friedrichsfelde Ost - Allee der Kosmonauten / Rhinstraße - Landsberger Allee / Rhinstraße - Hauptstraße / Rhinstraße - Buschallee / Hansastraße - Weißensee, Pasedagplatz 20.7 45
Berlin Tram 37.svg S + U Lichtenberg / Gudrunstraße - Herzbergstraße / Siegfriedstraße - Allee der Kosmonauten / Rhinstraße - S Friedrichsfelde Ost - U Tierpark - S Karlshorst - Wilhelminenhofstraße / Edisonstraße - S Schöneweide 11.3 23
Berlin Tram 50.svg Wedding, Virchow-Klinikum - U Seestrasse - U Osloer Strasse - S Bornholmer Strasse - Schönhauser Allee / Bornholmer Strasse - S + U Pankow - Pankow Church - S Pankow-Heinersdorf  - French Buchholz , Guyotstrasse 14.4 32
Berlin Tram 60.svg Johannisthal , Haeckelstraße - S Schöneweide - Wilhelminenhofstraße / Edisonstraße - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - S Friedrichshagen  - Friedrichshagen , Altes Wasserwerk 35
Berlin Tram 61.svg Adlershof , Karl-Ziegler-Straße - S Adlershof  - S Spindlersfeld  - Schloßplatz Köpenick - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - S Friedrichshagen - Rahnsdorf / Waldschänke 15.1 31
Berlin Tram 62.svg Wendenschloß  - Schloßplatz Köpenick - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - S Köpenick  - Mahlsdorf-Süd  - S Mahlsdorf 12.2 31
Berlin Tram 63.svg Adlershof, Karl-Ziegler-Straße - S Adlershof - S Spindlersfeld - Schloßplatz Köpenick - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - S Köpenick - Mahlsdorf-Süd - Mahlsdorf, Rahnsdorfer Straße 26th
Berlin Tram 67.svg Hospital Köpenick, south side - Schloßplatz Köpenick - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - Wilhelminenhofstraße / Edisonstraße - S Schöneweide 08.1 19th
Berlin Tram 68.svg S Köpenick - Bahnhofstraße / Lindenstraße - Schloßplatz Köpenick - S Grünau  - Alt- Schmöckwitz 14.5 27

Note: Italics = no night traffic on metro lines on this section

Cycle times

Cycle times (in min)
line Route section Mon-Fri (HVZ) Mon-Fri (NVZ) Sat Sun /
public holiday
SVZ Nights
(Fri / Sat, Sat / Sun
and before
public holidays)
M1 Mitte, Am Kupfergraben - Grabbeallee / Pastor-Niemöller-Platz 7/8 10 30th
Grabbeallee / Pastor-Niemöller-Platz - Niederschönhausen, Schillerstraße 15th 20th 30th
Grabbeallee / Pastor-Niemöller-Platz - Rosenthal North 15th 20th -
M2 Heinersdorf - Am Steinberg 20th 30th
Am Steinberg - S + U Alexanderplatz / Dircksenstraße 5 6/7/7 10 30th
M4 S Hackescher Markt - Prerower Platz 3/3/4 A 1 5 6/7/7 30th
Prerower Platz - Falkenberg 6/7/7 A 2 10 20th 30th
Prerower Platz - Hohenschönhausen, Zingster Strasse 6/7/7 A 2 10 7/13 -
M5 S + U Hauptbahnhof - S Hackescher Markt 10 20th -
S Hackescher Markt - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Strasse 10 20th 30th
Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Strasse - Hohenschönhausen, Zingster Strasse 5 10 30th
M6 S Hackescher Markt - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Strasse 10 20th -
Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Strasse - S Marzahn 3/7 A 3 10 30th
S Marzahn - Hellersdorf, Riesaer Strasse 10 30th
M8 S + U Hauptbahnhof - Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Strasse 10 20th -
Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Strasse - Ahrensfelde / city limits 5 10 30th
M10 S + U Hauptbahnhof - S + U Warschauer Straße 5 6/7/7 10 15th
M13 Wedding, Virchow-Klinikum S + U Warschauer Strasse 10 20th 30th
M17 Falkenberg - Hohenschönhausen, Gehrenseestrasse 10 20th -
Hohenschönhausen, Gehrenseestrasse - S Schöneweide 10 20th 30th
Berlin Tram 12.svg Mitte, Am Kupfergraben - Weissensee, Pasedagplatz 10 15th 20th -
Berlin Tram 16.svg Ahrensfelde / city limits - S + U Frankfurter Allee 10 - 20 (Mon-Fri) -
Berlin Tram 18.svg Hellersdorf, Riesaer Straße - S Springpfuhl 10 20th - 20 (Mon-Fri) -
Berlin Tram 21.svg S + U Lichtenberg - S Schöneweide 20th -
Berlin Tram 27.svg Weißensee, Pasedagplatz - Köpenick Hospital 20th -
Berlin Tram 37.svg S + U Lichtenberg - S Schöneweide 20th -
Berlin Tram 50.svg French Buchholz, Guyotstrasse - Prenzlauer Berg, Björnsonstrasse 10 20th -
Prenzlauer Berg, Björnsonstrasse - Wedding, Virchow Clinic 10 -
Berlin Tram 60.svg Johannisthal, Haeckelstrasse - Friedrichshagen, Am Wasserwerk 20th -
Berlin Tram 61.svg Adlershof, Karl-Ziegler-Straße - Rahnsdorf / Waldschänke 20th -
Berlin Tram 62.svg Wendenschloß - S Köpenick 10 20th -
S Köpenick - S Mahlsdorf 20th -
Berlin Tram 63.svg Adlershof, Karl-Ziegler-Straße - S Köpenick 20th -
S Köpenick - Mahlsdorf, Rahnsdorfer Straße 20th -
Berlin Tram 67.svg S Schöneweide - leisure and recreation center 10 A 4 20th -
Leisure and recreation center - Köpenick Hospital 20th -
Berlin Tram 68.svg S Köpenick - Alt-Schmöckwitz 20th -


A 1 every four minutes during the summer holidays
A 2 every eight minutes during the summer holidays
A 3 Line M6 (Landsberger Allee / Petersburger Straße - S Marzahn): every ten minutes during the school holidays in the morning and during the summer holidays in the afternoon
A 4 Line 67 (S Schöneweide - leisure and recreation center): only during the lecture period at the Berlin University of Applied Sciences (HTW Berlin), otherwise every 20 minutes

Clock compression

The Berlin Senate's 2019-2023 local transport plan provides for a further increase in the number of times during rush hour by 2023. These include a 3-minute cycle on line M4 and a 4-minute cycle on lines M2, M5, M6, M8 and M10.


Route network

Route overview (as of 2009)
Stop Spandauer Straße / Marienkirche, 2015
KT4D-T and GT6N in the Gudrunstraße track loop at Lichtenberg station
KT4D in the Blockdammweg track loop
Line 62 at the final stop Wendenschloß

The 189.4 kilometer route network is divided into three sub-areas. The core network forms the largest part, which extends in a star shape from the district of Mitte to the northeastern urban areas. It is supplemented by three large tangential sections, the two inner lines M10 and M13 being remnants of two ring lines, the east-west ring and the north ring. The outer tangential route used by the M17 line consists of several sections that were built between 1910 and 1988.

The Pankow sub-network in the north includes line M1 in the direction of Hackescher Markt and line 50 in the direction of Wedding . It is connected to the core network via Schönhauser Allee and Berliner Straße and in the Pankow district is divided into three branches to Rosenthal, Niederschönhausen and French Buchholz. Originally, this area was connected to the main network over longer distances. These connections ran over Wollankstrasse and Schönholz and were shut down by 1953.

The Köpenick sub-network in the south-east was created as an independent network of the Cöpenick municipal tram with its center in the old town of Köpenick. At the outer branches of the routes starting from here, further, formerly independent routes connect, which are also counted as part of the sub-network. The only connection to the core network is via the An der Wuhlheide road to Oberschöneweide . A second connection from the branch line to Mahlsdorf to the new development area in Hellersdorf is planned for the long term. In contrast to the Pankow sub-network, most of the lines run within Köpenick, a radial line to the city center has not existed since 1969. Almost all lines that run here have a number 60.

The network is almost completely two-track, only in the sub-networks of Köpenick and Pankow and in Lichtenberg there are still single-track sections:

  • Between Rosenthal Nord and Pastor-Niemöller-Platz (M1)
  • between Nordend and Schillerstraße (M1)
  • between Am Wasserturm and Heinersdorf (M2)
  • between Müggelseedamm / Bölschestraße and Altes Wasserwerk (60)
  • between S Adlershof and Adlershof market square (61, 63)
  • between Mahlsdorf-Süd and S Mahlsdorf (62, 63)
  • Hartlebenstrasse stop (61) Track loop, since 2016 as part of the barrier-free expansion of the stop

In addition, two power sections are the 2012 and 2016 due to bridge renovations of Gleisverschlingungen were converted to single-track sections with switches at both ends.

Due to bridge renovations, there is currently (as of 2020) a provisional single-track section:

Up until the year 2000, all terminals in the network were equipped with a reversing loop . The last stump end point - temporarily created in 1993 when the line to Altglienicke was closed - was removed in 1995 at the Adlershof S-Bahn station . Only the extension of today's M10 to the S + U-Bahnhof Warschauer Straße made the construction of a stump end point necessary, as there was not enough space for a loop and, moreover, the rapid expansion to Hermannplatz was planned at that time . From 2006 to 2015, the temporary M10 terminus S Nordbahnhof was also blunt. The Marktstraße and S Rummelsburg stops have been provisionally used as a terminal by line 21 since 2012.

Finally, one track of the new M2 route also ends bluntly at the Alexanderplatz / Dircksenstraße S + U station. The M2 trains begin and end there. The northern track of the tram stop S + U-Bahnhof Alexanderplatz / Dircksenstraße is connected to the route leading over Alexanderplatz (towards the city) via a curve leading to the northeast. This is used by trains on lines M4, M5 and M6 in the event of detours or disruptions due to construction sites. Since 2012, both tracks at this terminus have been used in the M2 regular service, as the sole use of the butt track leads to delays, especially in daytime traffic (6/7/7 minutes) and especially in rush hour during the 5-minute cycle on the M2 and long waiting times for the train ending at Alexanderplatz if this platform was still occupied.

After it was determined that the main use of line 18 as a feeder between the district of Hellersdorf and the S-Bahn lines S7 and S75 at the S-Bahn station Springpfuhl, it was decided to build a stump end point at the S-Bahn station Springpfuhl and there all trips of the Line 18 to end after the line had previously gone to the S + U Lichtenberg / Gudrunstraße stop. From the time line 18 was shortened to Springpfuhl S-Bahn station, line 37 was extended from the Lichtenberg depot terminal to the previous terminus of line 18, S + U Lichtenberg / Gudrunstraße.

A stump end point was built at the leisure and recreation center stop, primarily to allow amplifiers to end there on line 67 during the lecture times of the University of Technology and Economics.

In addition to the terminals listed above, there are others in the network, some of which are used by users (shown in italics) . Further, mostly blunt, terminal stops are planned in order to make the timetable more flexible; Matching bidirectional vehicles are increasingly being procured.

There has also been a platform change in Pappelallee since 2009 . During construction work on the elevated viaduct of the U2, it served as a stump end point for the M1 line. Between 2006 and 2015, a track change at the Nordbahnhof S-Bahn station served as the temporary M10 terminus. After the connection from the Nordbahnhof to the Naturkundemuseum U-Bahn (natural history museum) station was restored in 2015, the track change was retained after structural adjustments and is still available as the end of the line M10.

With the start of the first construction work at Karlshorst station , a track change was installed in the area of ​​the tram stop at the S-Bahn station in 2006; this was available as a provisional stump end point until 2019. After a shift, it has since been at the Marksburgstrasse stop, which is used as the final stop during construction work.

A total of 453 km of contact wire is installed in the Berlin tram network to supply traction current ; this is supported by around 7,200 catenary masts and around 1,000 wall brackets (as of 2017).


Former Moabit depot in Wiebestrasse

Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe maintains five depots and one track construction yard. Within the BVG, the systems are referred to as operating parts . In the course of history there have been over 80 such systems on the network. The courtyards were usually built at the outer ends of the route. The building land in these areas was far cheaper than in the city center and the wagons that moved out in the morning were able to take passengers on the first trip. Inner-city depots were the exception and mainly served the ring lines.

Depending on the epoch, the depots had a different structure. In addition to the halls and workshops, the horse stations had to be able to hold five times the number of horses for the individual wagons. In addition to the stables, some of which were multi-storey, there had to be farriers and storage areas for the feed. The farms leased some pastureland in the area so that sick and pavement-tired horses could recover . Smaller work on the vehicles was carried out on site. For larger projects, the main workshop existed from 1892 on Uferstraße, where some vehicles were newly manufactured.

When electrical operation was introduced, most courtyards were prepared accordingly. From 1899, the Great Berlin Tram began building larger depots to replace the older and smaller systems. The new courtyards were usually designed for 200-300 cars. The Moabit depot, which opened in 1901, was the largest tram station in Europe with a capacity of 325 cars at the time, and the Lichtenberg depot, which opened in 1913, was the largest in the world with 540 cars.

The Berlin tram continued this program until 1930. This was accompanied by the construction of company-owned apartments in the immediate vicinity. In the newly built courtyards in Müllerstrasse in Wedding and in Charlottenburg , entire blocks of flats were created that enclosed the depot and formed an ensemble with it. The architect Jean Krämer , who, like Alfred Grenander for the subway, can be described as the in-house architect of the Berlin tram, was primarily responsible for the new buildings and extensions at this time . Of the former 38 depots that existed in the entire network in 1919, 18 were still in operation after the work was completed, plus the two newly opened. This was followed by a stagnation of new buildings that lasted for several decades. The network was at its peak in development. The new construction of the main workshop in Wittenau was one of the unrealized projects at that time, only the main warehouse was relocated here.

During the Second World War, several depots were damaged on a large scale. The main camp in Wittenau and the Spandau , Treptow and Kreuzbergstrasse farms were hardest hit by the bombing; the latter did not go back into operation after the end of the war. The BVG-West courtyards, which were closed after the war, were generally used for other purposes, for example as a bus depot or storage facility for state-owned companies. Since the main workshop was also in the west, the Reichsbahn repair shop Berlin-Schöneweide took over its tasks for the East Berlin tram. The youngest depot in Marzahn was built when the line was expanded as part of the Tatra program .

In connection with the construction of new lines, the creation of two new depots is planned. These are to be built in Blankenburg and Adlershof.

Marzahn depot

Marzahn depot

The Marzahn (Mar) depot is the newest and largest tram depot. It is located on Landsberger Allee on the border with Hellersdorf. The system became necessary when the lines to the new development areas of Marzahn, Hohenschönhausen and Hellersdorf were built in the 1980s. The work lasted from April 1981 to December 1988, the first vehicles could be accommodated from April 1985. The depot includes a 25-track outdoor parking facility, a maintenance hall with ten tracks, a brake test track and several halls for machines and devices for repairing vehicles. In addition, there is a three-track turning loop for workers at the entrance to the site. The capacity is around 300 Tatra KT4D vehicles with a length of 19 meters.

Weißensee depot

Weißensee depot

The Weißensee (Wei) depot on Bernkasteler Strasse not far from Berliner Allee was opened in 1912 as station 22 of the Great Berlin Tram (GBS). The main hall provided space for around 200 cars with a length of eleven meters. In 1976 the site was expanded to include an eleven-track open-air parking facility. The expansion became necessary because the new Tatra KT4D wagons were to be stationed here. The depot is primarily home to the vehicles on the lines in the Pankow district .

Lichtenberg depot

Lichtenberg depot

The Lichtenberg (Lich) depot was opened to traffic in 1913 as GBS station 24 . At the time of its commissioning, it was considered the world's largest tram station. The two main halls held a total of 540 cars with a length of up to eleven meters. The site was later expanded to include a bus depot. The vehicles of the three East Berlin trolleybus lines that ran between 1951 and 1973 were based here. In addition to the two main halls with a total of 26 tracks for maintenance and repair work, the depot also has a 25-track open-air parking facility and a double-track wagon hall for work vehicles. The latter were added when the facilities were expanded in 1977 and are located north of the bus station, which is virtually enclosed by the tracks.

Niederönhausen depot

The Niederschönhausen (Nie) depot was opened on May 26, 1901 and is not far from the Nordend stop on Dietzgenstrasse. The courtyard was primarily used to store historic vehicles until 2015 and has been unused since then. From September 2016 the space in front of the wagon hall was used to park decommissioned Tatra T6 wagons. Since 2018 only a single track has led to the site.

Depot Nalepastraße

Depot Nalepastraße

The Nalepastraße (Na) depot in Oberschöneweide was commissioned as a depot for the Berlin Eastern Railways in 1901; after it was taken over by GBS, it was run as Bahnhof 15 . In addition to the trams, the Ostbahnen operated the Berlin-Oberschöneweide freight railway , which supplied the industries in Oberschöneweide from the Rummelsburg depot via Nalepastraße. Since the vehicles were initially pulled by cops , the nickname "Bullenbahn" quickly became established. The name was later used for the company's electric locomotives, either as "Großer Bulle" (four-axle) or "Kleiner Bulle" (two-axle). The vehicles were housed together in the yard. This consists of two car halls with a total of eight tracks and a five-track open-air parking facility. In 1986 a connection between the industrial railway and the tram network was established in front of the depot, which was then used by the tram freight trains for the transport of waste paper. The depot is used almost exclusively to park decommissioned Tatra T6A2D wagons. The farm is run together with the Köpenick depot as the southeastern part of the operation. After the depot had to be reactivated in the meantime, since the Köpenick depot was almost completely disconnected from the network due to accidents in the old town of Köpenick in 2007 and 2008, a number of regular trains have been shut down again since 2015. Since 2017, the depot has also been used to park articulated buses that only run on route 165 during rush hour (school and commuter traffic).

Köpenick depot

Köpenick depot

The Köpenick (Köp) depot in Wendenschloßstraße was opened together with the first electric Köpenick tram line (today's line 62 ) in 1903. Later it came to GBS as station 26 . The courtyard comprises a total of two car halls with a total of 18 tracks and a four-track open-air parking facility. It is also the only depot on the site of which there is no track loop, so the trains have to turn on Wendenschloßstraße.

In the 1970s, the depot was to be closed and a new one was to be built on the An der Wuhlheide street, as there was enough space for any expansion. The plans were abandoned when the construction of the new development areas in Marzahn and Hellersdorf was decided and the relocation of the scheduled service was foreseeable.

Since the depot is a listed building and is not suitable for the low-floor vehicles that are coming in, it is to be abandoned in the mid to late 2020s. The southern route network of the tram will then be served by the new Adlershof depot .

Track construction yard at Kniprodestrasse

Kniprodestrasse track storage facility

The Kniprodestrasse track construction yard adjoins the loop in Prenzlauer Berg and is a former depot of the SSB ( trams of the city of Berlin ) that existed from 1908 to 1923. Due to merging of lines as part of the union of the Berlin tram companies, it became the track construction yard of the Berlin tram (BST) in 1923 until it was merged to form the BVG in 1929. The site was partially damaged by the Second World War , but extensive renovation remained in the following Years ago, so that hardly anything can be seen of the actual depot. The site serves as a track warehouse and base for the staff and the vehicle fleet - including a self-propelled rail grinding train - track maintenance and the tram stop service.

Adlershof depot

Since the Köpenick depot has to be abandoned, a new depot in Adlershof is planned. The site is a loading or goods yard that was closed in the 1990s and almost completely renatured from 2009 to 2010, and is located between Adlershof station and Köpenicker Straße. This is behind the existing turning loop at the train station, the entrance to which from Rudower Chaussee will be replaced by a completely double-track triangle. The implementation was brought forward to the time frame 2020 to 2025. The development plan was laid out in January 2020. Construction is expected to start in 2022, with the parking facility expected to go into operation by 2025 and the workshop hall to be completed by 2028.

Two halls and ancillary buildings are to be built on the approximately 52,000 m² site of the former coal station. The storage hall should have a capacity of at least 60 trams with a length of 40 m. All vehicles are to be accommodated within a 250 m × 54 m large storage hall on 14 tracks. The workshop hall will have ten workstations on five tracks. In addition to maintenance, a washing facility and graffiti removal will be integrated in the 148 m × 43 m hall. Offices and lounges are located on the second floor of the workshop hall. The site is accessed from Köpenicker Straße. In addition to parking lots and the halls, a depot control, a rectifier plant and an outdoor facility with an ancillary operating zone will be built.


The BVG aims to expand the entire tram network to be barrier-free in the coming years. In addition to new central platforms, stop caps are being built on some routes that are flush with the street - there will be 44 capes in the route network by October 2015. This is part of the plan that Berlin's public transport system will be largely barrier-free by 2020. The tram network was originally supposed to be completely barrier-free from the end of 2017. Due to an increased demand, Tatra railcars that are not freely accessible have been used again on the M17 line as planned since March 2018 . With the completion of the construction work in 2020 and the arrival of further Flexity Berlin railcars from mid-2020, the barrier-free target state will then be achieved permanently.

Shutdown plans

Along with the population of Berlin, the number of passengers transported has also grown since the beginning of the 2010s, so there are no current plans for route closures.

Until 2006 there were considerations to shut down parts of lines M1, M2, 12, 27, 60 and 61 as soon as the sections of the line, which were then considered unprofitable, had to be renewed for further operation. However, this was not implemented; in fact, some of the routes mentioned have now been renovated, the cycle times on them have been compressed or, as mentioned, there are even plans for extensions.

Plans for new lines

Model at a rally for the new tram construction, Prenzlauer Berg , 2009
Construction of the route through the science city of Adlershof

In its coalition agreement, the red-red-green coalition decided to significantly expand the tram network. Roughly speaking, the expansion plans of the previous senate were used. The following projects are to be implemented during the 2016–2021 legislative period:

  • In connection with the renovation of the Ostkreuz station , tram line 21 is to be brought directly to it. Already in the preparations for the development plan at Ostkreuz (2004–2007) the "approach of the tram through Sonntagstraße to the station forecourt" appeared. The first plans in the Senate have been known since 2002. The original route of the tram along Marktstrasse / Boxhagener Strasse leads in a flat arc northeast past Ostkreuz. Changing between the tram and the S-Bahn requires an approx. 500 m long walk. In the future, after the route has been relocated, the tram will stop at a new forecourt to be built in the north-west of the station and run via Sonntagstrasse and Holteistrasse to Boxhagener Strasse. The section Marktstraße - Boxhagener Straße (up to the intersection with Holteistraße) is given up for tram traffic. Originally, a guided tour of the 21 (new) from Sonntagstraße to Wühlischstraße (shared use of the existing M13 route) to Warschauer Straße was also under discussion. However, it would have had a very negative effect on the traffic development of the residential areas along Boxhagener Strasse and has since been discarded. In this context, a new line 22 is to be set up to the Kosanke settlement. In 2012, the plan was to go into operation at the same time as the completion of the renovation at Ostkreuz in 2016 or 2017. In June and December 2013, the Senate Administration formally determined the variants. Early public participation took place in September 2015 in the run-up to the planning approval procedure. At this point in time, the preliminary planning for the new building was already in progress, and construction work was due to begin in 2017. Obviously nothing had been built by the end of 2019, in the press there is talk of a start and end of construction in 2020. The public display for the planning approval took place in January 2018. There were over 1000 objections, so that a date at the beginning of 2021 is no longer seen as realistic. The cost item in 2018 was given as around 12.6 million euros.
  • The gap from the final stop at Karl-Ziegler-Straße (lines 61 and 63) in Adlershof via Groß-Berliner Damm to the Schöneweide S-Bahn station is to be completed when the renovation at Schöneweide station is completed. In May 2012, more detailed studies were commissioned. The Groß-Berliner Damm is structurally prepared for the measure. The approval process for planning approval began in 2018. The planned “Adlershof II” line is 2.7 kilometers long, and at a cost of 16.5 million it has a cost-benefit factor of 3.0, as numerous new operations are expected along the road and the former marshalling yard. In addition, a new rectifier plant is planned here. When the plan is approved in 2019, the construction of the line could then begin. The superstructure should be relocated from 2020, so that in the best case scenario, the line could be put into operation in December of the same year. A metro line will also run with the extension of the M17. After the access road has been rebuilt, this will be led to the terminus at Adlershof S-Bahn station . The official start of construction took place on May 18, 2020, and commissioning is now expected in 2021. The total costs are stated by the BVG at 40 million euros, including the construction of five barrier-free pairs of stops and the relocation of the final stop from Karl-Ziegler-Straße in Adlershof to Schöneweide S-Bahn station.
  • The extension of the route from the main train station to the Turmstraße underground station . The route should lead over Rathenower Strasse and Turmstrasse. The plan approval procedure began in November 2017, construction is expected to start in mid-2020, with possible commissioning at the turn of 2020/21.

In addition, the construction of the following routes is to begin by the end of the legislative period in 2021: The new routes are listed with a timetable in the local transport plan of February 26, 2019.

  • The above-mentioned route from the main train station to the Turmstraße underground station is to be extended via the Mierendorffplatz underground station to the Jungfernheide S and U station. The planning services for the section were awarded in summer 2020. Commissioning is planned for 2024.
  • Relocation of the terminus at Mahlsdorf S-Bahn station (line 62) from the Wendeschleife under the bridge in Hönower Straße, including a double-track expansion of the line between Alt-Mahlsdorf and Mahlsdorf S-Bahn station for every 10 minutes. Closing the gap between the Mahlsdorf S-Bahn station and the Hellersdorf route (lines M6 and 18) is no longer planned. According to earlier plans, line 62 was to be extended from Mahlsdorf S-Bahn station through Ridbacher Straße and Nossener Straße to Hellersdorf underground station (cost around 28 million euros). Commissioning is planned for 2025. This plan is controversial among residents of the route.
  • A route from Alexanderplatz should lead through Leipziger Straße via Potsdamer Platz , Kulturforum , Kleistpark to Steglitz Town Hall. For this purpose, tracks were laid in Leipziger Strasse in 2000. At that time, the Federal Council based here and the DaimlerChrysler group protested against the tram. Both feared significant traffic problems on the heavily used road. Originally, the construction work should start in 2008. In summer 2020, the preliminary planning for the Alexanderplatz – Potsdamer Platz section was in progress. Construction costs of around 45 million euros are expected, and the BVG expects around 50,000 passengers per day on the new route. Commissioning is planned for 2026/2027.
  • A new route is to be built from Warschauer Strasse to Hermannplatz , with the examination of alternative routes to cross the Görlitzer Park. As early as 1993, tram tracks were laid on the Oberbaum Bridge as an advance payment . The route should lead through Falckensteinstrasse, Görlitzer Park , Glogauer and Pannierstrasse and end at Hermannplatz. This would give the residents of Neukölln and Kreuzberg a much better connection to the east of Berlin, the BVG expects around 20,000 passengers per working day. In the long term, the tram via Urbanstraße, Blücherstraße, Hallesches Tor and the main train station to the Kleiner Ring could be closed. The tracks on the Oberbaum Bridge will be dismantled and scrapped in 2019 as part of renovation work after having been unused on the bridge for 28 years. In an internet forum it was reported that the track position selected at the time would no longer match the current lane layout on the Oberbaum Bridge. In the summer of 2020, the BVG and Senate Administration were finalizing the participation process. Commissioning is planned for 2026/27.
  • The M2 tram line is to be extended from Heinersdorf to the Blankenburg S-Bahn station, although route options still have to be examined. Commissioning planned for 2026.
  • A tangential connection is to connect Pankow via Heinersdorf to Weißensee; the investigations for this were completed in summer 2020. Commissioning is planned for 2026.

In addition, the red-red-green coalition would like to advance the planning of the following routes, so that construction can start no later than the end of the following legislative period in 2026:

  • S-Bahn station Schöneweide - Sonnenallee - Hermannplatz - Potsdamer Platz
  • Potsdamer Platz - Wittenbergplatz / Zoological Garden
  • Mierendorffplatz - Jungfernheide - Urban Tech Republic development area (TXL Airport);
  • Pankow - Wollankstrasse - Turmstrasse (M27) - Mierendorffplatz - Luisenplatz
  • (Alexanderplatz -) Spittelmarkt - Lindenstrasse - Hallesches Tor - Mehringdamm
  • During the construction of the Massante bridge over the Teltow Canal , space was created for tram tracks. Behind the trees in the background are the tracks of the NME , which could also be used.
    In Johannisthal , a route is to lead over Sterndamm and Stubenrauchstrasse to the Zwickauer Damm underground station in Rudow or (planning variant) to the Johannisthaler Chaussee underground station. The route would primarily give the residential areas around Zwickauer Damm and Eisenhutweg better public transport connections. For this route, space was left for the tram tracks in 2004 as an advance payment for the construction of the Hermann-Gladenbeck Bridge over the A 113 and the Massante Bridge over the Teltow Canal. The existing track bed of the Neukölln-Mittenwald Railway behind the Massantebrücke / Hermann-Gladenbeck-Brücke can also be used, which extends to just behind the Zwickauer Damm underground station.

The network is expected to grow to 490 kilometers by 2050. Most of the new routes are in the western part of the city, where they were once replaced by buses.


Vehicle presentation on Open House 2009

The Berlin tram has three different families of vehicles. In addition to Tatra high -floor vehicles, there are low-floor six - axle double-articulated multiple units in one and two-way design ( GT6N and GT6N-ZR ) and, since 2008, the new Flexity Berlin .

The number of trams has been continuously reduced since the fall of the Wall . At that time, BVB owned 1024 vehicles, currently there are still around 600. The reduction was possible because the new low-floor wagons achieve an average of more than twice as high mileage per year (up to 100,000 kilometers). In addition, due to their length, these wagons have a higher passenger capacity and therefore rarely run in double traction .

In July 2006, the cost of energy per vehicle-kilometer traveled was EUR 0.33, and for a tram train (train kilometers) EUR 0.45. For comparison: the energy costs of a bus are 0.42 euros per kilometer traveled, those of an underground train 1.18 euros per kilometer or 0.20 euros per vehicle-kilometer traveled.

On January 1, 2016, at the instigation of the Senator of Finance Matthias Kollatz-Ahnen, the BVG founded the vehicle financing company (FFG) in order to take into account the increasing problems of vehicle shortages on the one hand and the expansion of offers on the other. Starting in 2020, BVG ordered 220 trams and 273 underground cars worth around 3.1 billion euros for the next 15 years. In October 2016, the BVG announced that in a first step, 80 tram cars would be purchased. The number of newly ordered trams has risen to 117. It is not yet clear whether the number will be increased.

Tatra KT4D

Tatra short-articulated railcar, April 2015

From the mid-1970s, the Berlin transport company purchased new cars from the Czechoslovak manufacturer ČKD Tatra . Between 1976 and 1987 four-axle short articulated trolleys of the type KT4D were put into service, some of which were KT4Dt with thyristor control specially developed for Berlin . The 18.11 meter long and 2.2 meter wide cars can accommodate 99 passengers. They can be used in double traction.

The first KT4D car arrived in Berlin on April 3, 1976. On September 11th of the same year, passenger service began with three cars. A total of 582 type KT4D cars were manufactured for Berlin, 99 of them of the type KT4Dt. There were also eight pilot series vehicles from Leipzig from 1984 onwards . Due to the insufficiently designed power grid, not all vehicles could be used in Berlin, so 80 of the youngest KT4D cars were given to Potsdam in 1989/1990 and one to Cottbus .

Between 1993 and 1997, half of the KT4D vehicles were extensively modernized. The rest were sold or scrapped by 1999. Another modernization of the high-floor types KT4Dt mod / KT4D mod is refused by the BVG for economic reasons. Nevertheless, in 2014 20 KT4D-mod wagons received a general inspection that was valid for eight years in accordance with Section 57 of the BOStrab, in order to be able to cope with increased demand. By 2017, further KT4D had received a general inspection, so that a total of 40 vehicles can be used for further years. The vehicles are to be replaced by the new Flexity Berlin in the medium term.

On July 4, 2014, the last scheduled use of the KT4Dt mod took place on the M4 line. From 2018, the KT4D will only operate as amplifier trips (e.g. the M8) and at major events. In May 2018 it was announced that the BVG intends to keep 40 vehicles operational by 2020. They are used in particular for an additional requirement over the southern Rhinstrasse Bridge and will continue to run on the M17 line until the end of the construction work. Subsequently, the last call for new Flexity Berlin vehicles, made at the end of 2018 and due to be added from mid-2020, is expected to cover an increased demand.


Type GT6N-ZR low-floor articulated multiple unit

Between 1992 and 2003 105 three-part articulated wagons of the type GT6N (one-way vehicle ) and 45 wagons of the type GT6N-ZR ( two -way vehicle ) were purchased. The cars are 2.3 meters wide and 26.8 meters (GT6N) and 26.5 meters (GT6N-ZR) in length. They can carry 150 passengers. The cars are multi-taxable , which is used on the M4, M5 and M6 lines.

134 vehicles were sold to a US investor and leased back as part of a risky cross-border leasing transaction . The BVG has set aside provisions of 157 million euros to cover possible losses from cross-border business.

At the end of 2011 / beginning of 2012, the BVG began a trial upgrade with the 1006 and 1016 cars. They were equipped with new drive technology and the new software like that of the Flexitys. The vehicles, which can only be coupled with one another, were given the new wagon numbers 1506 and 1516 to distinguish them. The further conversion from GT6N to GT6N-U takes place step by step for two wagons each in the Marzahn depot. The 45 bidirectional cars are also being revised, but are currently only receiving the standardized OBU to be able to switch off the analog train radio - the GTZo will be renumbered from car number 2001 to 2201 from March 2016. At the beginning of July 2017, the GTZ was converted to GTZo with 2245 completed.

Since mid-2017, the other GT6 vehicles have also been equipped with an OBU, analogous to the GTZo, and referred to as GT6No. The vehicles now have the wagon numbers 1201 (old 1001) to 1263 (old 1063), increased by 200 digits.

Flexity Berlin

Flexity on a test drive

In April 2005, a Europe-wide invitation to tender for low-floor trams throughout , half one-way and half two-way vehicles. With the latter, the BVG wants to be able to react better to construction sites and disruptions and to build stump ends on certain routes in order to save costs instead of turning loops . The Viennese ULF car type and the Incentro type intended for Nantes were tested by Bombardier in passenger service .

On June 12, 2006, the BVG decided to procure the new vehicles. These are based on the tested Incentro and are called Flexity Berlin by Bombardier . In October 2008, four prototypes were purchased and extensively tested for 13 million euros. These are two one-way and two-way cars, each with a length of 30.8 and a length of 40 meters for around 180 and 240 passengers, respectively. It is not intended to be used in double traction.

The framework contract with Bombardier comprises 210 vehicles, all of which were ordered by BVG and will be delivered between 2009 and 2020. A total of 34 short and 136 long bidirectional and 40 long one-way cars were ordered. The vehicles are manufactured in the Bombardier plants in Bautzen or Hennigsdorf.

At 2.40 meters, the new cars are ten centimeters wider than the previous low-floor cars. The width of the wagon was chosen so that modifications in the network are not necessary. However, this only affects the routes on which the Flexity is to operate. It will not be possible to use these vehicles in large parts of Köpenick.

Trams in the Berlin area

There are four other tram companies in the Berlin area:

Lines 87 to 89 serve three municipalities and a medium-sized town east of Berlin. The Schöneich tram and the Woltersdorfer tram connect to the S-Bahn in the Treptow-Köpenick district of Berlin and have two stops and one stop in the city of Berlin.


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  • Sigurd Hilkenbach, Wolfgang Kramer: The trams in Berlin . 3. Edition. alba, Düsseldorf 1994, ISBN 3-87094-351-3 .
  • Sigurd Hilkenbach, Wolfgang Kramer: The tram of the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG-Ost / BVB) 1949–1991 . 2nd Edition. transpress, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-613-71063-3 .
  • Wolfgang Kramer, Heinz Jung: Line chronicle of the electric trams in Berlin until 1945 . Ed .: Arbeitskreis Berliner Nahverkehr e. V. Berlin 1994.
  • Wolfgang Kramer: Line chronicle of the Berlin tram 1945-1993 . Ed .: Arbeitskreis Berliner Nahverkehr e. V. Berlin 2001.
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  • Berlin Local Transport Working Group V. (Ed.): Berliner Verkehrsblätter . ISSN  0722-9399 .
  • Traffic history sheets e. V. (Ed.): Verkehrsgeschichtliche Blätter . ISSN  0232-9042 .

Web links

Commons : Straßenbahn Berlin  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on June 17, 2005 .