district of Berlin
|Residents||66,765 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1912 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Oct. 1, 1920|
|Postcodes||12459, 12555, 12557, 12559, 12587|
Like Spandau on the western edge of Berlin, Köpenick has an independent medieval town tradition. Both places emerged from Slavic ramparts , received city rights in the Middle Ages and have well-preserved old town centers and their own suburbs to this day.
Due to the deed of Captain von Köpenick in 1906, the then city of Cöpenick (near Berlin) became world famous. Köpenick has belonged to Berlin since October 1st, 1920 (when the Greater Berlin Act came into force ). Since January 1, 1931, Köpenick has also been officially written with "K", although this has been unofficially customary for several decades.
Until the administrative reform on January 1, 2001, there was an independent Köpenick district (until 1990: Köpenick district ), which included a number of other districts in addition to the Köpenick district.
Köpenick is located in the middle of Berlin's glacial valley at the confluence of the Dahme and the Spree . The Spree connects Köpenick with the Müggelsee and downtown Berlin . Shortly before the confluence of the Spree and Dahme, the castle island with the Köpenick Castle, which was renovated in 2004, is located in the Dahme . The Müggelberge in the southeast of Köpenick are the highest natural elevation in Berlin at 114.7 meters above sea level .
Today's district of Köpenick is based on the area of the city of Köpenick, which was independent until 1920, and is the largest district of Berlin with almost 35 square kilometers. In addition to the Köpenicker Insel (with the old town of Alt-Köpenick), the medieval town also included the Schlossinsel and the Kietz , each with a different legal status (town, castle, service settlement). The Kietz only lost its special legal status in 1898. In the last third of the 19th century, the Dammvorstadt (north of the old town, south of the Köpenick train station), the Kietzer Vorstadt in the southeast and the Köllnish suburb on the left bank of the Dahme were established. The Wendenschloß villa colony in the south of the district also dates from around 1900 . The largest new development in Köpenick from the GDR times is the Salvador-Allende district in the east.
Castles existed here as early as the time of the Slavs , who gave the city its name with Copnic (island town) . The oldest originated in the Bronze Age . For the multi-phase Slavic castle area, the oldest dendro date so far is the year 849. In the middle of the 12th century, the main castle and main settlement of the Slavic tribe of the Sprewanen under their prince Jaxa von Köpenick was here .
In 1209 the first mention in documents under the name Copenic (document of the Margrave Konrad II of Lusatia ). The Slavic castle wall was replaced by a German castle, next to which the Kietz was created as a Slavic service settlement. Around 1232 Köpenick received city rights .
The Ascanian margraves Johann I and Otto III. took possession of the castle in 1245 after the six-year Teltow war against the Wettin margrave Jan von Meißner, Heinrich the Illustrious and the archbishop of Magdeburg , Wilbrand von Käfernburg . Since then, Köpenick has belonged permanently to the Mark Brandenburg .
In the year 1298 the name oppidum ( market town) can be found in documents for the Köpenick old town , in the year 1325 civitas (city). In 1323 the city at that time became a member of the Central Markish-Lower Lusatia Association of Cities.
For the medieval history of Köpenick, see the following subsections from other articles:
The Thirty Years' War caused great devastation in Köpenick, only twelve of the residents (craftsmen, fishermen) who lived here remained alive.
The Köpenick Castle was replaced by a hunting lodge in 1558 by order of the elector Joachim II. Hector, who was willing to build . The construction caused a deficit in the treasury, while the private sector benefited from it. Prince Elector Friedrich, heir to the throne of the incumbent Elector and later Friedrich III. , initiated the construction of today's Köpenick Palace in 1688. He won the Dutch painter Rutger von Langerfeld as an architect.
It was not until the second half of the 18th century that Köpenick regained some importance, and the establishment of textile and silk mills played an important role in economic development. King Friedrich Wilhelm I had the high treason trial against his son, who later became Friedrich II of Prussia , carried out in the coat of arms hall of Köpenick Castle on the island of Köpenick Castle .
At the end of the 19th century, a number of industrial companies and suburbs with tenement houses outside the old town island emerged, from which today's localities such as the Kietzer Vorstadt, the Dammvorstadt and the Wendenschloß villa colony developed.
On October 1, 1920, Cöpenick became part of the 16th administrative district of Berlin through the formation of Greater Berlin. In the week from June 21 to 26, 1933, the Köpenick Blood Week took place , in which 500 opponents of the National Socialists were arrested, mistreated and 23 killed by the SA .
In what was then the Köpenick district, the Second World War ended on April 23, 1945 with the invasion of the Red Army . The former Heuplatz, which was renamed Platz des 23. April in 1953, commemorates this date. During the GDR era , Köpenick was a district of East Berlin .
A very significant increase in residents resulted from the construction of the two new development areas Allende-Viertel I (1971–1973; 2650 apartments) and Allende-Viertel II (1980–1983; 3200 apartments).
In 2001 the Köpenick district was merged with the Treptow district to form the new Treptow-Köpenick district as part of the Berlin administrative district reform .
coat of arms
The Köpenick coat of arms is derived from the place's earlier income, namely fishing. In the coat of arms there are two fish on a blue background, which symbolizes the water. The key refers to St. Peter , the patron saint of fishermen. The seven stars are loud table about the Seven Sisters ( Pleiades represent, as they also are related to fishing). This could consist in the fact that the Pleiades, as winter stars, marked the dangerous season for shipping. However, seven stars are also used as symbols for the constellation Orion . According to one story, Orion was lured out to sea by Apollo to fish, where he was then mistakenly shot by Artemis after she was challenged by Apollo to hit this distant - only recognizable as a point - target in the sea.
The city of Cöpenick existed until the end of 1919 , from 1920 to 1945 it was the Berlin administrative district of Cöpenick / Köpenick . After 1945 it became the East Berlin district of Köpenick , which existed until 1990, 1991-2001 district of Köpenick , from 2001 district Berlin-Köpenick of the district of Treptow-Köpenick .
Source from 2007: Statistical report AI 5. Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31st. Basic data. Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg (corresponding years)
Köpenick has had a station on the Berlin– Frankfurt (Oder) line of the Lower Silesian-Märkische Railway since 1842 . In 1882 the horse-drawn tram line of the Cöpenick Horse Railway , built by the city, began operating between the train station and Schloßplatz . In 1903 the line was electrified and the company was renamed the Cöpenick municipal tram . The company expanded its network to Mahlsdorf , Adlershof and Grünau, among other places , and thus laid the foundation for today's Köpenick sub-network of the Berlin tram . The Great Berlin Tram took over the Cöpenicker Gesellschaft in 1920; the network is still largely in operation today.
From 1952 to 2002 there was in Köpenick, in the forest between Köpenick and Mahlsdorf, a large transmitter system for VHF and medium wave with a 248 meter high self-radiating transmitter mast isolated from earth . The function of the transmitter Köpenick has been taken over by the TV tower with regard to VHF transmission operations and a trap antenna in Zehlendorf near Oranienburg with regard to medium wave transmission operations .
In the park between the Old Spree and the Bahnhofstrasse there until shortly after the turn of the Mecklenburg village a popular open-air restaurant . It consisted of a wooden windmill and numerous wooden stalls where self-service snacks, drinks, etc. a. were offered. The facility was built in 1973 for the 10th World Youth Festival .
In the district sports association Treptow-Köpenick e. V. as a non-profit school, sports and hiking base operated butterfly Horst presented the second largest after specifying the vertex butterfly exhibit of its kind in Europe and the largest in Germany.
In Köpenick there are three theaters (Schloßplatztheater Köpenick, Stadttheater Cöpenick and Zilles Stubentheater) such as the Köpenicker Zupforchester .
Sons and daughters of Köpenick
- Johann Gottlieb Brucker (1770–1829), military doctor and chief medical officer
- Henriette Lustig (1808–1888), founder of the laundry business
- Theophil von Podbielski (1814–1879), Prussian general
- Rudolf Rühl (1842–1909), city councilor and city elder of Cöpenick
- Oskar Titz (1845–1887), architect and building contractor
- Franz Elpel (1855–1934), garden director
- Alfred Nissle (1874–1965), doctor and scientist
- Paul Pohle (1883–1933), former and social democrat, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Max Götze (1891–1938), criminal specialized in robbing car traps
- Erwin Villain (1898–1934), SA leader
- Bruno Lüdke (1908–1944), alleged serial killer
- Maria Landrock (1923–1992), actress and voice actress
- Isot Kilian (1924–1986), actress, dramaturgy and assistant director, mistress of Bertolt Brecht
- Heinz Fabian (1925–2014), actor and radio play speaker
- Achim Hill (1935-2015), rower
- Monika Helmecke (* 1943), writer
- Rainer Dellmuth (* 1948), GDR opposition member
- Jochen Schümann (* 1954), sailing enthusiast
- Michael Illner (* 1962), screenwriter
- Christoph Wieschke (* 1971), actor
- Michael Nast (* 1975), writer
- Roman Geike (* 1977), singer and rapper
- Jan Mrachacz (* 1977), actor
- Patrick Jahn (* 1983), soccer player
- Jörn Schlönvoigt (* 1986), actor
- Laura Ludwig (* 1986), beach volleyball player, Olympic champion 2016
- Anna Hausburg (* 1989), actress
Personalities associated with Köpenick
- Jacza von Köpenick (before 1125–1176), lord of the castle and prince of Copnic
- Henriette Marie von Brandenburg-Schwedt (1702–1782), lived and died in Köpenick Castle
- Johann III Bernoulli (1744–1807), astronomer, buried in Köpenick
- Gustav Borgmann (1838–1908), Mayor of Cöpenick
- Carl Spindler (1841–1902), entrepreneur, honorary citizen of Köpenick
- Wilhelm Voigt (1849–1922), captain of Köpenick
- Georg Eppenstein (1867–1933), chemist, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Georg Langerhans (1870–1918), Mayor of Cöpenick
- Hugo Kinzer (1874–1929), city architect in Köpenick
- Richard Assmann (1875–1933), Chairman of the Works Council of AOK Berlin, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Otto Busdorf (1878–1957), criminal investigator
- Johannes Stelling (1877–1933), Social Democrat, Prime Minister of the Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin , murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Alexander Futran (1879–1920), chairman of the USPD in Köpenick
- Johann Schmaus (1879–1933), social democrat, trade unionist, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Paul von Essen (1886–1933), trade unionist, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Götz Kilian (1892–1940), communist, bookseller, city councilor in Köpenick and murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Karl Pokern (1895–1933), butcher, worker sportsman and murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Erich Janitzky (1900–1933), communist, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Paul Spitzer (1906–1933), communist, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Josef Spitzer (1907–1933), communist, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Anton Schmaus (1910–1934), carpenter, social democrat, murder victim of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Herbert Gehrke (1910–1945), SA leader, one of the organizers of the Köpenick Blood Week
- Fritz Schiller (1912–1992), district mayor in Köpenick
- Herbert Fechner (1913–1998), District Mayor of Köpenick
- Klaus Ulbricht (* 1938), District Mayor of Köpenick
- Claus-Dieter Sprink (1954–2006), director of the Köpenick local history museum
- Raiko Thal (* 1963), TV presenter, lives in Köpenick
- Steffen Baumgart (* 1972), soccer player and coach, lives in Köpenick
- Kai Lüftner (* 1975), author of books for children and young people, composer, lives in Köpenick
- Oliver Igel (* 1978), District Mayor of Treptow-Köpenick , lives in Köpenick
- Tim Bendzko (* 1985), singer-songwriter, grew up in Köpenick
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Köpenick
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Köpenick
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Köpenick
- Institute for Monument Preservation (Ed.): The architectural and art monuments of the GDR. Capital Berlin-II: City district Köpenick . Henschelverlag, Berlin 1984, p. 269 ff .
- Wolfgang Ribbe, Jürgen Schmädicke: Kleine Berlin-Geschichte , Stapp Verlag, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-87776-222-0 , pp. 7, 19, 21, 25 f, 36, 40, 44, 113, 128, 220.
- Michael Lindner: Jacza von Köpenick. A Slav prince of the 12th century between the Empire and Poland. Stories from a time when Berlin didn't exist yet. Viademica-Verlag, Berlin 2012. ISBN 978-3-939290-17-9 .
- Landesdenkmalamt Berlin (Ed.): 800 years of Köpenick: From Jacza to the Wettiners: Lordship, castle and city of Köpenick in the 12th and 13th centuries. Berlin 2014.
- Eckhard Thiemann: A bridge walk in Treptow-Köpenick. Brandel Verlag, Berlin, 2012, ISBN 978-3-00-040396-5 .
- Distant places. Photographs from the southeast of Berlin. Köpenick and Friedrichshagen in the 70s and 80s. With black-and-white photographs by Martin Claus, Frank Odening and Peter Tschauner. Brandel Verlag, Berlin 2014. ISBN 978-3-00-048065-2 .
- Page about Köpenick from the Treptow-Köpenick district office
- Detailed description of the history of Köpenick
- Maps of Köpenick
- 800 years of Köpenick on www. berlin.de
- Friedrich Leyden: Greater Berlin. Geography of the cosmopolitan city. Hirt, Breslau 1933, p. 206 (therein: Development of the population in the historical districts of old Berlin ).
- Statistical yearbooks of Berlin 1925 ff.
- Statistical report AI 5 - hj 2 / 19. Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31, 2019. Basic data. P. 26