A Büdner was in northern Germany, especially in Mecklenburg , Pomerania and Brandenburg , an owner of a small rural property, a Büdnerei . This included a house of their own, but little land. The word is derived from "Bude".
Often a Büdner is equated with the Häusler . However, especially in Mecklenburg there are clear differences between the two terms.
The profession of Büdner, originally Käter , Kätner or Kossate , Low German Bäudner or Bäuner , was introduced in Mecklenburg in 1753 by decree of Duke Christian Ludwig II . The reason was the increasing flight of the inhabitants of the rural areas to the cities and abroad. This particularly affected children of farmers who were not entitled to inheritance and who were not entitled to marry without their own apartment. The Büdner initially received materials to build their property and a small usable area of 100 rods (about one hectare) as well as grazing rights for a small number of animals. First of all, the property was given to them in a lease, although the early days were often tax-free.
In 1809 a second Büdner approach was carried out.
The small plots of land were mostly not enough for a living, so that the Büdner were dependent on sideline or leasing or buying more land.
In the course of the 19th century, the area of many Büdnereien had grown significantly to around five hectares, so that in fact they were like small farms. In order to mitigate the still existing rural exodus, in addition to the Büdner also the profession of the cottage trader, which had existed several centuries earlier, was reintroduced in Mecklenburg in 1846. The cottager took on the role that the original Büdner was supposed to play in the 18th century. Unlike the Büdner at that time, however, cottagers were allowed to practice certain crafts.
In 1860 there were 2,200 farms , in the 1920s there were 13,000, plus around 9,000 dealerships.
In Pomerania it was customary to divide the villagers into four classes:
- Farmers - full-time farmers, three-quarter farmers and half-farmers who practiced arable farming and cattle breeding
- Kossaten - full-time arable farmers with a few acres of land, but the cultivation of which did not require the keeping of a full team of horses
- Kätner - craftsman with house and garden and little arable land, which was mostly tilled with a spade as part of his job
- Büdner - villagers who only had a house and a garden
Those villagers in Pomerania who had a house and garden at their disposal, but who did not own the property they lived in, were also referred to as Büdner.
The original Büdnereien were built in the traditional form of a North German specialist hall house. Unlike farms, they were almost square in plan because of the smaller farm part.
Mostly they were built as a half-timbered house in which the spaces in between were filled with a mixture of clay and straw . If the residents were wealthy, bricks were also used and the surface plastered. The roof was mostly a Traditional thatched roof , which as a hipped roof was pronounced.
In the main building, humans and animals (mostly cows or pigs, horses were forbidden) lived together under one roof until well into the 18th century. Only later were separate stalls built for the animals. In addition to the main building there were mostly a few sheds or the barn that were used to store supplies, firewood and equipment. The house was only accessible from the gable end . First came the stable, behind it the living area with a narrow hallway, from where the individual living rooms and bedrooms, which mostly separated old and young, led off.
The houses from the second half of the 19th century were usually made of brick with a tiled roof. Cottages and shops were often built along the roads out of a village, while farms were in the center of the village. While the farms were often numbered with Roman numerals, Büdnereien and cottage shops had Arabic numerals with a "B" or "H" in front of them.
- Werner Pöhls : Büdnereien and Häuslereien. In: Mecklenburgische Monatshefte , Vol. 2, Schwerin 1926, pp. 19-20.
- Ulrich Bentzien, Siegfried Neumann (Hrsg.): Mecklenburgische Volkskunde . Hinstorff-Verlag, Rostock 1988, ISBN 3-356-00173-6
- Literature about Büdner in the state bibliography MV
- Büdner and Häusler in Mecklenburg (private homepage)
- Büdnereien on the Fischland (private site)
- Hermann Teuchert [Ed.]: Mecklenburg dictionary. Volume 1 (1942), Col. 666/667.
- Ulrich Bentzien: Büdner and Häusler , Bentzien, Neumann (see above), pp. 133–135
- Karl Baumgarten , Bauen und Wohnen , in: Bentzien, Neumann (see above), p. 264
- Pöhls, s. O.
- The number of possible trades, however, was severely limited by the Land Constitutional Constitutional Comparison .
- August von Haxthausen and Alexander Padberg: The rural constitution of the provinces of East and West Prussia . Königsberg 1839, p. 337 .