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district of Berlin
Alt-Treptow Plänterwald Baumschulenweg Oberschöneweide Niederschöneweide Johannisthal Altglienicke Bohnsdorf Grünau Schmöckwitz Friedrichshagen Müggelheim Rahnsdorf Köpenick Adlershof Brandenburg BerlinOberschöneweide on the map of Treptow-Köpenick
About this picture
Coordinates 52 ° 27 '43 "  N , 13 ° 30' 54"  E Coordinates: 52 ° 27 '43 "  N , 13 ° 30' 54"  E
height 34  m above sea level NN
surface 6.18 km²
Residents 23,500 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density 3803 inhabitants / km²
Incorporation Oct. 1, 1920
Post Code 12459
District number 0909
Administrative district Treptow-Koepenick

Oberschöneweide is a district of Berlin . It is located in the Treptow-Köpenick district and was once one of the most important urban factory districts in Germany . The history of Oberschöneweide is closely linked to that of the AEG , which achieved its international reputation from here.


Oberschöneweide is located in the north-western part of the Treptow-Köpenick district on the northern bank of the Spree . Opposite the district on the other side of the Spree are the districts of Plänterwald , Baumschulenweg , Niederschöneweide and the Spindlersfeld district of the Köpenick district (from north to southeast). In the east, Oberschöneweide borders on Köpenick. The district boundary runs through the Wuhlheide . To the north are the districts of Karlshorst and Rummelsburg (northwest) of the Lichtenberg district .

The area of ​​Oberschöneweide is flat and the core is heavily developed. The industrial development stretches along the Spree. Only in the east is there a loose and mixed development of the area on the bank, and in the northwest there are several allotment gardens . Wilhelminenhofstrasse separates the industrial and residential areas. The Wuhlheide with the listed Volkspark Wuhlheide extends to the north and northeast of the district .


First settlements

The name Schöne Weyde is mentioned for the first time in 1598 in a travel report by the Brandenburg Elector Joachim II , in which he describes an extensive meadow on the left bank of the Spree in the direction of the river. In later years the name Schöneweide was used on maps for both sides of the Spree. In written records, however, there is still talk of “near the beautiful pasture”. The area north of the Spree belongs to the Niederbarnim district .

Postcard of the excursion restaurant Wilhelminenhof , 1903

The oldest demonstrable homestead was the sizable field, cattle and restaurant Quappenkrug , named after the landlord Quappe. The tadpole jug was acquired by Elector Friedrich Wilhelm in 1682 and submitted to the Köpenick Domain Office. The burbot pitcher has been leased since 1717. Travelers and boatmen stopped here on the way between Köpenick and Berlin. Developed in parallel with the burgeoning in Koepenick textile production, as well as on the south bank of the Spree, east to the end of the 18th century and west of Quappenkrugs Kattunbleichen . A dairy farm was added to the Quappenkrug around 1800 and a small outbuilding developed . In 1814 the Oberfinanzrat Reinbeck acquired the area that had meanwhile become a forest and estate. He had the building expanded to look like a castle and, with royal approval, named it after his wife's first name Wilhelminenhof . The Wilhelminenhof became a very popular restaurant by the end of the 19th century.

In the 1860s, the Weißenburg steam-washing facility and the Sadowa Inn were located to the east and the Waldschlößchen restaurant to the west of the Wilhelminenhof. These settlements formed the Etablissements manor district near Köpenick . At that time there was still a tendency towards the creation of a recreation area. In 1869 the Sadowa excursion restaurant was given a large hall and in 1879 was able to offer twelve summer apartments. There followed more restaurants and pubs , such as Spreeschloß, Strandschloß and Tabbert's Waldschlößchen . Furthermore, the expansion of the Ostend villa colony began . In 1871 the establishments in the Niederbarnim district - i.e. on the right bank of the Spree - were named Oberschöneweide near Köpenick . The mayor was instructed to prepare the formation of the political community. But with the founders' crash in the 1870s, the development of the place and the community stagnated again. The villa colony got stuck in the beginning due to poor transport connections. The Sadowa train stop (today: Wuhlheide S-Bahn station ), set up north in Wuhlheide in 1877, was too far away. The establishment of a horse-drawn tram line to Rummelsburg or Köpenick did not succeed and a bridge over the Spree did not yet exist. Only in 1885 was there a river crossing over the Spree with the chain ferry laid out by the Teltow district .


Industrial buildings from the Wilhelminian era on the banks of the Spree , aerial view
Old fire station in Siemensstrasse, now a volunteer fire brigade
University of Technology and Economics on the banks of the Spree

The development of the place only got the decisive impulse again in 1889, when the private consortium of the Grundrentengesellschaft AG in Berlin bought the Wilhelminenhof and the surrounding land. The Grundrentengesellschaft immediately started the parceling and further sale. She applied for the formation of an independent municipality on her own initiative. The demarcation took a few more years. The Grundrentengesellschaft itself built the first streets with the typical workers' tenement houses. At the place where the Stubenrauchbrücke is today, it built a wooden bridge over the Spree in 1889. A railway track also led across the bridge to Johannisthal-Niederschöneweide station and eliminated the commercial disadvantages of the location. Numerous large industrial companies set up shop on both sides of the Wilhelminenhof, which was bought and dissolved. The AEG built there in 1890 a factory for accumulators , from 1895, the power plant Oberspree, from 1896, a cable plant with associated copper rolling mill , rubber factory and wire drawing and from 1901 the brass mill. In addition, the German Niles factory for machine tool construction was established in 1898 .

The chain ferry was replaced by a wooden bridge in 1891, which in turn was replaced by the steel Stubenrauch bridge in 1908. With the Kaisersteg , a pedestrian bridge, a second Spree crossing was built in 1897. The steadily growing traffic led in 1903/1904 to the construction of the third Spree crossing, the Treskow Bridge , according to plans by Karl Bernhard . The Grundrentengesellschaft laid out the route of the Oberschöneweide industrial railway before the turn of the century . It ran through the entire Wilhelminenhofstrasse and connected 17 factories with the Niederschöneweide-Johannisthal train station and the Rummelsburg depot .

An industrial conurbation was created from 25 large companies and a large number of small companies, workshops and laboratories. A third of the companies belonged to the electrical industry. The next strongest branches were the metal industry and mechanical engineering. The power plant Oberspree was then the first location outside Berlin power plant and the first three-phase power plant in the German Reich . The power plant became the pioneer of today's electricity generation , because for the first time electrical energy was fed into a supply network and distributed further.

During the First World War , Oberschöneweide became a high-ranking center of the arms industry . Due to the large number of workers in large factories, Oberschöneweide developed into a center of the working class and social democracy .

Independent rural community

Peter-Behrens-Bau in Ostendstrasse 1–6, built between 1915 and 1917 for the AEG's Neue Automobil-Gesellschaft (NAG)
Evangelical Christ Church , built 1907/1908

With the inclusion of large parts of the manor district of Köpenicker Forst , Oberschöneweide was spun off as an independent rural community with 149  hectares on March 16, 1898 . In the following years, the area increased through the purchase of forest and fiscal land.

The AEG undertook the most famous architects of the time as well as specialists in industrial construction to design their factories. In the period from 1890 to 1920, a remarkable ensemble of multi-storey factories, extensive production halls and administrative buildings was built in Oberschöneweide . In the immediate vicinity of the works - only separated by a street - numerous four-story apartment buildings with rear buildings and side wings were built, which were primarily inhabited by the working class. In the peripheral zones, more spacious apartment buildings were built, which were intended for the better-paid employees.

In addition, numerous municipal buildings were built, for example several large community schools, a high school for boys and girls and a secondary school. A gas station had existed since 1898. In 1899 the two-storey fire station was inaugurated. In 1902, AEG founder Emil Rathenau had the Oberschöneweide forest cemetery laid out in Wuhlheide . The post office installed in 1897 was replaced by a first class post office in 1905. The sewage pumping station was also completed in 1905. The Catholic Church was consecrated in 1907 and the Evangelical Church a year later. The supply of industry and the population with tap water was initially taken over by Boxhagen-Rummelsburg and later by the waterworks that were built between 1905 and 1908. At the beginning of the 20th century the community received electricity and a connection to the sewer system.

Today's Greek Alley was to form the center of the village with the Catholic Church, the post office and other facilities. A town hall was also planned for the still independent community on what was then Rathausplatz. The subway line E from Alexanderplatz to Friedrichsfelde, which was projected at the same time, was to lead in a second stage via Karlshorst to Oberschöneweide in order to create a direct connection to the Berlin city center .

On the western edge of the community, a large Nobelhof petroleum storage facility was established in 1899 on the site of the former Neue Scheune forester . AEG founded Neue Automobil-Gesellschaft AG (NAG) as a further industrial company in 1901. The factory building at Ostendstrasse 1-6 was designed by architect Peter Behrens .

The development was concentrated in the center of Oberschöneweide on the Spree. The area on the western bank remained largely undeveloped. The shoreline in the east to Köpenick was also only occasionally built on with villas and smaller factories. Since the end of the 19th century, several clubhouses and boathouses for rowing clubs have been added here, such as the Elektra boathouse commissioned by the AEG .

The AEG also set up a number of other pioneering institutions for corporate social policy in Oberschöneweide . These included the position of a “factory nurse” for female employees and the establishment of one of the first factory crèches for children of women workers from the Oberspree cable works and other Schöneweider companies.

In 1910 the Elisabeth Children's Hospital moved to Oberschöneweide on Karlshorster Strasse (today: Treskowallee) and was renamed Queen Elisabeth Hospital .

The former excursion area had become an important industrial and workers' residential area with urban trains. New housing estates were built, including the Oberschöneweide settlement by J. Th. Hamacher, Peter Behrens and Hans Spitzner and the Gebag settlement , both on Zeppelinstrasse in the north of Oberschöneweide. The peripheral areas were able to retain their character as a recreational landscape with the neighboring Wuhlheide for a long time.

Incorporation to Berlin

Wilhelminenhof- and Edisonstraße corner

On October 1, 1920, the law on the formation of a new Berlin municipality came into force. By law Oberschoeneweide and other rural communities formed the original 15 administrative district of Treptow of Greater Berlin . The municipal councils of the incorporated rural communities only continued to work for a short time. They were relieved of their responsibilities and incorporated into the district administration as local offices. Oberschöneweide's communal independence ended after only 22 years.

time of the nationalsocialism

The Berlin regional reform with effect from April 1, 1938 also affected the districts of Treptow and Köpenick . The districts Oberschöneweide and Wuhlheide were removed from the Treptow district and incorporated into the Köpenick district.

New Treskow Bridge over the Spree; the old one was blown up in 1945. Left Spreehöfe , right former Oberspree transformer factory (TRO) of AEG , later VEB , today: Rathenau-Hallen

The mass conscription from 1941 resulted in a shortage of staff in the factories. To keep production going, more and more forced laborers from all over Europe were used. In the Wuhlheide several barracks were built for forced laborers. The Berlin labor education camp of the same name, subordinate to the Gestapo , was also located here . More than 6,000 foreign forced laborers worked in the Oberspree cable works and other factories in the AEG factory complex, and in 1944/1945 there were also female prisoners of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp .

During the Allied air raids on June 21 and August 6, 1944, Oberschöneweide was covered with a thick carpet of bombs and the Wilhelminenhof cable factory was severely damaged. The attack of February 26, 1945 hit Oberschöneweide again in its entire extent. Many foreign forced laborers were among the fatalities.

On April 16, 1945, the Battle of Berlin began , the last major battle of the Second World War in Europe. Before the German troops withdrew and Oberschoeneweide the Red Army leaving without a fight, blew troops of the Waffen-SS nor the Kaisersteg and Treskowbrücke . On April 24th, Oberschöneweide was in the hands of the 8th Guard Army of the 1st Belarusian Front .

Time between 1945 and 1990

After the administrative division of Greater Berlin by the Allied victorious powers , Oberschöneweide and the other districts of the Köpenick district came under Soviet control.

As everywhere in the Soviet occupation zone , in Oberschöneweide, too, all means of production that had not been destroyed were initially dismantled and brought to the Soviet Union. The expropriation of industrial companies followed ; they were later converted into state- owned companies .

The Queen Elisabeth Hospital served the Soviet troops as a military hospital from October 1945 and remained so until the Soviet / Russian troops were completely withdrawn from Germany in 1994.

The Funkhaus Nalepastraße was built in the 1950s . All radio programs of the GDR were produced here centrally by the radio of the GDR .

After reunification

Due to the changing market situation after German reunification on October 3, 1990, many companies in the GDR suffered mass layoffs, closings and privatizations. This was the end of the traditional industrial location. The South Korean industrial giant Samsung operated a production site for CRT televisions and mobile phones through Samsung SDI in Oberschöneweide until the end of 2005. He gave up the location despite the receipt of millions in subsidies from the state of Berlin due to sales problems and inefficiency. The industrial buildings in Oberschöneweides have been a listed building since 1991 and are a focus of Berlin's industrial monument preservation . Many small craft businesses have settled on the industrial sites. The traditional, medium-sized companies include Silicon Sensor GmbH (a spin-off from what was then the television electronics factory ) and BAE Batteries GmbH (at the location of Accumulatoren Fabrik Aktiengesellschaft , AFA).

"The Schöneweide industrial landscape is 'no less characteristic - and no less important - for the Elektropolis Berlin than the Museum Island for Spree-Athens'."

- Norbert Huse

On January 1, 2001, due to the administrative reform in Berlin, the districts of Treptow and Köpenick were merged to form the new major district of Treptow-Köpenick . Since then Oberschöneweide has belonged to this new district.

On November 9, 2005, construction work began to rebuild Kaisersteg as a pedestrian and cycle path bridge. Due to errors in the statics , the completion was delayed by a year. On September 25, 2007 the Kaisersteg was opened to traffic. The opening ceremony took place together with the opening of the newly laid out town square on the bridge on December 13, 2007. The town square, with a public green area and jetty, and the crane runway park, which was renovated in 2001, form the access from Wilhelminenhofstraße to Kaisersteg and the Spree. This access was previously blocked by the industrial site. Between the Treskowbrücke and the eastern end of Wilhelminenhofstrasse, a riverside path will be laid out that will be available to the public. A sculpture garden and dining facilities are planned on the riverside path.

Catholic Church of St. Anthony of Padua , built in 1906/1907

The Berlin University of Technology and Economics (HTW Berlin) moved into the former AEG site of the Oberspree cable works (KWO) on Wilhelminenhofstrasse in 2006 , initially with its design department. In October 2009 three further departments were added. The HTW's teaching and research activities are thus concentrated on two locations: Campus Treskowallee (in Karlshorst ) and Campus Wilhelminenhof. The premises in the former AEG halls at Reinbeckstrasse 12–38, which were acquired by Bryan Adams in 2013 and have since been renovated, are to be used as artist studios and creative studios from summer 2017.

Especially during rush hour there is a lot of traffic on Spree-, Edison- and Siemensstraße. This affects the surrounding residential areas, which led to the entire area being included in the noise reduction plan for Berlin. Two more bridges are planned to relieve the residential areas. The Minna-Todenhagen Bridge is part of the south-east connection (SOV), which is to be completed in its first construction phase. It runs east on the Britzer connecting canal over the Spree and connects the Rummelsburger Landstrasse / Rummelsburger Strasse over the Minna-Todenhagen-Strasse with the Köpenicker Landstrasse / Schnellerstrasse in the Niederschöneweider area. The planning approval decision was issued on February 27, 2012 , construction began in 2013, and the bridge was opened to traffic on December 21, 2017. The other bridge ( Wilhelminenhofbrücke ), the construction of which is still in the planning stage, is to be an eastern extension of Wilhelminenhofstrasse over the Spree to Schnellerstrasse in Oberspree .


year Residents
1797 66
1801 77
1817 46
1840 87
1858 93
1871 153
year Residents
1875 155
1880 170
1885 178
1890 159
1895 625
1900 5,850
year Residents
1905 14.101
1910 21,369
1919 25,612
2004 16,376
2007 16,844
2010 18,281
year Residents
2015 20,829
2016 21,548
2017 22,296
2018 23,130
2019 23,500

Source from 2007: Statistical report AI 5. Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31st. Basic data. Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg (corresponding years)

Sights and culture

Industrial architecture from the early days on the banks of the Spree, Wilhelminenhofstrasse
On the banks of the Spree

See also: List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Oberschöneweide

Economy and Infrastructure


Oberschöneweide can be reached from the north from the Lichtenberg district : on the one hand from the district of Rummelsburg via Köpenicker Chaussee, which merges into Rummelsburger Landstrasse at the local border, on the other hand from the district of Karlshorst via Am Walde, which leads to Rummelsburger Landstrasse across Treskowallee and Rudolf-Rühl-Allee, which runs along the eastern edge of the town and meets the street An der Wuhlheide. In the 1950s, an extension of today's underground line 5 from the then terminus Friedrichsfelde via Karlshorst to Oberschöneweide was planned, but this was not implemented.

Via the street An der Wuhlheide you can also get from Köpenick via the Lindenstraße to Oberschöneweide. The Spree flows in the south and west . From the other side of the bank you can cross four bridges to Oberschöneweide. At the eastern end, the Wilhelm Spindler Bridge leads from Spindlersfeld over the Spree. At the height of the town center, the Kaisersteg , a pedestrian and cycle path bridge, the Treskow bridge and the Stubenrauch bridge from Niederschöneweide lead across the Spree. The Treskow Bridge can only be used for motor vehicle traffic in the direction of Oberschöneweide.

With the tram is Oberschoeneweide with the lines M17, 21, to reach 27, 37, 60 and 67th In the north-west, the F11 ferry is in use on the Spree to Baumschulenweg . The 365 bus has also been running between Oberschöneweide and Baumschulenweg since the end of 2017. The Schöneweide S-Bahn station is located in Niederschöneweide and serves most of the tram lines to the center of Berlin (stop for regional traffic). The S-Bahn lines S45, S46, S47, S8, S85 and S9 already stop here.

Resident companies and institutions

Technology and start-up center Spreeknie (TGS) in Ostendstrasse
  • Technology and start-up center Spreeknie (TGS)
  • E. Michaelis & Co. KG; Paper wholesaler
  • First Sensor AG , formerly Silicon Sensor GmbH; Manufacturer of optical sensors
  • BAE Batteries GmbH
  • iris-GmbH - manufacturer of the automatic passenger counting system IRMA
  • Berliner WasserSportZentrale GbR; Sport boat school
  • Orange-Fit sports studio (Golightly Energy GmbH)



  • Emil Rathenau (1838-1915), AEG -Begründer and one of the first nine aldermen (community representatives) of Oberschoeneweide
  • Paul Nalepa (1846–1900), dye works owner and one of the first nine lay judges in Oberschöneweide, a street was named after him around 1906
  • Fritz König (1849–1928), master butcher and one of the first nine lay judges in Oberschöneweide, a square on the corner of Edisonstrasse and Wilhelminenhofstrasse was named after him around 1900 (officially closed in 1935); In 2010 the Fritz-König-Weg was named after him
  • Carl Deul (1855–1904), master builder and first mayor of Oberschöneweide, a street was named after him around 1900
  • Wilhelm Weiskopff, the last estate administrator until the village was founded, then one of the first nine lay judges in Oberschöneweide, a street was named after him around 1900
  • Louis Tabbert, owner of the wheat beer brewery and one of the first nine lay judges in Oberschöneweide, a street was named after him around 1906
  • Walther Rathenau (1867–1922), Reich Foreign Minister , buried in the Oberschöneweide forest cemetery
  • Julius Grunow (1873–1960), municipal councilor in Oberschöneweide, district mayor of Treptow
  • Walter Götze (1902–1938), criminal specialized in robbing car traps
  • Fritz Plön (1906–1944), resistance fighter , lived in Oberschöneweide
  • Heinz Werner (1921–1997), director of the Berlin City Library , lived in Oberschöneweide
  • Waltraud Krause (1925–2010) teacher, local chronicler of Oberschöneweide and chronicler in the Evangelical Christ Church , which belonged to the Confessing Church during the time of National Socialism . In August 2015, a path between Siemensstrasse and Wilhelminenhofstrasse was named after her.
  • Bryan Adams (* 1959), rock singer and photographer, acquired old industrial halls on the former AEG site for conversion and subsequent use as multifunctional studios, studios and exhibition spaces, in which he maintains a photo studio, among other things.
  • Lutz Lehmann (* 1963), racing cyclist, born in Oberschöneweide


The place is in Berlin slang sometimes called "Oberschweineöde" garbled , for example, in the novel Schweineöde of Carsten Otte .

See also


  • Judith Uhlig: Köpenick - history of the Berlin administrative districts. Stapp Verlag, 1997, ISBN 3-87776-077-5 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Rach: The villages in Berlin. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-87776-211-5 .


  • Mysterious places. Industrial area Oberschöneweide. Documentary, Germany, 2014, 43:10 min., Book: Lutz Rentner and Frank Otto Sperlich, director: Frank Otto Sperlich, production: Noahfilm, RBB , series: Mysterious Places , first broadcast: September 30, 2014 at RBB, synopsis.

Web links

Commons : Berlin-Oberschöneweide  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Oberschöneweide  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Entry in the Berlin State Monument List
  2. Thomas Irmer: A factory foundation for women - The Mathilde Rathenau foundation for female employees of the 'Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft' (AEG) in the German Empire. In: Kurt Schilde , Andreas Ludwig (Hrsg.): Jewish welfare foundations - initiatives by Jewish donors between charity and social reform. Fachhochschulverlag, Frankfurt / Main 2010, pp. 213–237.
  3. Thomas Irmer: … a kind of slave trade - forced labor at AEG / Telefunken in Berlin and Wedding. In: Arbeitskreis Berliner Regionalmuseen (ed.), Helmut Bräutigam, Doris Fürstenberg, Bernt Roder (editor): Forced Labor in Berlin 1938–1945 Metropol, Berlin 2002, pp. 154–166.
  4. Thomas Irmer: Forced Labor for the German Electrical Industry in Occupied Poland - The 'Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft' (AEG) and the Krakow Cable Works 1941–1944. In: Andreas Heusler, Mark Spoerer, Helmuth Trischler (eds.): Armaments, war economy and forced labor in the "Third Reich". In: Perspectives. Series of publications by the BMW Group. Corporate archive. Volume 3. R. Oldenbourg, Munich 2010, pp. 87-105 (on behalf of MTU Aero Engines and BMW Group).
  5. Exposé of the real estate developer: Spreehalle (PDF) accessed on March 29, 2017.
  6. Thomas Loy: Cool reception for Bryan Adams. In: Berliner Kurier , November 6, 2016, accessed on March 29, 2017
  7. Noise Reduction Planning for Berlin - Action Plan. on the website of the Senate Department for Health, Environment and Consumer Protection, as of November 2008; [1] (PDF) accessed on May 9, 2012.
  8. New construction of the Spree bridge as part of the south-east connection (SOV). Senate Department for Urban Development and the Environment, accessed on May 19, 2014 .
  9., accessed on March 16, 2018
  10. Statistical report AI 5 - hj 2 / 19. Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31, 2019. Basic data. P. 26
  11. ^ Stutterheim Max: Architect, Edisonstrasse, Ober-Schöneweide . In: Address book for Berlin and its suburbs , 1901, part I.
  12. Industrial Salon Schöneweide e. V.
  13. ^ Senate Department for Education, Youth and Science: Berlin Schools
  14. ↑ Name of the street after Fritz König . Press release from the Treptow-Köpenick District Office from January 19, 2010
  15. Bryan Adams sells studios in Oberschöneweide. In: Die Welt , November 3, 2016, accessed on March 29, 2017
  16. Norbert Koch-Klaucke: Bryan Adams - What remains if the rock star sells his studio? In: Berliner Kurier , November 2, 2016; accessed on March 29, 2017
  17. Spreehalle Berlin: Conversion, renovation and addition , accessed on March 29, 2017
  18. Verena Mayer: Gone into the void. (PDF) In Süddeutsche Zeitung , November 6, 2014, accessed on March 29, 2017
  19. Term on mouth mixing
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on September 29, 2005 .