Berlin TV tower

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Berlin TV tower
Telecommunication tower 32 (FMT 32)
Image of the object
View of the television tower in Berlin-Mitte
(with Urania world clock from Alexanderplatz )
Basic data
Place: Berlin center
Country: Berlin
Country: Germany
Altitude : 32  m above sea level NHN
Coordinates: 52 ° 31 '14.9 "  N , 13 ° 24' 34"  E
Use: TV tower , telecommunications tower , radio transmitter , observation tower , restaurant
Accessibility: TV tower open to the public
Owner : German radio tower
Tower data
Construction time : 1965-1969
Operating time: since 1969
Last renovation (tower) : 1995-1999
Total height : 368.03  m
Viewing platform: 203.78  m
Restaurant: 207.53  m
Operating rooms: 216  m , 220 m, 224 m
Total mass : over 31,000  t
Data on the transmission system
Last modification (antenna) : Summer 1997
Last modification (transmitter) : 2017 (switch to DVB-T2 HD )
Waveband : FM transmitter
Radio : VHF broadcasting
Send types: DVB-T2 HD , DAB , DRM , directional radio , mobile land radio , BOS radio
Further data
further height information:
Height of tower shaft: 248.78 m
Antenna support height: 118 m

further information on altitude:

Rescue platforms: 188 m, 191 m
Center of sphere: 213.78 m

Information on the diameter:

Outside foundation: 42 m
Foundation terrain height: 32 m
Shaft below: 16 m
Upper shaft: 9 m
Tower ball: 32 m
Viewing platform: 24 m

further information on the enclosed space:

Tower ball: 17,000 m³

Information about the revolving restaurant:

Surname: Telecafé
Tables: 40 tables
Seats: for 200 guests

Installed building materials:

Concrete : 7,900 m³
Round steel : 1,650 m³
Prestressing steel : 300 m³
Section steel : 1,500 m³

Position map
Berlin TV Tower (Berlin)
Berlin TV tower
Berlin TV tower
Localization of Berlin in Germany

At 368 meters, the Berlin television tower is the tallest structure in Germany and the fourth tallest television tower in Europe . The TV tower is located in the park at the television tower in Berlin district of Mitte . When it was completed in 1969, it was the second highest television tower in the world and, with over a million visitors annually, is one of the ten most popular sights in Germany .

The international-style television tower was built in 1965–1969 by the German Post Office of the GDR in the park by the television tower in place of the demolished Marienviertel . The opening took place on October 3, 1969. The structure is over 220 meters higher than the old Berlin radio tower from the 1920s in the western part of the city . As a landmark and highly visible landmark , it dominates the skyline of the city. In opening scenes of films related to Berlin , the capital is often symbolized by the television tower in addition to buildings such as the Brandenburg Gate , the Victory Column and the Reichstag building .

In addition to its main function as the location of several radio stations for radio and television , the structure, internally known as "Telecommunications Tower 32", serves as an observation tower with an observation deck including a bar at a height of 203 meters and includes a revolving restaurant . In addition, the Berlin TV tower serves as an event location. The distinctive and urban-defining building was subject to a strong symbolic change. After German reunification , it developed from a politically co-opted national symbol of the GDR into a city-wide symbol in reunified Berlin. Due to its universal and timeless design language, it was increasingly used as a trademark and is identified internationally with Berlin and Germany. The Berlin TV tower was given monument status in the GDR in 1979 , which was continued after German reunification.



At the European Broadcasting Conference in Stockholm in 1952, which was responsible for coordinating frequency waves in Europe, the GDR, which was politically unrecognized by most states at the time, was only granted two television frequency ranges : for band I, the frequency of 41.75 MHz, which was classified as susceptible to interference, and the Range from 208  MHz to 216 MHz for band III . Under these conditions, the Berlin urban area could not be equipped with several smaller transmitters without overlapping and thus interference or gaps in the television reception. For a complete and seamless coverage, a high-performance large transmitter with the highest possible location was required. In the 1950s, only very weak makeshift stations of the German television network fulfilled their purpose in Berlin.

Failed construction projects

Under the code name F4 , construction of a television tower began on the Great Müggelberg in 1954. The converted building stump is used as the Müggelberge TV tower for various purposes

In 1952, the Deutsche Post began planning a television tower for Berlin. The Funkwesen head office favored a plot of land in Berlin's Müggelberg Mountains , which, with the highest elevation in the Berlin area, offered the best topographical conditions within the Berlin urban area. In the considerations, it played a role that the location for such a functional building was far from the center and thus influenced neither the architectural nor the urban dimension. After the Deutsche Post applied for a site permit from the chief architect of the East Berlin magistrate Hermann Henselmann on April 23, 1954 , it was granted on May 4, 1954. The site and the tower should be accessible to the population, the height of the structure was planned to be 130 meters. The concrete building with a square floor plan was to contain two viewing platforms at a height of 70 meters, but not a cantilevered tower cage . The television tower under the code name F4 had a balance sheet total of 8.714 million marks and was included in the national economic plan for the years 1954 to 1957. On December 13, 1955, Interior Minister Karl Maron called for the construction work, which was already in full swing, to be stopped immediately. The Ministry had approved the building project on May 29, 1954; However, it has now established that the location is only eight kilometers from Berlin-Schönefeld Airport and that its height on the edge of the approach lane threatened to endanger flight operations. Various compromise efforts by the post office to reduce the height of the tower failed, so that on November 15, 1956, the construction project was finally discontinued. The end of the project is an early example of the conceptual problems of the East German planned economy, which in this case set back the development of the GDR's television and radio relay network by years. The stump of the Müggelberge TV tower, which had been completed by then, had two upper floors and was made weatherproof and now serves as a radio link for Deutsche Telekom .

After the failure of the F4 project , the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications had to look for a suitable alternative. At that time there were three touching rings of directional radio links on the area of ​​the GDR: the north, the middle and the south ring; an east ring was planned for later. The central television towers Berlin and Leipzig were planned at the points of contact between the north and central and central and south rings . In 1957, a new project planning phase began for the East Berlin television tower. In the meantime, the Dequede television tower, the first reinforced concrete television tower based on the model of the Stuttgart television tower, was under construction in the GDR . The unresolved issue of the location led to the Ministry of Post at the end of 1957 undertaking an attempt to build the tower in the city ​​center . All other areas were either unsuitable because of the risk to flight operations or difficult to integrate into the radio relay network. The architects Gerhard Frost and Waldemar Alder presented the plan for the first variant of a television tower located in the center of the city in 1957/1958. They favored the hilly park of the Volkspark Friedrichshain . As a result, four other locations near the park were discussed. After only hesitant progress, on July 24, 1960, a positive appraisal on the selected location was passed for resolution and a few days later the State Planning Commission created the economic conditions for the construction. According to the plan, the television tower in Friedrichshain should be ready for use in 1964.

A particularly severe economic crisis - partly because of the enormous costs of building the Berlin Wall - forced the government to prematurely abandon its seven-year plan - the only one in GDR history - in the spring of 1962 . The television tower in Friedrichshain fell victim to the need to save; the East Berlin magistrate decided on May 26, 1962 to end the project. The demolition was a setback for the postal ministry and threatened to turn all other towers in the radio network into investment ruins. The costs estimated in 1960 were around 20 million marks; As early as May 5, 1961, the Ministry corrected this estimate to 29.322 million marks and in January 1962 again to 30.7 million marks. Despite the end of planning and the lack of funds, foundation bores were carried out to explore the building site, and construction companies received their first orders. The tenants who lived on the planned construction site had to leave their apartments; most of the houses were demolished. The start of construction could hardly be stopped. Already at the end of 1961 a commission to "overcome the technical backlog in the field of radio and television" announced that at that time only 16 VHF transmitters were available instead of the planned 26 and that they could only supply around 80 percent of the population with television programs . The closure of the borders to West Germany made production and maintenance more difficult because of urgently needed imports. In addition to the areas on the inner-German border, the area northwest of Berlin was one of the areas with particularly poor GDR television coverage . The Ministry of Post held negotiations to anchor the tower in the plan for at least 1963. Despite a financial commitment of 300,000 marks for the construction preparation, the project was canceled once more and the Friedrichshain location was finally abandoned. All contracts were terminated.

New location search

After the final construction freeze in Volkspark Friedrichshain, the government expected further proposals from the ministry to improve radio coverage in the capital. In order to keep costs low, several slimmed-down proposals followed. The alternative of doing without a central tower and building four smaller radio stations was an option. This would have resulted in considerable losses in radio coverage. Since the government had a particular interest in broadcasting coverage, political pressure to implement it increased, so that the tower was again included in the 1964 national economic plan. However, the planners considered deleting the public area for reasons of cost; the choice of location was again uncertain. The Central Radio and Television Office (RFZ) of the Deutsche Post examined several locations and after various analyzes came to the conclusion that the Friedrichshain location was the perfect solution. Therefore, in January 1964, the ministry tried again to enforce the building plot on Friedrichshain. With a resolution of February 13, 1964, the Council of Ministers accepted the structural and technical design. In the first half of 1964, plans that had been inconclusive for over ten years picked up speed again. In addition to the objective purpose of optimal radio coverage, the role of the tower as a new landmark came more and more to the fore. In a letter from the State Planning Commission dated May 23, 1964, it says:

"Its height of 360 m [...] will make the building, which corresponds to the international standard, at the same time an impressive architectural point of attraction, which for this reason calls for a central location. Taking into account this representative effect for the construction of the capital and development of the GDR, the area east of Marx-Engels-Platz must be given unconditional preference over the previously planned one at Friedrichshain. "

The television tower was subjected to Walter Ulbricht's preferences in terms of planning policy

To many party functionaries, the television tower as the dominant height in urban development appeared to be an appropriate replacement for the unrealized central high-rise , which was to be built in place of the demolished Berlin Palace during the socialist redesign of the East Berlin center . In connection with this architecture competition at the end of the 1950s, Hermann Henselmann proposed to build a 300 meter high tower of signals , the tower shaft of which should consist of three concave curved bowls covered with white and gold mosaic . On the shaft at a height of 230 meters, a restaurant and viewing sphere made of luminous ruby glass should contain several floors and be closed off by a slender tip.

The decisive meeting of the Politburo on construction took place on July 14, 1964. There, the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the SED, Walter Ulbricht, came to the conclusion that the television tower planned centrally in Berlin should be preferred to the tall and unprofitable government building. At the same time, the SED management commissioned the overall management of the construction project with Gerhard Kosel , the then President of the German Building Academy . On August 24, 1964, Ulbricht Kosel invited the chief architect Joachim Näther to a meeting and recommended that the television tower be built to the west of Alexanderplatz station. The legitimation for Ulbricht's decision was later provided by the Swiss architect and urban planner Hans Schmidt , who had been commissioned to examine the visual relationships from the various locations. The recommended choice of location was tantamount to an order that the Politburo formulated as work instructions after the interview. A month later, on September 22nd, the tower was given its final location. In this session, Ulbricht is said to have uttered the phrase "Well, comrades, there you can see it very clearly: this is where it belongs", using the city ​​model of the German Building Academy, which has become the epitome of the regime's absolutist dictate. In the opinion of the planners involved, the solid subsurface was decisive for the location decision.

The political location decision was given an aesthetic justification by establishing the visual relationship between a passer-by on Marx-Engels-Platz and the tower 700 meters away. The design at the time envisaged two cylindrical tower baskets and a height of 375 meters. From this point the tower can be seen in its entire height without the observer having to look up, since it corresponds to the normal viewing angle of around 27 degrees. This ideal ratio also corresponds to the plan to arrange the structure axially as a central building (→ orientation in the architecture ), so that it becomes the focal point of various avenues and larger streets. This very simple explanation ignored on the one hand the already considered high-rise development on the Spree island , and on the other hand the fact that many of the streets have a kinked course and thus the idea of ​​a baroque orientation towards a point de vue only partially applied. As it turned out after completion, due to its height, the tower can be seen from many streets in the immediate vicinity of the city center, whereas further away it is partially or completely covered by high-rise buildings. The argumentation reflects the real socialist idea of ​​the center of power in a suitable way. Incidentally, the height of 365 meters was not due to the construction, but that only a high tower offered the necessary range.

Project planning and form finding

The concerns about the safety of air traffic, which had led to the abandonment of the project at the Müggelberge site, played no role in the safety of West Berlin airspace. The German planners rejected the objection raised by the western allies at the Soviet embassy with two brief explanations: firstly, the construction of the television tower did not affect the safety of air traffic in the GDR and, secondly, such questions concerning the territory of the GDR should be addressed directly to the GDR and not to the Soviet ambassador. There were critical voices against the location within the GDR. The chief architect Joachim Näther was one of the most prominent critics. Näther favored a public competition to mobilize the creative powers of all architects. The sculptor Fritz Cremer made it clear that he expressly rejects responsibility for the construction of the television tower at this location, despite his participation in the visual arts working group in the city center . Criticism of this kind was usually expressed in very clauses and could no longer change the status quo .

City model of the television tower and its surroundings

After the location had been found and the core of the construction had been determined, the question of the architectural design still had to be clarified. Kosel's suggestion of a two-part tower cage was too clearly reminiscent of the Vienna Danube Tower . In any case, the SED leadership wanted to avoid emulating existing forms in this building, which Ulbricht himself described as a “sensation”. For this reason, design guidelines were initially formulated very vaguely:

“The tower shouldn't look like a chimney. The design of the tower head should have the character of a crown: elegant tower head cladding "

- Minutes of the 1st meeting of the TV Tower Technical Council on October 16, 1964

There was still no question of a spherical shape as suggested by Henselmann in the 1950s. The first completely new design of the tower head contains an undated drawing from the VEB Industrieprojektierung (Ipro) Berlin towards the end of 1964 . The sectional drawing shows a slightly ellipsoidal shape with load-bearing support structures for the storeys and comes very close to the actual spherical head. This representation bears the signature of the Ipro architect Günter Franke . The new shape was fixed on December 22, 1964 for the tower as the terminus ante quem ; it was first discussed on January 19, 1965 by the Technical Council. Kosel's original idea of gilding the tower ball was out of the question for reasons of cost. The public learned about the project for the first time on February 13, 1965 from the central organ Neues Deutschland under the heading of the television tower, capital Berlin, with three model recordings.

The construction

Start of construction without a permit

Construction progress on August 10, 1966
Construction progress on December 2, 1966

With the approval of the new shape of the Berlin television tower by the Central Committee of the SED on February 9, 1965, it was made binding. A day later, the magistrate issued the site permit. On March 20, according to Ulbricht's instructions, the “rigorous” demolition work began on a total of 29,400 square meters of residential, office, retail and storage space. In order to be able to clear the site and the partly still intact buildings more quickly, wrecking balls and demolitions were also used. In April 1965 the costs for the land purchases and compensation amounted to at least 6.2 million marks . If the costs of demolition and relocation are added, the action cost 38.8 million marks, which already exceeded the estimated total costs of 33 million. This cost explosion in the first few months, caused by unrealistic estimates, led to planning confusion and to the fact that the planning commission and building supervision did not want to issue any further special permits, which led to a standstill of the work from May 31 to June 4, 1965. Only after Kosel's intervention could the work be continued; however, no approval was given. The German Investment Bank of the GDR , which was involved in the financing, saw the economic goals as "completely illegal" and charged the loans with a penalty interest rate. This almost brought the construction project to another standstill. Work on the project was only continued after a directing intervention. Because of the cover-up of the real costs for the construction of the Berlin TV tower, there was neither an official laying of the foundation stone nor a " first groundbreaking " ceremony . Without the required building permit, the tower began as a black building.

Foundation and shaft work

Scaffolding for the platform at the end of the tower shaft, August 1967

Work on the foundation began on August 4, 1965 and was completed by the end of 1965. It was possible to erect a roughly 20 meter high steel frame for concreting the tower base, which began on March 15, 1966. The steadily rising construction costs led to Gerhard Kosel having to vacate his post as general manager in December 1965. He was followed by Gerhard Frost, the architect of the Dequede television tower built in the late 1950s . The hyperboloid shell was completed on March 30, 1966 . The tower shaft could only be erected using a climbing construction method, as it tapers from 16 to 9 meters in diameter. The mezzanine floors, which can be recognized from the outside by their portholes, are divided into five sections.

The concreting proceeded quickly, so that the 100 meter mark was exceeded on October 4, 1966. The shaft reached its final height on June 16, 1967. The concrete was initially delivered in units of 500 liters; it was later mixed on site to ensure consistent quality. A total of 8,000 cubic meters of concrete were used for the 26,000 tonne and 248.78 meter high shaft. Work on the carrying platform began on August 29, 1967. A crane lifted the reinforced concrete slab with a total diameter of 16 meters in segments onto a pre-assembled auxiliary scaffolding. For safety reasons, this work required a blocking circle of 100 meters. The platform plate was not included in the original design and was only added later due to increased safety requirements. A heating of the lower part of the antenna support reliably prevented the falling of ice deposits.

Construction of the sphere

Framework for pre-assembly of the tower ball (August 1967). In the background, the recess in the upper part of the concrete shaft for the future position of the ball can be seen.

The preparatory work for the tower ball continued parallel to the construction of the shaft. The realization of the construction details as well as different views on the responsibility of the institutions involved made the work progress more difficult. Until the summer of 1966, it was still unclear which steel construction company should produce the outer shell of the sphere. Finally, VEB Industriemontagen Merseburg and VEB Industriestahlbau Leipzig received the order. The client imported stainless steel from West Germany as the material . The VEB Ipro working group had worked out the procedure for assembling the ball on the reinforced concrete shaft, after which the ball could be divided into 120 segments and put together on the ground. For this purpose, a 35-meter-high replica of the shaft was built on the construction site between St. Mary's Church and the Red Town Hall in April 1967 , on which the spherical segments were preassembled. This work lasted until November 1967. The construction costs had meanwhile risen to 95 million marks, mainly caused by components and materials that had to be paid for in foreign currency .

From January 2 to February 7, 1968, a railway crane from VEB Schwermaschinenbau S. M. Kirow Leipzig was installed on the concreted shaft . On March 29, 1968, the first spherical segment could be transported upwards. The lifting process of the ten-ton individual item took 22 minutes. The elements were assembled from bottom to top and clockwise and first had to be supported against the concrete shaft before the steel straps, which were supposed to hold the entire spherical structure after the work was completed, could be loaded. In June the antenna supports could be raised. In mid-July, all facade elements and floors were completely installed. At the end of July 1968, the steel belts were subjected to trial loading: presses pushed the elements away from the tower shaft so that they could be attached to the belts. On October 5th, the sphere was completely covered with the outer skin. The thermal windows required for the viewing platform and the restaurant were made in Belgium . A small segment was initially left open in order to bring in the materials for the interior work comfortably. The last segment piece was finally attached on October 7th. After completion of this construction phase, those involved celebrated the topping-out ceremony .

Finishing work

Berlin TV tower shortly before its completion in July 1969

The approximately five-meter-high segments of the antenna tubes manufactured in the VEB Funkwerk Köpenick were transported to the intended place by the crane, which was later left on the structure, and then via a climbing crane . From October 2 to October 30, 1968, the tower structure received its top and the antenna structure above the sphere, so that the interior work could follow in the following year. The construction work schedule was kept relatively well. In contrast, the costs ran completely out of control; by the end of November 1968 they had reached a high of 103.53 million marks.

The construction work, which was carried out in three shifts, employed 60 workers during the day and 30 at night. The work of around 300 companies was necessary on the project. Considerable effort was put into making the process as quick as possible. Heatable plastic tents were available for the workers. There was a telephone system in the shaft for communication between those involved in the construction, and handheld radios from the National People's Army were also used. The construction management was in constant contact with the weather service in Potsdam to be warned of possible storms.

At the beginning of 1969, water seeped into the interior of the tower ball, causing considerable damage; the ball had to be resealed. There was now a delay of ten months compared to the original plan; because the work was to be finished on October 7, 1969, on the 20th anniversary of the GDR. The interior was completed by October 3, 1969, and the entrance pavilion was completed. After 53 months of pure construction, the tower was completed in a “record-breaking” time despite all the adversities. The costs amounted to over 132 million marks, not including the two pavilions, which were only completed in the early 1970s. This made the tower at least four times as expensive as originally planned. A precise final bill was never drawn up, as the authorities involved tried to spread the costs across different funds in order to save the balance sheet.

The building, which was officially called the Berlin TV and FM Tower , was the second tallest TV tower in the world in October 1969. Only the Ostankino television tower in Moscow was higher . At the same time, it was the third tallest free-standing structure of its time after the tower in Moscow and the Empire State Building in New York .

Since opening

Berlin TV Tower (1970)
Size comparison of the Berlin television tower (right) with the world's highest television towers

On October 3, 1969, Walter Ulbricht inaugurated the television tower together with his wife Lotte and a delegation of high-ranking companions, including Günter Mittag , Herbert Warnke , Paul Verner , Rudolph Schulze , Erich Honecker , Werner Lamberz and Erich Mielke , and gave the starting signal for DFF 2 , the second state program of the GDR. With that, color television began in the GDR on two channels. After a controversial process, a decision was made in favor of the French SECAM and against the West German PAL system. The socialist daily newspaper Neues Deutschland described the construction work as "The tower - a masterpiece for the republic" and "The tower - a symbol of our achievement". The emphatic reporting on the completion continued in the GDR until 1989 and was supported by all media. The tower has been open to the public since October 7, 1969, Republic Day . In order to give priority to the reports on the opening of the tower in Berlin, the official opening of the television tower in Dresden, which was completed in the summer of 1969, was postponed . The press in West Berlin largely ignored the event.

As of February 16, 1970, five VHF programs broadcast from the tower; the first television program followed on April 4, 1970. At the beginning of 1972, the two missing pavilions for exhibitions, the information center of the Berlin Information , a cinema and dining facilities were completed. In total, the restaurants offered space for around 1000 guests. In the same year, the four millionth visitor was welcomed in the television tower. After a legal basis for monument protection was created in 1975 , the Berlin television tower received this status in 1979. After the fall of the GDR , the Federal Republic of Germany fixed the building's monument status.

In 1986 a peregrine falcon couple first settled at Alexanderplatz. The birds use the television tower as a seat for high- seat hunting . The hide is located 185 meters above the ground on the southeast side of the tower. Usually the peregrine falcons pounce on the birds that pass by at night. From the raised hide, the falcons can see the prey birds well above the brightly lit Alexanderplatz. During the day, the hawks could be observed hunting insects around the television tower and collecting the insects from the concrete surface with their beak and catch. The pair of birds of prey are used for breeding in nesting boxes at the Marienkirche and at the Berlin City Hall.

When the Palace of the Republic was closed in 1990, the year of German reunification , and demolition was seriously considered, there were increasing voices that wanted the television tower as the epitome of totalitarian rule in the GDR to be demolished. The writer Friedrich Dieckmann noted the following in 1992:

“I am also inclined to preserve the palace [of the republic] because there is an incomparably more important demolition object inside the city, that is the television tower. […] This obscene structure […] is an architectural demonstration of power of unadorned directness, as it were the vertical correlate to the wall at ground level. The defensive border structure in its linear extension was accompanied by the gesture of aggression from this tower needle, which emerged in a kind of barrier and whose exposed concrete was primarily designed for West Berlin. One should see there who was in control of Berlin. "

- Friedrich Dieckmann

The Federal Republic decided to keep the building. The German Telekom as a new operator finally invested over 50 million marks in the modernization of transmission facilities. Some structural renovations had to be made; among other things, sprayed asbestos had to be removed. In 1995/1996, for example, the wall and ceiling cladding of the tower restaurant and the observation deck were replaced with new, flame-retardant insulation materials . From 1995 to 1999, Telekom had the operating technology completely renewed for around 100 million marks. During these renovations, the previous antenna from 327 meters was given a new, more powerful tip. This increased the tower from its original 365 meters in the summer of 1997 to 368 meters. The exposed concrete tower shaft was given a light gray protective varnish.

In the 1990s, the Berlin TV tower served more and more as a backdrop for top sporting performances. For example, on June 24, 1992, on the occasion of a "holiday opening party", the sport climbers Detlef Stock, Tilmann Hartmann and Gregor Katzer descended from the dome (207 m) and the viewing level (203 m) with the help of connected 50 m ropes. The Austrian Rupert Hirner settled for the 25th anniversary of the tower on 3 October 1994. long on a 70-meter and 70-kilogram rubber rope of 260 meters covered in depth. With the bungee jump , Hirner set a world record . On March 26, 1995, the high wire artist Matthias Traber tried to cross the distance on a 620 meter long and 36 millimeter thick rope that was stretched between the television tower and the Berlin Cathedral . Around 50,000 onlookers gathered for the spectacle, which had to be stopped after 28 minutes. Traber lost his balance after 250 meters above the Neptune Fountain and had to abseil from a height of 50 meters. On July 3, 1998, the first tower stair race took place in the Berlin TV tower, which was won by hurdler and former Olympic champion Thomas Munkelt with a time of 5: 56.8 minutes . He made the 986 steps to the observation deck five seconds faster than the three-time winner of the New York Empire State Building run.

The tower ball disguised as football for the 2006 World Cup

The television tower is one of the structures that is artfully illuminated for several days by a special light installation at the Festival of Lights , which has been taking place in October since 2004 . On the occasion of the 2006 soccer world championship , the tower ball was disguised as a magenta-colored soccer ball as part of an advertising campaign by the operator Telekom . The pasting of the outer facade of the tower cage was carried out by industrial climbers in a five-month campaign. In 2009 the tower was used again as an advertising medium. Telekom had 14  vinyl banners with love messages attached along the shaft.

At the instigation of the operating company TV Turm Alexanderplatz Gastronomiegesellschaft mbH , all public areas were completely modernized at the beginning of 2012, which took five months and cost around 1.5 million euros. During the same period, the Berlin Senate commissioned a redesign of the area surrounding the television tower. The interior received new furniture, the visitor areas were made lighter and the quality of stay in all public areas was significantly increased. The redesign of the forecourt was completed by December 2013, above all the removal of the flower borders at the lower tips of the pavilion folding roofs.

Location and surroundings

Location map of the Berlin TV tower

The Berlin TV tower is located southwest of the Alexanderplatz train station in the park at the TV tower . The location of the structure is often incorrectly assigned to Alexanderplatz in the northeast . Because of its proximity to the famous square, the television tower is sometimes even referred to as the Alex Tower .

The actual surroundings of the television tower were designed as a small green oasis for visitors between 1969 and 1974 , the GDR collectives W. Herzog, H. Aust, R. Heider were involved for the hexagonal geometry of the pavilion buildings at the foot of the television tower with an inn and exhibition areas and H. Matthes , E. Horn and R. Rühle for the water features and the green areas, which take up the geometry of the buildings with the rose parterres , ornamental trees , linden and maple . The total area extends from the train station to the newly placed neo-baroque Neptune Fountain . The Berlin Senate has placed the ensemble under a preservation order and christened the socialist center area .

Aerial view of the television tower and its surroundings

The tower stands on a rectangular, about six hectare large square at 37  m above sea level. NN . The area is bordered by Gontardstrasse and the railroad tracks of the Alexanderplatz station (northeast), Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse , on which the oldest church in Berlin, the Marienkirche (northwest), Spandauer Strasse (southwest) and Rathausstrasse with the red one is located City Hall (southeast). On the south side of Spandauer Straße, the Marx-Engels-Forum connects to the Spree .

In addition to the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn trains , several tram and bus lines stop at the train station, from which the middle exit leads to the entrance building of the television tower.

The lying on the northern edge of the Gontardstraße outgoing scenic road in 1882 after a rotunda with the Panorama of the Battle of Sedan named. Ancillary buildings of the tower are assigned to this street: the annex opposite the entrance is Panoramastraße 1a, the right wing of the entrance building is Panoramastraße 2. The television tower with the entrance building Gontardstraße 7 and its left wing building is Gontardstraße 9.

At the same time as the television tower, the 125 m high hotel tower Interhotel Stadt Berlin on Alexanderplatz , which was completed in 1970 and is run as the Park Inn by Radisson Berlin Alexanderplatz , was completed. Between 1967 and 1972, the Rathauspassagen was built directly south of the TV tower as a long bar next to the Red Town Hall.

Building description

Foundation, base and shaft

Tower base with skyway (right) and maintenance cage (left on the floor)

The Berlin TV Tower is due to the uneven subsoil from 2.70 to 5.80 meters established ; the foundation has a wall thickness of 50 centimeters. Compared to the foundation depths of other television towers, such as the one in Stuttgart with 8 meters or the Europaturm in Frankfurt am Main with 18.5 meters, the Berlin tower has a flat foundation. The test wells unearthed a mixture of gravel , sand, hard coal and lignite layers that have good bearing capacity. In addition, despite the relative proximity to the Spree, the location is on one of the valley sand islands on which historic Berlin was founded. The outer diameter of the foundation is 42 meters. The structure is founded on a three meter thick and slightly inwardly prestressed ring foundation with an outer diameter of 41 meters. In addition to this foundation, there is a second square with sides of 4.70 meters, which supports the inner part of the tower shaft. It is a 390-ton, self-supporting steel support structure that rises to a height of 230 meters. The scaffolding accommodates three elevators, supply shafts and cables as well as an emergency staircase with 986 steps. For reasons of stability, the shaft frame is connected to the inside of the concrete shaft at various points.

The visible base at ground level has a diameter of 32 meters and runs in the form of a 20 meter high hyperbolically tapering truncated cone with portholes . In this detail it resembles the Ostankino television tower in Moscow . The 248.78 meter high tower shaft rises from the entrance pavilion to the tower cage , the diameter of which tapers from 16 to 9 meters. The five sections of 45 meters each are divided by mezzanines, which can be seen on the outside by the portholes. From a height of 91 meters, there are red flight warning lights .

Redevelopment complex

Entrance pavilion

Three pavilions, whose floor plans are arrow-shaped and symmetrical to the longitudinal axis of the tower square, line the tower at its ground level base. The two-storey, hexagonal buildings serve as an entrance area as well as for dining facilities and for exhibitions. Only the entrance pavilion had been completed by the time it opened. They are glazed on all sides and flooded with light. The most striking feature of this basic complex is the thirty percent incline of the folding concrete roofs, the tips of which begin about 30 centimeters above the ground. Other parts of the roof strut upwards and soar up to 21 meters high. The entrance building is around 50 meters across from Alexanderplatz train station. The open entrance hall is flanked by a six-part flight of stairs , the parts of which meet in the middle of a central platform. This hall houses the cash desk area for the tower driveway and a souvenir shop. A glazed and covered passage ( called the skyway ) at a height of six meters leads to the walkways on the tower shaft and to the elevators.

The hexagonal grid of the building complex continues in the large, south-west facing staircase that leads to the other two pavilions. The stairs literally push themselves from the tower enclosure as a terrace into the park. Four water basins are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the stairs, which are automatically activated every full hour in order to create different water figures with fountains. The system consists of 560 nozzles and has 296 underwater spotlights to illuminate the water feature. From a bird's eye view, the area around the building appears as an arrow or a rocket. The Neptune Fountain is in a line of sight to the southwest staircase. The open space is around 600 meters long and 300 meters wide. It was designed by the architects Hubert Matthes , Eberhard Horn and Rolf Rühle. The structural execution of the foot conversion was the responsibility of the engineers Ulrich Müther as well as Walter Herzog and Heinz Aust.

Tower ball

Tower cage and antenna support

Structure and technology

The tower cage is formed by a sphere - also known as the tower sphere - with a diameter of 32 meters and a volume of just over 17,000 cubic meters. The center of the sphere is at a height of 213.78 meters. The outer skin of the seven-storey structure consists of trapezoidal surfaces that protrude 15 centimeters above the base and form silvery-gray pyramids . This gives the ball a structure that resembles a diamond rustika . Except for the visitor levels, the structure is windowless. Only small portholes on the other floors let light into the interior.

The sheets for the outer cladding are made of high-quality stainless steel from Stahlwerke Südwestfalen AG Dillenburg . The fact that the GDR imported the material from the class enemy from West Germany was deliberately kept secret. The over 1000 pyramids make the 3500 square meter outer skin of the tower sphere look like a diamond. In addition to the aesthetic design, the shape serves to prevent air turbulence. The increased roughness of the surface reduces the contact surface for winds. The tower ball has a mass of 4800 tons.

While most of the tower baskets of television towers rest directly on concrete brackets , the sphere is attached to the concrete shaft by means of a complicated steel framework . The inner steel skeleton is suspended from a pull ring on 20 steel straps and rests on a concrete console at a height of 229 meters. The thickness of the 20 steel strips varies between 8 and 26 centimeters and forms a polygon with multiple kinks . The bands numbered “I” to “XX” on the public floors are visible next to every third window. On each level, each of the 20 strips is welded to the outer edge of a radial beam, the inside of which rests on the concrete shaft. Between the radial girders there are smaller, tangentially running girders that form a framework-like structure. The advantage of this hanging construction is that it creates column-free rooms that can be partitioned as desired.

Security technology

In order to keep the risk of falling pieces of snow and ice as low as possible, various safety measures were implemented in the upper third of the sphere. A snow guard is located above and below the fourth and fifth row of pyramids. Between the sixth and seventh rows at a height of 220 meters, a walk-in drainage channel forms an incision that can be seen from a distance with the naked eye, in which precipitation can drain away. Certain particularly reinforced areas of the outer skin provide protection against icefall. In order to be able to reach all parts of the sphere via a working platform adapted to the respective curvature, a system of four special guide rails was developed with which the entire sphere can be bypassed. This working platform is parked at the base of the tower when not in use. There is a two-storey maintenance platform permanently attached to the sphere for cleaning the windows. Their guide rails can be seen above and below the two window floors.

Floor division

The air conditioning system, which cools the transmission technology and the restaurant, is located on the lowest floor at 200 meters. An import from Scandinavia was used as initial equipment. Above this is the viewing platform at 203.78 meters with a diameter of 24 meters, which is approved for a total of 120 people. On this level for the public there is a parapet in front of the outwardly inclined windows, on which the cityscape is explained on display boards.

On the third level with a diameter of 29 meters is located on 207.53 meters, the restaurant floor, Telecafé called, with tables at 40 distributed seats for 200 guests. The inner part of this floor forms a fixed corridor. The outer part is a rotating ring, 4.50 meters wide, mounted on 120 rollers, which forms the basis for the revolving restaurant . Until the renovation in the late 1990s, the fixed tables rotated 360 degrees clockwise within an hour ( top view ); afterwards the guests had to vacate their seats. The speed of rotation can now be set to half an hour or a full hour. The Telecafé is separated from the stairwell by a colored, translucent glass wall designed by the artist Richard O. Wilhelm . The brightly dotted wall stylizes the Milky Way . The two visitor levels are highlighted with bronze-colored ribbon windows on the outside. The sphere has a total usable area of ​​5000 square meters.

On three additional floors above the area accessible to visitors at 216, 220 and 224 meters, there are transmission systems for television and radio technology and the operating rooms for the measurement technicians. With the exception of an RF power meter, the transmitter systems in the tower cage are exclusively air-cooled . The top technical floor houses the extinguishing gas control center for fire fighting . A meteorological weather station of the German Weather Service is also housed in the tower sphere . The measuring instruments are located in the tip of the antenna.

Evacuation platforms and radio relay systems

Radio relay systems and crane in parking position

Below the tower ball (188 and 191 meters), two rescue platforms projecting 1.60 meters and open at the top lead around the shaft. These offer space for up to 400 people, which corresponds to the maximum number of people, 380 visitors and 20 employees, that can be in the basket. The evacuation platforms are connected with a staircase from the tower ball.

Above the tower ball, the tower shaft continues up to a height of 250 meters. The elevator machine rooms are housed in it. On the outside there are radial steel platforms that carry the directional radio antennas. The optically recessed steel frame for the directional radio antennas brings out the upward striving of the tower much better than the solution otherwise common in GDR television towers, in which the directional radio systems are attached to the shaft or the tower cage is built in.


Three elevators operate within the tower, two of which are intended for public use. The third is reserved for the operating staff of the technical rooms. The original lifts from Sweden were replaced by Kone systems in early 1996 . Their transport capacity is 15 people; They can make the way to the observation floor at a height of 203 meters in 38 seconds thanks to their travel speed of six meters per second. In an emergency, the elevators can be brought to the same height and you can transfer from one car to the other. From February 10, 2014, the elevators were renewed for around two months without interrupting operations. During the journey, you can look through a window in the ceiling of the cabin into the illuminated elevator shaft above.

Antenna support

The antenna carrier is anchored with bolts on the uppermost shaft section, which extends over the tower cage . An “ice plate” is attached to this intermediate piece at a height of 248.7 meters, which is intended to catch ice falling from the antenna. At the same time, the plate serves as a base for an assembled railway crane, which was already lifting the individual facade segments when the tower ball was built. It was made by VEB Schwermaschinenbau S. M. Kirow Leipzig . Since the tower was put into operation, the crane with a 20-meter boom has been used as a hoist for maintenance work and parks with the arm folded down in a north-easterly direction.

The antenna support is 118 meters long, weighs 245 tons and is mainly made of steel. Only its tip consists of plastic cylinders; A damper pendulum with a mass of 1.5 tons is housed in it to compensate for fluctuations. In 1997, the antenna carrier was fitted with a more powerful antenna tip from a height of 327 meters, which has since increased the tower by three meters. The antenna carrier has a diameter of four meters at the base and tapers to less than two meters at the tip.

150 different antennas for television and radio transmission (→  frequencies and programs ) are mounted on the carrier. The antennas for digital television ( DVB-T2 HD ), VHF radio stations and digital radio (DAB) are arranged from bottom to top . The transmission area covers around 20,000 square kilometers in Berlin and its surrounding area and has the highest radio density in Germany. Together with the Scholzplatz transmitter in Heerstrasse and the Berlin-Schäferberg telecommunications tower in Wannsee , the Berlin television tower’s transmitter forms a network.

Building material consumption

The following building materials were used in the construction of the 26,000 tonne Berlin television tower: 7,900 cubic meters of concrete, 1,650 tons of round steel, 300 tons of prestressing steel and 1,500 tons of profile steel. The steel used for profiling is divided into the foot frame with 175 tons, the elevator shaft with 390 tons, the antenna bracket with 70 tons, the auxiliary construction for the supporting platform with 20 tons, the antenna carrier with 245 tons and the tower head with 600 tons.

Festival and safety lighting

Illuminated tower cage

Traditionally, the festival lighting of the Berlin television tower is only switched on five days a year (January 1st, December 24th to 26th and 31st) at dusk. This consists of six circumferential rows of lamps in the cylindrical antenna structure above the tower ball, several rows of pearls in the shape of a string of pearls in the tower ball, the most luminous of which is located in the upper third of the tower, and two circumferential rows of lamps on the two ring-shaped evacuation platforms below the tower ball. In addition, as on other nights, the underside of the tower ball is illuminated by spotlights. This, in its visually impressive entirety, strictly reserved for the days mentioned above, with exclusively white, standing lights, is to be distinguished from mostly colored, moving, changing effect lighting (often with the help of external lasers ) on various occasions, such as the Festival of Lights or Tower anniversaries.

The television tower has several lighting systems for flight safety in different weather conditions. There are obstruction lights at 91, 136, 181 meters along the shaft and on the antenna support at 267, 303 and 329 meters. These light up permanently red.

Above the tower sphere at 230 meters and at the top of the antenna support there are additional, flashing hazard lights that have a three-second cycle. The flashing lights are automatically switched to white in daylight and to red in the dark.

This system has existed since September 2009 and replaces an earlier system that was in operation from October 1989. Instead of the red / white flashing lights, white- glowing xenon flash units with a flash interval of 1.5 seconds were used (also at night) . Until the turning point in autumn 1989, the lighting philosophy on the Berlin television tower largely corresponded to the current system with red flashing lights.

Since January 2018, with an interruption in March, the top of the Berlin TV tower has been illuminated in white at night from the globe upwards.

Visitors and tourism

Fernsehturm Berlin entrance ticket.jpg
Fernsehturm Berlin entrance ticket viewing floor.jpg

Admission tickets to the Tele-Café (left) and the viewing floor during GDR times

The Berlin TV tower is not only a broadcast tower, but also a landmark, tourist attraction and event location. On the European continent, the Berlin TV tower is the third highest publicly accessible building and the second highest publicly accessible viewing point in Germany. Since October 2017, the Thyssenkrupp test tower in Rottweil has offered the highest public viewing platform in Germany.

In the first three years after it opened, over four million people visited the building. After the fall of the Wall, the average has leveled off at around 1.2 million visitors from around 90 countries every year. Of these, around 60 percent came from abroad in 2010, with Spaniards leading the visitors from abroad with 8.1 percent, followed by Italians with 7.6 percent and Danes with 6.7 percent. This made the tower number 8 of the most popular German attractions in 2010. The total number of people allowed on the sphere is 320 people. Of the up to 5000 guests a day, around 1500 visit the tower restaurant. During the GDR era, the length of stay in the Tele-Café was limited to 60 minutes and on the observation floor to 30 minutes.

Queue of visitors at the Berlin TV tower with a hostess in the foreground, 1970

The two visitor elevators each take twelve people in around 40 seconds to the viewpoint at a height of 203 meters, where Berlin's highest bar is located. From 60 windows there is a panoramic view of the whole of Berlin and the surrounding area. The revolving restaurant is located 21 steps above the viewing platform at a height of 207 meters. The restaurant rotates 360 ° within an hour. For fire safety reasons, the main kitchen is located at the foot of the tower. The dishes are transported by elevator to the restaurant floor, where they are prepared in a small satellite kitchen. In addition to the two evacuation platforms below the tower cage, the fire protection concept also includes a strict ban on smoking in the entire structure. It is not possible for wheelchair users and people with current walking difficulties to visit the Berlin TV tower, as in an emergency they could not use the escape route without outside help. Animals, prams and large pieces of luggage are also not allowed for safety reasons.

In 1972 the visitor mark was exceeded by a total of four million. Almost 42 years after the opening, on June 14, 2011, the Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit welcomed the 50 millionth visitor. The entire city area can be seen from the viewing terrace of the television tower. When visibility is good, you can see the Tropical Islands leisure park, which is just under 60 kilometers away .

The television tower, which is open to the tourist public all year round, has seasonally adjusted opening times. The last ascent to the observation deck takes place every day at 11:30 p.m., the last access to the restaurant at 11 p.m. The public area can be rented for special occasions, celebrations, receptions and other events with a maximum of 200 guests. Civil weddings are also possible on the television tower. The bar area on the viewing floor is reserved for one hour for the bride and groom and the wedding party of up to 30 people.

Events that are a meeting point for locals and guests are also regularly held on the Berlin TV tower. The television tower offered a public viewing for the first time for the 2018 World Cup . All the games that could be seen on public television were shown on the observation deck and in the revolving restaurant.

Copyright dispute

Due to the long and unstable history of planning and construction and the associated changing responsibilities, several architects and engineers were involved in the construction of the television tower. Although the term collective is of great importance in socialism in particular , a copyright dispute broke out after its completion in 1969 , which was unique in the GDR architectural history to this extent . In particular, Hermann Henselmann and the architects from VEB Ipro Berlin around Fritz Dieter , Günter Franke and Werner Neumann claimed to have conceptually designed the shape of the building, in particular its spherical head building, alone and independently. Since Gerhard Kosel was deposed as the original chief architect, his name remained completely unnamed until the fall of the GDR. From 1989 Kosel joined the dispute as a third party. The dispute was fought out through legal means for decades.

Kosel (second from left) and Henselmann (far right) in 1957 during the Congress of German Architects in Leipzig

Hermann Henselmann, as chief architect at the East Berlin magistrate , cited two main arguments for his authorship: firstly, with the “Tower of Signals”, he designed a television tower with a spherical tower cage as early as 1958/1959, and secondly, as head of two project groups of the Technical Council this form prevailed. Although Henselmann's design undoubtedly bears a strong resemblance to the actual building, there are hardly any valid documents from the design period that prove how great the influence of his design actually was on the design of the TV and VHF tower. Doubts about the clarity persist mainly because Henselmann did not succeed in refuting the claims of the Ipro architects from the start. He also often got entangled in contradicting times for certain designs. Nevertheless, a certain “suggestion” cannot be ruled out.

The Ipro architects, on the other hand, state that they developed their design independently of Henselmann's designs or suggestions. They even stated that they did not even know Henselmann's design. This statement does not seem credible, since the "Tower of Signals" was published in 1961 in the GDR architecture magazine Deutsche Architektur . One argument for the Ipro architects is that there was a work instruction to design the space required for the tower cage in such a way that a maximum volume was available for the transmission technology, the public needs and the desired full air conditioning with the smallest possible surface area. With this requirement the ball is the only possible solution. The collective of architects tried out a total of 40 tower cage variants. The actual proposal for the ball comes from Fritz Dieter . Günter Franke produced the necessary sectional drawings for the reports to the authorities. Henselmann's role only consisted of enforcing the stipulated form with the Technical Council.

Gerhard Kosel, who was the overall manager of the construction project from July 1964 to December 1965, was always disregarded in official documents after his removal. Kosel stated that he had suggested the current location of the television tower and had determined the shape before Henselmann's design. Due to his dismissal, his work on the project could not be recognized. Kosel's participation in the construction and his performance in relation to the implementation are undisputed. However, there are no known documents that could prove that the authorship in question can be attributed to him.

After Kosel and Dieter publicly attacked Henselmann's point of view, on February 22, 1994, Henselmann applied to the Berlin Chamber of Architects for a court of honor . Since the board rejected such a procedure, a colloquium was called and the three were invited. During this conversation, after an emotionally charged exchange, all opponents insisted on their position. In the same year Dieter turned to the Berlin district court and wanted to have Henselmann prohibited from publicly calling himself the author of the Berlin television tower. After an affidavit from Henselmann, Dieter had to withdraw his application. Kosel tried to enforce his position through the media, a publication and the Berlin Senate .

The only comprehensive mention of the people involved remains an issue of the magazine Deutsche Architektur , published in August 1970 , in which Fritz Dieter and Günter Franke are named for the architectural design and Hermann Henselmann as the artistic advisor. The magazine named the Ipro architects only after several interventions. It can be assumed that the parties influenced and inspired one another. It is not possible to exactly reconstruct how high this proportion of self-creative work was. It is questionable whether the actual authorship can ever be clarified, especially since Dieter (1931–2002), Franke as well as Henselmann and Kosel have died in the meantime. Henselmann may have been inspired by a contribution by the French architect Jean Faugeron, whose competition design for West Berlin in 1957/1958 provided for a television tower that anticipated the design approaches of the Berlin television tower in the perspective representation.



Even when viewed from below , the tower cage can be seen as a sphere

With the spherical tower head, the Berlin television tower differs particularly clearly from the television towers built up to then, which mostly have cylindrical, conical or disk-shaped projections . This makes it unique and stands out from other structures of its kind. The spherical shape has the property that it can always be recognized as such regardless of the point of view. With other shapes, the shape is lost, especially when viewed from below .

The Soviet satellite Sputnik as a form generator for a movement in the GDR architecture, which finds its most prominent application in the television tower

The shape is the most important representatives of the " Sputnik - iconography " the rezipierte the successes of the Soviet space program in the GDR. Associated with this is the image of the "television tower rocket", which is already supported by the shape of the foot surround. Other architectural examples of this time are today's Café Moskau with Sputnik decorations on the roof and the Kino International equipped with "engine lamps" . There are also borrowings from space motifs in the teacher's house and in the former State Council building . The sphere of the television tower stands for the satellite which, carried by the dynamic shaft, strives up to the sky.

The architecture used the spherical shape even before the construction of the Berlin television tower, for example in the geodesic dome Biosphère by Richard Buckminster Fuller for Expo 67 or the Dresden Kugelhaus from the 1920s. The use of the spherical shape for a tower was a novelty. Due to its strong representative character, at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s, the building paved the way for a short-term architectural and urban development trend in the GDR . Buildings in important cities in the country should be equipped with dominant high-rise buildings, whose design language should refer to the function or region in an artistic way. This is how, for example, the Leipzig university high-rise , whose shape is intended to be reminiscent of an open book, and the Jentower , whose basic shape is based on a telescope and lens. A ship's bow was intended as a shape for a building for science, education and culture that had not been realized in Rostock and the building for heavy machinery in Magdeburg was supposed to be a screw. Because of the sometimes overly clear iconicity , these buildings are often viewed as less architecturally successful. Even if the television tower borrows from the satellite form, its form stands for itself without the ideological superstructure, which makes it appear much more timeless and universal. The art historian Peter Müller even describes it as the most important building that GDR architecture has produced in its history.

Towers that take up a spherical shape were also built abroad in the following years. At the end of the 1970s, the Nuremberg telecommunications tower was built in the Federal Republic of Germany , whose egg-shaped tower basket is a modification of the sphere, but nevertheless comes very close to the shape of the Berlin television tower. However, this is not implemented as consistently architecturally, as the upper part only suggests the shape of the antenna platforms. The three water towers in Kuwait City are not only formally based on the Berlin model. In the 1970s, the Kuwaiti property developer wanted to award the contract to the same GDR companies that had built the television tower. Despite the preference for Kuwait , the GDR did not succeed in winning the bid for the project. The water towers with spherical water reservoirs were built by Swedish companies. Another tower with a spherical section is the 81-meter-high Sunsphere , which was built as a landmark for the 1982 World Exhibition in Knoxville (Tennessee) . A similar tower was built a few years earlier in Dallas with the 171-meter-high Reunion Tower , which has a cylindrical tower cage spanned by a spherical mesh. The Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai from the 1990s cites the ball motif several times, which is supposed to be reminiscent of a pearl necklace.

The foot enclosure with the three pavilions and the expressively shaped collar-fold roofs that were built between 1968 and 1972 support the aeronautical motif with their shape and arrangement . The roof construction with its raised and lowered forms can be interpreted as the flapping of a bird's wings. This architecture is indicative of international modernism after the Second World War . The capital of Brazil , Brasília , laid out in the 1960s, is based on a bird with outspread wings ( Plano Piloto in Portuguese, `` master plan '') and Eero Saarinen's reception building (TWA terminal) at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport has a similar solution Associations.

From a political symbol to a landmark for Berlin and Germany

The comparatively simple basic shape of the Berlin TV tower made it an easily recognizable and reproducible landmark that found its way into art and culture as well as into everyday perception. The television tower was the necessary functional building to counteract the catastrophic broadcast coverage in East Berlin. Despite its architecturally unique design, it was only a means to an end and thus a “substitute symbol” for the failed concept of the central building. The television tower also served to convey the new self-confident rhetoric from the "socialist" GDR constitution of 1968, which was passed a year before its completion . All official documents bore the designation television and FM tower Berlin capital of the GDR . At the same time it became the code for big cities and modernity in the GDR .

GDR block edition 1969 for the opening of the television tower

The GDR also used the representative emblem as commercial graphics , mostly accompanied by propagandistic slogans, which were intended to illustrate strength, efficiency and thus superiority over the capitalist states. The television tower was omnipresent in children's magazines, graphics of the FDJ , on posters, postage stamps, certificates, medals and various other objects. The silhouette of the building was regularly used for agitprop , tourism, expressions of friendship to the Soviet brother state , anniversaries, festivals and parades. Between its completion and reunification in 1990, the GDR's Deutsche Post alone issued well over a dozen postage stamps depicting the tower as the main motif, as an accessory in the city silhouette or as a stylized form, including three block editions . On the back of the GDR's blue 100- mark banknote , the television tower was depicted alongside the Red City Hall . Until the political change , the Berlin TV tower was hardly received in the Federal Republic. Only on a special stamp for the 750th anniversary of Berlin in 1987 (joint issue with the Deutsche Bundespost Berlin in 1987 ) could the tower be seen in a light pink silhouette in the background.

The glorification of the building by the GDR regime provoked a more or less subtle counter-propaganda, which was expressed through mockery or various anecdotes , mostly based on rumors . This includes the appearance, which alludes to the atheistic attitude of the socialist government and the discrimination against church institutions in the GDR , which has become known as the " revenge of the Pope ". It is based on the fact that a cross-shaped reflection becomes visible on the tower ball when there is sufficient sunlight . Various anecdotes - including the demolition of the tower - circulated that this light phenomenon was a thorn in the side of the regime and that feverish attempts were being made to remove it. It is true that IM -Untersuchungen documents on the subject. There is no evidence that any radical proposals for removing the Cross of Light really existed. Nevertheless, the stories held up, especially during the Cold War . After Walter Ulbricht, the tower was nicknamed “St. Walter ”. As a result, the SED central organ Neues Deutschland is said to have tried to establish a nickname with the spread term “Telespargel” in order to counter the term, which was perceived as derisive, with something positive. However, he could not prevail. The rumors about the reflection and its consequences culminated in the fact that US President Ronald Reagan took up this in his well-known speech in front of the Brandenburg Gate on June 12, 1987 and claimed that the East Berlin authorities had “been involved again and again since the construction of the television tower the use of color and chemicals tried in vain to reduce the light reflection on the glass ball [ sic! ] to prevent".

TV tower as a building that shapes the cityscape

After the Berlin television tower rose to become a controversial structural national symbol during the GDR era , its symbolism receded with the collapse of the GDR. The excessive importance of the television tower lost its basis in reunified Germany. With the nostalgia for the East that arose after the fall of the Berlin Wall , the Berlin TV tower made the transition from a politically heavily used and transfigured symbol to a landmark that belongs to all of Berlin, especially to the new Mitte scene. Hardly any other eastern building has succeeded in this form. The design is sometimes valued and cared for and is considered “ retro chic ”. Since the 2000s, the television tower has increasingly been featured on company logos. For example, it serves as a memorable symbol of media communication for smaller record companies and adorns posters of cultural events as an expression of local solidarity. Until the mid-2000s, its meaning was more specific to Berlin and, according to estimates, it was rather obsolete as a national symbol. Not least because of its universally timeless and thus apolitical design language, the symbolic character of the Berlin TV tower gained strength again from the 2010s onwards due to the growing number of visitors. In a survey by the German National Tourist Board , the Berlin TV tower is one of the most popular sights in Germany as a travel destination and is even two places in front of the Reichstag dome . This means that it is once again accepted as an all-German tourist attraction and, thanks to its distinctive shape that shapes the cityscape, takes on a symbolic quality that gives it a recognition value that is identified with Berlin and Germany at home and abroad.

Arts and Culture

Our TV tower (2nd stanza)

    The television tower is tall and slender,
    tall and slender, tall and slender
    and has a tummy sparkling clean,
    tummy sparkling clean, tummy sparkling clean.
    There's no stomach in there, no, no, but a TV tower café.
    Tall and slim, sparkling clean, TV tower café.

Composition: Hans Naumilkat , text: Helmut Stöhr

During the GDR era, Helmut Stöhr composed the song text Unser Fernsehturm (What is in our Spreeathen ) by the Young Pioneers and set it to music as a television tower song. The melody was composed by Hans Naumilkat . The children's magazine Bummi published the TV tower song in 1975. Other children's and youth magazines such as Atze or FRÖSI used the TV tower in pictures, graphics or stories. The degree of ideological content increased with the age of the target group. Even the sandman on GDR television presented the tower that was just completed for the GDR's 20th birthday in one episode.

In addition, television tower models in various sizes were sold as souvenirs, including plastic toys for children . The menu of the tower restaurant was shaped like a tower ball and guests could take it away.

Perfume bottles in the shape of the Berlin TV tower
The striking silhouette of the tower is used in many ways, for example for logos

After the political change , more than ten years passed before artists took up the TV tower again; this happened especially in music and in the Berlin scene. The Berlin DJ duo Lexy & K-Paul released the song Der Fernsehturm in 2002 , which pays homage to the building and the city of Berlin. It is also shown frequently in music videos that are set in Berlin; it became a synonym for Berlin and a distinctive feature of the city.

The film industry also discovered the strong landmark character for itself, so that films playing in Berlin increasingly fade in the tower for a short time so that the viewer immediately recognizes the location. The unfinished tower was shown in the comedy Ein Lord am Alexanderplatz while it was being built. The main actress in the DEFA production Hostess from 1976 is working in the Berlin TV tower. In the film adaptation of The Room Fountain , the unemployed main character built a water-spouting television tower model that unexpectedly turns out to be a sales success. In the German disaster film Das Inferno - Flammen über Berlin , the building itself became the scene of the event when a fire broke out in the tower restaurant. For safety reasons, the scenes were reproduced in true-to-original backdrops. The 2004 movie The Bourne Conspiracy shows the television tower in several settings. The telenovela Verliebt in Berlin , broadcast from 2005 to 2007, used the television tower in its logo.

In addition to the usual souvenirs, the shape of the tower serves as a glass perfume bottle . In the advertising industry, he was quoted in large numbers, especially by companies related to the city of Berlin. The advertising of the beer manufacturer Berliner Kindl , which depicted a beer bottle in the shadow of which the Berlin television tower emerges , gained particular fame . The model railway accessories manufacturer Faller has released a multi-part kit based on the Berlin television tower.

On the occasion of the Milan Furniture Fair 2008 (Salone del Mobile) , the Berlin TV tower received an artistic reception as a temporary art installation . The stylized tower ball with a red and white antenna tip served the fair as a 15 meter high geodesic dome (Berlin Design Dome) as well as a meeting point and exhibition space. The Berlin association c-base uses the television tower in its logo and uses it to create a fictitious founding myth in which the tower is merely the antenna of a space station that has crashed in Berlin-Mitte.

Frequencies and Programs

Analog radio ( VHF broadcast )

A total of 19 radio programs are broadcast from the VHF antennas of different heights. Their transmission power ranges from 0.5 to 100  kW . The technical operation takes place after the opening of the market by different network operators, u. a. the Uplink Network GmbH.

The private broadcaster BB Radio used its 107.5 MHz frequency, coordinated for the television tower,  with a permitted 100 kW until December 12, 2016 for cost reasons as an alternative to the Berlin-Schäferberg telecommunications tower with only 13 kW. Since then, it has been broadcasting from the originally coordinated television tower with a transmission power of 40 kW. The program Fritz from RBB is allowed to broadcast from the Berlin television tower with a maximum of 100 kW.

In the case of directed radiation, the main radiation directions are given in degrees in the antenna diagram.

program RDS PS RDS PI regionalization

round (ND) /
directional (D)

horizontal (H) /
vertical (V)
Previous programs
87.9 Star FM STAR_FM_ 1023 - 1 ND H AFN Berlin; Charlie 87.9
89.6 Deutschlandfunk culture Dlf_Kult D220 - 20th ND H RIAS 1 1)
90.2 Radio Teddy _RADIO__ / _TEDDY__ 1B2E - 16 ND H BBC World Service
91.4 Berliner Rundfunk 91.4 BRF_91.4 D32C - 100 ND H Berliner Rundfunk ( broadcasting of the GDR )
93.6 Jam FM _JAM_FM_ 10B2 - 2.4 D (330 ° -280 °) H FFB 1) ; rfi ; NewsTalk 93.6; Berlin currently 93.6; FAZ radio 93.6
94.3 94.3 rs2 94.3_rs2 D32B - 25th ND H RIAS 2 1)
95.8 radioeins ( rbb ) _radio1_ / vom_rbb_ D332 - 100 ND H Radio DDR I ; Radio Brandenburg
97.7 Deutschlandfunk __Dlf___ D210 - 100 ND H Voice of the GDR ; Germany's broadcaster culture
98.8 98.8 Kiss FM _KISS_FM 1024 - 1 ND H BFBS 1)
99.7 Antenna Brandenburg ( rbb ) Antenna_ / vom_rbb_ D431 Potsdam 100 ND H Radio DDR II / Sender Frankfurt
100.6 Flux FM _FluxFM_ 1028 - 12.6 ND H Hundred, 6 / Radio 100 1)
101.3 Classic radio CLASSIC_ D75B Berlin 4th ND H Info101
101.9 Radyo Metropol FM metropol 102B - 0.5 ND H JazzRadio 106.8
102.6 Fritz ( rbb ) _Fritz__ / vom_rbb_ D333 - 15th ND H DT64 ; Rock radio B
103.4 Energy Berlin ( NRJ ) _ENERGY_ / _BERLIN_ 132F - 8th ND H Radio 100 1)
104.6 104.6 RTL 104.6RTL D42A - 10 ND H -
105.5 105'5 Spreeradio SPREE___ D52F - 5 ND H Radio 50 Plus
106.0 Radio B2 radioB2 / SCHLAGER 1735 - 1 D (50 ° -20 °) H SFB -Messeradio 1) , Radio France Internationale
107.5 BB radio BB_RADIO D338 Potsdam / Berlin 40 ND H -
1) Broadcast from another transmitter

Digital radio (DAB)

DAB is broadcast in horizontal polarization and in single-frequency mode with other transmitters.

block Programs ERP

round (ND) /
directional (D)
Single frequency network (SFN)
DR Germany
DAB + block of media broadcast : 10 ND
Berlin / Brandenburg
DAB + block of media broadcast 10 ND Berlin TV tower
Berlin / Brandenburg
DAB + block from rbb : 10 ND Berlin TV Tower , Berlin (Scholzplatz)
Berlin / BRBG K12D
DAB + block of media broadcast : 10 ND

Digital television (DVB-T2)

Regular operation of DVB-T2 HD began on March 29, 2017. Since then, the programs of ARD ( rbb -Mux), ZDF and the commercial offer from freenet TV ( encoded in Irdeto ) have been broadcasting in the DVB-T2 standard using the HEVC video coding process and in Full HD resolution. The DVB-T2 HD -Ausstrahlungen from Berlin TV tower at Alexanderplatz are simulcast (Single Frequency Network) with other transmitter sites.

All channels shown in italics are encrypted and can only be received via the DVB-T2 HD platform freenet TV .

channel Frequency (  
Multiplex Programs in multiplex ERP  
Antenna pattern
/ round (ND)
directed (D)
horizontal (H) /
vertical (V)
Modulation method FEC Guard interval Bit rate  
(Mbit / s)
Single frequency network (SFN)
25th 506 rbb 1 (ARD) 100 ND H 64-QAM 3/5 19/256 23.6 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz) , Frankfurt / Oder (Boossen)
40 626 rbb 2 (ARD) 100 ND H 64-QAM 3/5 19/256 23.6 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz) , Frankfurt / Oder (Boossen)
33 570 Substream 0: ZDF ( ZDFmobil )


Substream 0:

Substream 1:

50 ND H 64-QAM 3/5 19/128 22nd Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Frankfurt / Oder (Boossen)

( RTL Group )

50 ND H 64-QAM 2/3 1/16 27.6 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz)

( ProSiebenSat.1 Media )

50 ND H 64-QAM 2/3 1/16 27.6 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz)
42 642 MEDIA BROADCAST Substream 0:

Substream 1:

  • freenet.TV info
  • ssu (System Software Update service)
50 ND H 64-QAM 2/3 1/16 27.6 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz)

Digital television (DVB-T)

The DVB-T broadcasts from Berlin TV tower at Alexanderplatz ran in single-frequency operation (Single Frequency Network) with other transmitter sites. When this network was gradually launched in Germany in 2003, it was the first of its kind. DVB-T broadcasting was ended on March 29, 2017, mainly in favor of DVB-T2 HD . Transitionally, the programs and Juwelo / Spreekanal (both previously K59 / 778 MHz) are currently broadcast in DVB-T mode on K47 / 682 MHz .

channel Frequency (
Multiplex Programs in multiplex ERP

round (ND) /
directional (D)
horizontal (H) /
vertical (V)
Modulation method FEC GI Bit rate
(Mbit / s)
25th 506 RTL Group Berlin 20th ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)
27 522 ARD national (rbb) 120 ND H 16- QAM
( 8k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg) , Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz)
33 570 ZDFmobil 50 ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/4 13.27 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg), Frankfurt / Oder (Boossen)
39 618 Mixed Berlin 4 20th ND H 64-QAM 2/3 1/8 22.12 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)
42 642 DVB-T2HD HEVC / E-AC3 test


  • The First HD (1920x1080p50)
  • ZDF HD (1920x1080p50)
  • ProSieben HD (encrypted in Irdeto)
  • RTL HD (encrypted in Irdeto)
  • SAT.1 HD (encrypted in Irdeto)
  • VOX HD (encrypted in Irdeto)


  • multithek information board (1920x1080p50)
  • Test loop (960x540p50)
50 ND H 64 QAM
(32 k mode)
2/3 1/16 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)
44 658 ProSiebenSat.1 Berlin 120 ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)
47 682 ARD regional (rbb) Berlin 100 ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg), Berlin-Charlottenburg (Scholzplatz)
50 706 Mixed Berlin 1 50 ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)
56 754 Mixed Berlin 2 10 ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)
59 778 Mixed Berlin 3 10 ND H 16 QAM
(8 k mode)
2/3 1/8 14.75 Berlin TV tower Alex , Berlin-Wannsee (Schäferberg)

Analog television

Until the switch to DVB-T and later DVB-T2 HD , the Berlin TV tower broadcast the following programs in analogue PAL :

channel Frequency  
program ERP
Transmission diagram
round (ND) /
directional (D)
horizontal (H) /
vertical (V)
5 175.25 TV.Berlin 100 ND H
27 519.25 ORB television 700 ND H
41 631.25 BBC World 1 D. H
44 655.25 ProSieben 670 ND H
51 711.25 n-tv 5 D. H



Literature in GDR times

  • The new landmark of the capital of the GDR. transpress VEB publishing house for transport, Berlin 1969.
  • Dieter Bolduan: The television tower. A short chronicle of the television and VHF tower of the Deutsche Post Berlin and its builders. Berlin information 1969.
  • Ingrid Brandenburg, Rudolf Harnisch, Alfred Kubiziel: Fernsehturm Berlin. Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1970, DNB 456173765 .
  • The television tower Berlin. Capital of the DDR. Berlin information, 1973.

Literature after the fall of the Wall

  • Gerd Klawitter: TV tower at Alexanderplatz. In: 100 years radio technology in Germany. Radio stations around Berlin. Science and Technology, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-89685-500-X , pp 193-204.
  • Peter Müller : A symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower . 2nd Edition. Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-345-00761-4 .
  • Sandra Siewert, Dirk Berger, Ingo Müller: From party to party. 1969-2003. The Berlin TV tower as a graphic symbol. s.wert-design, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-00-012207-9 .
  • Gerhard Kosel : Fernsehturm Berlin: On the history of its construction and its builder. Nora, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-936735-34-4 .
  • Peter Müller: Search for symbols. The East Berlin center planning between presentation and agitation. Gebrüder Mann, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-7861-2497-3 , chapter Substitute Signs Fernsehturm , pp. 289–303.
  • Karl H. Kraemer: TV Tower Berlin - From construction to today. Berlin-Story, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-929829-99-0 .
  • Nikolaus Bernau : TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. 3. Edition. Stadtwandel, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-86711-063-1 .
  • Peter Kroh, Peter Jacobs, Thomas Kupfermann: The book from the television tower. Das Neue Berlin, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-360-01980-6 .
  • Rudolf Pospischil: The German television tower. A political and architectural border crossing. Herbert Utz, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-8316-0923-9 .
  • The television tower turns 40 . In: Baunetzwoche , issue 127.BauNetz Media, Berlin 2009, urn: nbn: de: kobv: 109-1-7842844 (archive)
  • Sylvia Butenschön, Stephanie Herold: The “Place Without a Name”: For the perception of Eastern modernism in the center of Berlin . In: Mark Escherich (Hrsg.): Ost-Moderne monument: appropriation and preservation of the architectural heritage of post-war modernism (=  urban development and preservation of monuments ). Jovis, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-86859-143-9 , pp. 166-179 .
  • TV tower with foot surrounds and open spaces: Monument database - OBJ-Doc-No .: 09065023, T. Database revision date: 04/10/2014. Senate Department for Urban Development and the Environment, accessed on April 17, 2015 .
  • Paul Sigel, Kerstin Wittmann-Englert (Hrsg.): Free space under the television tower: historical dimensions of a modern urban space . Theater der Zeit, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-95749-036-0 , p. 250 .
  • Verena Pfeiffer-Kloss: The power of absence: On the urban development debate about the town square under the Berlin TV tower . Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-7983-2739-9 , urn : nbn: de: kobv: 83-opus4-60495 ( [PDF; 7.5 MB ] Part. zugl .: Berlin, Techn. Univ., Diploma thesis, 2010).
  • Verena Pfeiffer-Kloss: The power of absence: On the urban development debate about the town square under the Berlin TV tower. Master Thesis Faculty VI - Planen Bauen Umwelt, 2015, doi: 10.14279 / depositonce-4303 , urn : nbn: de: kobv: 83-opus4-60495
  • Rolf Heider: VII 2. The conversion of the television tower . In: Zeit und Ort: Autobiographical sketches by an East German civil engineer . Rolf Heider self-published, Berlin 2015, p. 187-195 .
  • Gabi Dolff-Bonekämper , Stephanie Herold: The Berlin TV tower: views and prospects. (PDF) Expert opinion. 2015, accessed February 28, 2016 .
  • Gabi Dolff-Bonekämper, Stephanie Herold: The Berlin TV tower: views and prospects . In: Paul Sigel, Kerstin Wittmann-Englert (eds.): Freiraum unterm Fernsehturm: Historical dimensions of an urban space of the modern age (=  edition subject and space ). Theater der Zeit , Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-95749-036-0 , p. 71-93 .
  • Nikolaus Bernau: When a tower was built. The Berlin television tower is 50 years old. In: Yearbook of the Association for the History of Berlin 2019, Berlin 2019, pp. 155–164. ISSN 0522-0033.

Web links

Commons : Berliner Fernsehturm  - collection of images


Individual evidence

  1. ^ Klawitter: TV tower on Alexanderplatz. In: 100 years of radio technology in Germany. P. 194.
  2. Berlin TV Tower - History. ( Memento from September 4, 2014 in the web archive ). In: .
  3. a b survey by : Top 15 sights in Germany 2010. In: tourismus.meinestadt. de , 2010, accessed on February 6, 2017.
  4. a b Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 148.
  5. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 19.
  6. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 20.
  7. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 21.
  8. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 22.
  9. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 23.
  10. Müggelberge TV tower. In: Structurae
  11. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 24.
  12. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 27.
  13. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 31.
  14. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 32.
  15. a b Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 39.
  16. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 41.
  17. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 70.
  18. quoted from Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 71.
  19. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. Pp. 43-53.
  20. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. Pp. 54-55.
  21. ^ Center planning - TV tower as the city crown. In: Senate Department for Urban Development and Housing , accessed on February 6, 2017.
  22. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 72.
  23. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 74.
  24. a b c d Ulrich Paul: A television tower and a ruin . In: Berliner Zeitung , October 1, 2009, p. 27.
  25. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. Pp. 74-75.
  26. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 76.
  27. VDInmessages: Congratulations on your fiftieth, Sankt Walter! . In: History of Technology, Issue September 27, 2019, No. 39, p. 26.
  28. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 78.
  29. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 79.
  30. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 80.
  31. So Walter Ulbricht in a verbatim protocol, uttered at the meeting of the Politburo of the SED Central Committee on July 14, 1964, ( page no longer available , search in web archives: SAPMO ) in BArch, ZPA, DY 30 / J IV 2/2 A , 1038 (volume 1).@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /
  32. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 85.
  33. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 83.
  34. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 89.
  35. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 90.
  36. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 75.
  37. a b c Kraemer: Fernsehturm Berlin - From construction to today , p. 77.
  38. a b Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 95.
  39. Bolduan: The television tower. A short chronicle of the television and VHF tower of the Deutsche Post Berlin and its builders. P. 28.
  40. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 97.
  41. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 98.
  42. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 84.
  43. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 86.
  44. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 102.
  45. a b Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 103.
  46. a b Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 104.
  47. Brandenburg, armor, Kubiziel: TV Tower Berlin. P. 68.
  48. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. Pp. 104-113.
  49. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 101.
  50. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 116.
  51. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 119.
  52. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 121.
  53. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 125.
  54. Kai Eckart: Towards the clouds - the highest towers in Germany. Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-89675-902-7 , p. 34.
  55. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm . P. 125.
  56. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 126.
  57. ^ Rudolf Pospischil: The German television tower. Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-8316-0923-9 , p. 18.
  58. Bettina Klemm: The Dresden TV Tower . Bild und Heimat, Berlin 2017. ISBN 978-3-95958-076-2 , p. 17.
  59. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 126.
  60. Berlin information (ed.): The television tower Berlin. Capital of the DDR. P. 8.
  61. a b Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 47.
  62. Monument television tower with foot surrounds and open spaces. In: Berlin State Monument List
  63. ^ T. Müller: Management at the Berlin peregrine falcon pair . Pica 16, 1989, pp. 120-128.
  64. P. Sömmer: The nutrition of the Berlin peregrine falcon couple . Pica 16, 1989, pp. 114-120.
  65. ^ R. Altenkamp, ​​P. Sömmer, G. Kleinstäuber & C. Saar: Population development and reproduction of the building-breeding peregrine falcons Falco p. peregrinus in Northeast Germany in the period 1986–1999 . Vogelwelt 122, 2001, pp. 329-339.
  66. ^ Friedrich von Borries , Matthias Böttger, Florian Heilmeyer: TV towers - 8,559 meters of politics and architecture . JOVIS, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86859-024-1 , p. 89.
  67. ^ Bernau: TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. P. 9.
  68. Kraemer: Fernsehturm Berlin - From construction to today . P. 43.
  69. Kraemer: Fernsehturm Berlin - From construction to today . P. 50.
  70. Veit Althoff, Jonas Jägermeyr and Christian Wahle: Am Beton - From Teufelsberg to Everest daily graphics 2017 p. 128.
  71. a b Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 28.
  72. Mathias Frankenstein: Big cheers to bungy jumpers. In: Berliner Zeitung , October 4, 1994, accessed on November 8, 2012.
  73. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 35.
  74. The longest love messages in the world. In: , May 2009, accessed on February 6, 2017.
  75. dkr / dapd / AFP : Berlin TV tower: starry sky in the Telespargel. In: Spiegel Online , April 3, 2012.
  76. Lothar Heinke : Jubilee at Alexanderplatz - the TV tower turns 44. In: Der Tagesspiegel , October 30, 2013. Quote: “The Alex Tower and the Federal Republic of Germany always have their birthdays on the same day, both are Libra, balancing, everything beautiful devoted and fair. "
  77. Cultural monument renovation and green spaces from the television tower to the roundabout with the Neptune fountain
  78. ^ Joachim Schulz, Werner Graebner: Berlin. Capital of the DDR. Architecture guide GDR. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1974; P. 42, object 44.
  79. cf. Map of Berlin , sheet 4232, from 1972, Soldner: X = 25348, Y = 21585.
  80. Berlin city map from 1893 ( memento of July 17, 2012 in the web archive ): Panoramastrasse and rotunda of the panorama southeast of the Central Market Hall.
  81. Address search Gontardstrasse
  82. ^ TV tower in Gontardstrasse FIS-Broker (map of Berlin 1: 5000 (K5 color edition)) of the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment
  83. Bettina Seipp: In the sky over Berlin - 40 years of the television tower. In: Welt Online , October 3, 2009, accessed on August 22, 2012.
  84. a b Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 96.
  85. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 129.
  86. ^ Bernau: TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. P. 18.
  87. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 139.
  88. Brandenburg, armor, Kubiziel: TV Tower Berlin. P. 25.
  89. Berlin information (ed.): The television tower Berlin. Capital of the DDR. P. 16
  90. Markus Sebastian Braun (ed.): Rainer Haubrich , Hoffmann, Meuser, van Uffelen: Berlin. The architecture guide. , Braun Publishing, 2010, ISBN 978-3-03768-051-3 , p. 199.
  91. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 104.
  92. ^ A b Bernau: TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. P. 22.
  93. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 134.
  94. Bolduan: The television tower. A short chronicle of the television and VHF tower of the Deutsche Post Berlin and its builders. P. 49.
  95. Freakshow, episode 160: FS160 The dog has eaten the file , from 01:05:17
  96. Video: Berliner Fernsehturm - Zeitlapse - timelapse TV tower.
  97. Bar & Restaurant. In: Berliner Fernsehturm , accessed on February 6, 2017.
  98. ^ Bernau: TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. P. 13.
  99. ^ Klawitter: TV tower on Alexanderplatz. In: 100 years of radio technology in Germany. , P. 201.
  100. ^ Bernau: TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. P. 20.
  101. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 135.
  102. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. Pp. 136, 137.
  103. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 100.
  104. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 120.
  105. Berlin TV tower gets elevators with glass ceilings. In: , accessed on February 7, 2014.
  106. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 97.
  107. Kraemer: Fernsehturm Berlin - From construction to today. P. 50.
  108. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 136.
  109. Kraemer: Fernsehturm Berlin - From construction to today. P. 40.
  110. Kraemer: Fernsehturm Berlin - From construction to today. P. 43.
  111. Brandenburg, armor, Kubiziel: TV Tower Berlin. P. 21.
  112. The most exciting facts about the Berlin TV tower In: BZ , September 1, 2015, accessed on November 25, 2017.
  113. ^ ND archive: Neues Deutschland from October 28, 1989. Retrieved November 26, 2017 .
  114. Berlin TV tower: symbol of the German capital Berlin In: , accessed on September 15, 2017.
  115. Rottweiler test tower. In: Thyssenkrupp , accessed on February 6, 2017.
  116. Berlin information (ed.): The television tower Berlin. Capital of the DDR. P. 2.
  117. Press release: 60% of the visitors to the Berlin TV tower come from abroad. Spaniards led in 2009 - Italians in January and February of this year. ( Memento from February 12, 2013 in the web archive ). In: , April 8, 2010.
  118. The TV tower Berlin. Capital of the DDR. Berlin Information, p. 22.
  119. Safety instructions for the Berlin television tower. In: , accessed on February 6, 2017.
  120. Sebastian Steegmüller: Fire protection is often a sticking point. Berlin TV tower renovated - towers in Cologne, Dresden and Hamburg long since closed. In: Schwäbisches Tagblatt , April 4, 2013, accessed on February 6, 2017.
  121. Important information on visiting the Berlin TV tower. In: , accessed on September 15, 2017.
  122. dpa : 50 millionth visitor to the Berlin television tower. In: Berliner Morgenpost , June 14, 2011, accessed on February 6, 2017.
  123. your event. In: , accessed on February 6, 2017.
  124. Getting married on the Berlin TV tower. In: , accessed on February 6, 2017.
  125. ^ First public viewing in the Berlin TV tower. Berliner Morgenpost , May 8, 2018, archived from the original on August 22, 2018 . ;.
  126. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 128.
  127. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 129.
  128. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 130.
  129. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 131.
  130. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 137.
  131. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 132.
  132. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 139.
  133. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 135.
  134. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 153.
  135. ^ Nikolaus Bernau : The art of the engineer. In the Berliner Zeitung , March 9, 2011, obituary for Günter Franke .
  136. Kroh, Jacobs, Kupfermann: Das Buch vom Fernsehturm. P. 155.
  137. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 87.
  138. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 142.
  139. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 15.
  140. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. P. 146.
  141. ^ Bernau: TV tower Alexanderplatz Berlin. P. 4.
  142. Substitute for television tower . In: Peter Müller: Symbolsuche. P. 289.
  143. Substitute for television tower . In: Peter Müller: Symbolsuche. P. 296.
  144. Substitute for television tower . In: Peter Müller: Symbolsuche. P. 300.
  145. ^ A b c Siewert, Berger, Müller: From the party to the party. The Berlin TV tower as a graphic symbol. P. 2.
  146. ^ Berlin TV tower on postage stamps on Wikimedia Commons .
  147. ^ Müller: Symbol with a view. The East Berlin TV tower. Pp. 107-109.
  148. Ronald Reagan: Remarks on East-West Relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin, June 12, 1987 ( Memento from November 1, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
  149. Julia Ziebell: Sight without borders. ( Memento from February 11, 2013 in the web archive ). In: LexiTV , contribution to the Berlin TV tower on September 23, 2004, accessed on October 27, 2012.
  150. ^ Siewert, Berger, Müller: From the party to the party. The Berlin TV tower as a graphic symbol , foreword, p. 1.
  151. Anja Früh in: Things while traveling. Material culture and tourism , Waxmann 2009, ISBN 978-3-8309-2203-2 , p. 147.
  152. Berlin TV tower. In: , accessed on February 6, 2017.
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This article was added to the list of excellent articles on May 11, 2013 in this version .