district of Berlin
|Residents||19,934 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||3263 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Oct. 1, 1920|
Adlershof [ aːd.lɐs.ˈhoːf ] ( final stress , thus unequal to the nearby Adlergestell ) is a Berlin district in the Treptow-Köpenick district . Until the administrative reform in 2001 it was part of the former Treptow district .
The historically grown residential areas and settlements are on the northeast side. Since the 2010s, new residential quarters have been built on the former Johannisthal airfield adjacent to the northwest ; they are intended to complete the WISTA location as a city of science.
Adlershof is located on both sides of the Adlershof S- Bahn station on the Görlitzer Bahn , which runs from north-west Schöneweide to south-east Grünau . The residential areas are north-east of the high-lying railway embankment, the development area of the science city to the south-west. The Adlershof stop was created on the historic road connection from western Rudow (Rudower Chaussee) to northeast Köpenick (Dörpfeldstrasse), the latter forming the main street of the settlements.
The southern end of the district is marked by the Teltow Canal , along which older paths (from Köpenick to the southwest Altglienicke ) are being expanded into an efficient street (Glienicker Straße, Glienicker Weg, Köpenicker Straße, Ernst-Ruska-Ufer). The north end extends to the Köllnische Heide municipal forest .
Old district of Adlershof:
- Northeast of the railway line
- Around Dörpfeldstrasse (shopping street)
- The major part of all apartments, trade and commerce as well as medical facilities of Adlershof are located here.
New district of Adlershof:
- Southwest of the railway line
- City for Science, Business and Media (WISTA)
- Most of Adlershof's science and technology companies are based here.
Early to the 18th century
The settlement of the Adlershof patch goes back to Büdner , small farmers with their own house and attached fields. In the 16th century, the phenomenon of the Büdner colonies intensified, whose homeowners could not live from field work alone, but found additional income as day laborers in neighboring villages and towns . The connecting route near the growing city of Köpenick and Rudow , which can be traced back to the 12th century , offered good settlement grounds for this. In addition, the landscape offered a good place for smallholders - parallel to the course of the Spree and Dahme ran a chain of wet meadows and heathland, which provide fertile ground - but also names such as Köllnische Heide, Krachtfenn, Rudower Wiesen and Vollkropfgraben are historically documented the name Johannisthal indicates the lower location (valley). The location of the Rivendell can still be read on maps, as the Teltow Canal was created on the southwestern edge of this channel at the beginning of the 20th century , which also uses the topographical conditions.
With the Peuplierung of Prussia , Friedrich II brought new residents to Prussia and settled them specifically, for which the districts were re- inspected from 1749 . At the time, there was a Büdner colony on the area that would later become Adlershof, Am Suszen Grundt, whose name refers to its favorable location. Here eight Büdner had one acre of garden land and one acre of meadow and the right to keep a cow. To the northeast of the Büdner colony was the Adlershof manor . Johannisthal was founded in 1753 , Adlershof and Altglienicke in 1754 .
An interest contract concluded on April 14, 1754 for the Adlershof estate is therefore the date of establishment of the place (since 2001 a district). Before that there was already a 75- acre mulberry plantation , which was created by the Köpenick domain in a clearing on the Suessen Grund . From the year 1756 the spelling Adlershoff is still handed down in the sweet bottom at Köpenick . Johann Friedrich von Pfeiffer ordered the clearing of forest in order to obtain an establishment of 406 acres with 320 acres of arable land. Furthermore, 80 acres of meadow were cultivated and a further six acres were used for paddock herding. There were eight "domestic" farmers, each with one acre of garden and one acre of meadow. The hereditary tenant Siwicke was obliged by the Köpenick office to settle eight more Büdner residents in addition to the construction of Guths Adlers Hoff . The manor was built at the level of the later Waldstrasse and Zinsgutstrasse on the eastern edge of the new district, the four Büdner double houses as a Vorwerk on the western edge of the district, between Adler Stell and Hoffmanstrasse, all buildings connected by the existing Dorfstrasse (actually the Heerstrasse between Rudow and Köpenick ). From 1772 it is known that 81 people lived in Adlershof.
The farm has had a difficult economic history, changing owners several times, subleasing the Vorwerk and petitions from the Büdner - from a letter from 1780 it can be seen that only one family lived on the Süssengrund. On April 24, 1789, the Büdner colony Süszengrundt and the Adlershoff estate were finally merged into an independent estate district. From this time a court seal with the inscription Suezengrundt-Adlershof is occupied, which shows the Prussian eagle as a coat of arms . The name of the Zinsgut Adlershof later became the sole name.
In 1801 there lived eight Büdner residents and two residents who operated eight fireplaces (= households). The existence of 17 houses is recorded from 1840. Until 1849 the jurisdiction lay with the Patrimonial Court in Köpenick and in that year it changed to the court commission in Köpenick. For a long time, the three newly founded villages in the Rivendell remained recreational areas at the gates of Berlin, which expanded so much in the 19th century that the Berlin customs wall was lifted in 1860 and the urban area almost doubled in 1861. In 1858 there were 15 farm owners who employed nine male and female servants and two day laborers. There were also two workers and a bricklayer. The 15 holdings were divided as follows: There was one estate with 405 acres, 11 holdings on the order of 5 to 30 acres that together worked 124 acres, and three that worked less than 5 acres for a total of 12 acres. At that time 388 acres of arable land, 15 acres of meadow and two acres of forest were cultivated; the homesteads occupied another two mornings.
With the construction of the Berlin-Görlitzer Railway in 1866/1867, the upswing also reached Adlershof - the communities of Adlershof and Altglienicke each received a stop on the Görlitzer Bahn: the Adlershof stop on Rudower Chaussee, the route between Köpenick and Rudow and a mile south of the Glienicke stop on Glienicker Weg , the connection established in 1701 from Köpenick to what was then Alt- and Neu-Glienicke.
This provided the prerequisite for Adlershof to grow into an industrial location. In 1879 the estate was dissolved and Adlershof was given the status of an urban municipality. The jurisdiction changed to the district court of Köpenick. On the eastern side of the Görlitzer Bahn and along the eagle frame between the northern Adlershof on Rudower Weg and the southern Glienicker Weg, large building plots were designated. The population grew rapidly from 344 in 1880 to 8006 residents in 1900, who lived in 323 houses.
With the construction of the Adlershof station , the railway administration gave up the Glienicke stop. With the establishment of the Teltow Canal in 1906, which marks the southern end of the community, Adlershof saw large-scale industrialization south and west of the original settlement areas.
In 1909 the first German motorized airfield opened in Johannisthal-Adlershof, which quickly became internationally known. A center with accommodation, production halls, flying schools and many well-known designers and well-known pilots was formed around the Johannisthal airfield . In 1912, the German Aviation Research Institute (DVL), the predecessor of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was founded in Adlershof. In the same year, the Cöpenick municipal tram opened its line from Köllnischer Platz to Adlershof station. Three years earlier there was already a connection to the neighboring Altglienicke with a tram line of the Teltower Kreisbahnen . In 1920/1921 these two routes were combined and from then on operated by the Berlin tram . On May 17, 1920, the secular school , the first non-denominational school in Prussia, opened at Radickestrasse 43 . With the incorporation of surrounding villages into Greater Berlin , Adlershof became a place in the Treptow administrative district .
By the beginning of the Second World War , the population in Adlershof had doubled the number of families and the number of traders and tradespeople also increased rapidly: in 1922 the list of streets with residents and companies in Adlershof filled just seven pages in the address book a year In 1940 there were exactly 16 pages, so their number had more than doubled, as can also be seen from the overview below . In Adlershof the was since the introduction of radio relay the central police radio station of the German Reich with two 120-meter high, self-radiating masts .
After the founding of the GDR , the Academy of Sciences of the GDR was located in Adlershof, which housed many institutes for applied research (chemistry, electronics, cosmos research). A radio telescope with a diameter of 36 meters was also located here. The television was also placed at the location - the Adlershof television center was built from 1950 to 1952 according to plans by Wolfgang Wunsch . In the new studios on December 21, 1952, the German television broadcasting station (DFF) went on air for the first time . Until the beginning of 1990, part of the Feliks Dzierzynski guard regiment of the GDR State Security (total strength 12,000 men) was stationed in Adlershof . The regiment used the former airfield as an ammunition storage area, for "military physical training" and as a parade training course. The academy and television grounds were also fenced in at this time, so that these areas existed effectively separate from the residential areas on the northeast side of the railway embankment.
After the political change , the operations were almost completely wound up and the premises were suddenly largely unused. This is how the plan arose to integrate the existing facilities and remaining institutes into a new, integrated landscape of science and business . A striking symbol of this new landscape is the BESSY -II electron synchrotron , built between 1993 and 1997.
According to the development plans for the city for science, economy and media , abbreviated to WISTA, the southern Adlershof in particular has been expanded. The creation of a direct motorway connection to the A 113 , which was inaugurated in 2005 (towards Berliner Südring) and 2008 (towards Schönefeld ), proved to be particularly beneficial . The development plans that originally ran until 2015 (including a new, loose housing development for up to 8,000 inhabitants) were completed at the end of 2007 at the level achieved up to then. To improve the traffic connection, the Glienicker Weg was expanded and the tram extended over the Rudower Chaussee. The result was a quick and safe transfer option to the Adlershof S-Bahn station, which was moved across the street.
Location and development
The district of Adlershof is relatively sharply demarcated from the surrounding districts, there are only seven entrances. It is divided by a wide high-lying embankment, which leads several railways and the S-Bahn ( route to Schönefeld and Königs Wusterhausen ; S-Bahn lines S8, S9, S45, S46, S85). There are only two streets under this embankment, to which the six-lane federal highway 96a , the section of which is called Adlergestell , runs parallel. To the north of the eagle frame is the historically grown settlement core.
The south-western area is administered by the WISTA development company. During the GDR era, there were larger, fenced-in premises with their own road networks, which had access from Rudower Chaussee and Agastraße (at the studio since 2005). The extensive development of the site led to the creation of a new, publicly usable road network, such as the Ernst-Ruska-Ufer along the Teltow Canal , the route of which runs on former railway tracks. The tracks were connected to the railway line via the still existing coal station on Glienicker Weg, which ends in a marshalling yard to the north.
The former academy site is largely expanded. The BESSY electron synchrotron can be found at the south end, other old buildings have been renewed or demolished and rebuilt. The area north of Rudower Chaussee, the former airfield and later barracks location, is under development. New buildings from the Humboldt University in Berlin can already be found in a wide strip . The former airfield is to be largely a recreation area. In addition, new residential areas are to be created, linked to the residential areas in Johannisthal.
The residential areas in the north-eastern area, collectively referred to as the Adlershof settlement , are accessed through Dörpfeldstraße and divided into a north-western and a south-eastern area. Approximately in the middle is the small market square, which has lost its original piazza character due to uncontrolled development .
Since the residential buildings in Adlershof were built on wet meadows, their eaves height had to be kept low, instead of the 22 meters in many other old districts of Berlin, it was 12 meters here. Two to four-story buildings still characterize this settlement area to a large extent. It was not until the end of the 20th century that buildings were raised by one or two floors. The only higher buildings are the two churches southeast of the market square: the Transfiguration and the Christ the King Church.
The cemetery is located south of the Köllnische Heide , a wooded area between Adlershof and the Oberspree area. This is the actual local recreation area of the place. The new landscape park on the west side is less used. The skater tracks and the long paved paths - suitable for inline skates - are popular there .
Buildings and plants (selection)
The list of cultural monuments in Berlin-Adlershof contains all listed buildings in the district (status: 2014).
Other notable buildings and facilities are:
- Niels memorial in the Adlershof cemetery.
- Anna Seghers High School
- Anna Seghers Memorial , 1985 in the former home of the writer opened
- Transfiguration Church
- Adlershof cemetery
- Aerodynamic park with a large wind tunnel , spin tower and engine test bench
- The green laser beam in the sky (along Rudower Chaussee), visible from afar in the dark, is also an attraction and symbolizes the WISTA location.
- Hermann Dorner (1882–1963), aircraft designer, technical director of the Aviation Research Institute founded in 1912
- Ernst Lau (1893–1978), inventor of varifocals
- Erich Steinfurth (1896–1934), politician ( KPD ) and resistance fighter against National Socialism , lived at Friedlander Strasse 129
- Erich Thilo (1898–1977), Chairman of the Board of Directors for the establishment of the Adlershof Research Center of the GDR Academy of Sciences
- Anna Seghers (1900–1983), writer, lived on Volkswohlstrasse
- Ernst Augustin (1902–1961), engineer, and his team developed the first television studio equipment for the test broadcasts from June 4, 1952; the Ernst-Augustin-street is named after him
- Rudolf Wagner-Régeny (1903–1969), composer, lived at Adlergestell 253/255 from 1950 until his death
- Franz Ehrlich (1907–1984), architect of the television center
- Berta Waterstradt (1907–1990), writer, screenwriter, lived at Altheider Strasse 21
- Katharina Boll-Dornberger (1909–1981), headed the Institute for Structural Research at the Academy of Sciences of the GDR
- Otto Hachenberg (1911–2001), from 1951 to 1961 head of the Heinrich Hertz Institute for Vibration Research in Adlershof
- Willi Schwabe (1915–1991), actor, presenter of the popular show Willi Schwabes Lumpelkammer
- Boris Djacenko (1917–1975), writer, lived in Adlershof
- Karl-Eduard von Schnitzler (1918–2001), chief commentator for German television
- Wolfgang Kohlhaase (* 1931), screenwriter, grew up in Genossenschaftsstrasse 43
- Moritz Russ (* 2001), voice actor
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Adlershof
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Adlershof
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Adlershof
- Adlershof yesterday and today. 1754-2004. Stories - poems - pictures. Aphaia Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 3-926677-42-2 .
- Rudi Hinte: Adlershof; Part II from 1920 . From the colonist village of Sueszen Grundt to the center for science, economy and media. Media office Ebner, Berlin 2003.
- Lieselott Enders : Historical local lexicon for Brandenburg: Teltow (= Historical local lexicon for Brandenburg . Volume 4). Verlag Hermann Böhlaus successor, Weimar 1976.
- Adlershof . District Office Treptow-Köpenick of Berlin
- Rudi Hinte (local chronicle ): Information about Adlershof ( Memento from December 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) - a short chronicle in three parts
- Adlershof newspaper
- Directory of streets and squares in the Treptow-Köpenick district (as of February 2015). (PDF) Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg
- Sweet reason. In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near Kaupert )
- Rudi Hinte: Adlershof - Part I - 1754–1920. Media office Ebner, Berlin 2000.
- Pascale Hugues: Marthe & Mathilde . Rowohlt TB, ISBN 978-3-499-62415-5 , page 153. plaque
- Adlershof . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1922, IV, Treptow administrative district, p. 1615.
- Adlershof . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1922, part 2, p. 818.
- Adlershof . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1940, part 4, p. 1506.
- Anna Seghers Memorial. berlin.de
- Adlershof yesterday and today. P. 69.
- Adlershof yesterday and today. ... p. 31.