district of Berlin
|Residents||12,878 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||5575 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Oct. 1, 1920|
Alt-Treptow borders in the southwest on the district of Neukölln , in the northwest on Kreuzberg , in the northeast on Friedrichshain and to the southeast on Plänterwald . It is an old junction of the road, water and rail routes of the city of Berlin.
In the area some traces of hunters and gatherers from the Mesolithic Age have come down to us. One of the oldest traces is a faceted hammer ax from the Neolithic , which was found in the Silesian Bush . The faceting indicates that it is part of the Central German cord ceramics . The first permanent settlement of the area in today's Alt-Treptow could be dated to the 6th or 7th century by Slavs ( Wends ). The name probably initially referred to the river expansion south of the Rummelsburger See and had different variants (Trebow, Trebkow, Trebikow, Trepkow). In the course of time, the name was transferred to a fishing settlement that had settled in the wooded area in a place rich in fish. According to a combing invoice from 1568, the residents called the settlement "The Trebow". Some sources cite the Slavic words “drewo” (“hardwood”) or “drewko” (“small hardwood”) as the origin for the root word , while other sources point to the water (“Treptau”). According to tradition, the Zenner Inn is located here today . The bill also states that the residents had to pay 24 groschen water interest and 32 groschen heather money for beekeeping to the city for the right to fish . In 1590 a protocol of the city stated: "At Trebkow ... the council at Cölln has a little hay and at the river that goes from Rixdorf to the Spree, two more". No other settlements are known, especially since the area in front of the city wall was considered unsafe. The Floßgraben, later referred to as the Landwehrgraben , today the Landwehr Canal runs there , formed the city limits of Berlin and served to drain the field marrow . The Cölln Heath , formerly also called Mirica , stretched south of this ditch . Margrave Otto III. von Brandenburg had signed this area along the Spree with all rights and uses of the citizenship of Cölln as inheritable property, the then still young city had little timber. Today's Alt-Treptow also belonged to the northern part, also called Vorderheide or Birkheide; the southern part, including the Spreeheide (also called Hinterheide ) acquired by the Order of St. John in 1435 , extended to the Köpenick Forest, the border was the so-called Kanneflie . This area corresponds roughly to today's Baumschulenweg district. When Alt-Berlin , Cölln, Friedrichswerder , Dorotheenstadt and Friedrichstadt were united to form the royal capital and residence city of Berlin in 1709, the Cölln Heath, previously known as the city forest , came to Berlin.
Around 1261 the knight Rudolf von Stralau left the Vorwerk Treptow, the previous owner of which is known as the Templars and which was called the castle wall until the 19th century , to the city of Cölln. In 1568 it can be found there on a combing invoice under the name Trebow, with which the existence of a fisherman's house is proven. This was probably at the mouth of the Heidekampgraben, which still exists today, and was probably also the fishing company that was supported by the city of Cölln from 1602 and employed a fisherman there. In the 17th century there are no mentions in the combing accounts of the city of Cölln, so that it can be assumed that this business was given up in the course of the Thirty Years War . Instead, Erdtmann Schmoll , the electoral kitchen master, opened a wine and beer bar in 1653 . In 1707 the former mayor of Cölln, Johann Lauer, moved to a new settlement with stables, barn and outbuildings; this spot was designated as Vorwerck Trepkow or Vorwerk Treptow . He planned to cultivate the settlement for the next nine years for a lease of 40 thalers per year. For health reasons, however, he had to give up the settlement again after four years, whereupon the magistrate had to look for another tenant. In 1727, the then forester opened another beer bar, taking into account the trend that more and more Berliners were using the region outside the city for excursions and leisure activities. In 1730 the settlement was expanded to include a bakery, a brewery and a windmill . Four years later, the forester expanded the building, the Spreebudike , to include a bowling alley, a coffee bar and a second floor. The Gasthaus Zenner later also stood on this area . With the addition of six plots of land that were allocated to settlers in 1779, the settlement was called the Treptow Colony . The colonists also ran excursion restaurants and coined the phrase “ families can make coffee here ”. As early as 1752, two Lohmühlen (Lutze and Busset) were built on the then Floßgraben on the Treptower side in the area of today's Lohmühlenstraße . At that time, this was more of a well-trodden path, which was first shown on a map as Kohlhorstweg in 1783, leading from the Schlesisches Tor to Rixdorf .
Guts Bezirk Treptow
In 1808 the area was officially known as Guts Bezirk Treptow. This included the old Vorwerk from 1779, the three semi-detached houses of the Saxon colonists and the Spreebudike restaurant . This complex was dissolved in 1817; The Treptow Municipal Coffee House was built there in 1821/1822 , later today's Zenner.
In 1823 the magistrate decided to cut down large parts of the Cöllnische Heide. The reason given was that the forest had become unprofitable and that the theft of construction and firewood had taken over. The combing treasury hoped for income of around 100,000 thalers ; 99,825 thalers are officially recorded, while other sources speak of only 83,325 thalers. The only exceptions are the Schlesische Busch and the Alte Treptower Park. The vacated areas were then marketed by the magistrate, which is said to have led to property speculation. Farmers who had farmed and raised livestock on the previously communal areas invoked customary law and demanded compensation claims from the magistrate. In 1840 the clearing was completed, and as the private land had to be developed as a result, streets were named for the first time in 1842: the Lohmühlen-Weg (today: Lohmühlenstraße), the Bouché-Weg named after the Bouché family (today: Bouchéstraße), the Kiefholz-Weg (today: Kiefholzstraße), the Elsen-Allee (today: Elsenstraße ), the Treptower Allee (today: Puschkinallee), the Park-Allee (today: Bulgarische Straße) and the Neue-Krug-Allee. The area west of Köpenicker Landstrasse (today: Am Treptower Park) up to the later railway tracks and between Elsen-Allee and Bouché-Weg was used as a parade ground for the Berlin garrison of the Prussian Army .
Forests, heaths and the Spree have been attractions for day trippers from Berlin since the 18th century. Since 1864 there were also steamboat trips between the Jannowitzbrücke pier and Treptow. The Zenner developed into a meeting point for day trippers, more coffee, beer and garden bars were added and Treptow became a popular excursion destination for Berliners.
For a long time, however, the Treptow estate was not popular as a place of residence because the subsoil was not suitable for building. Treptow is located in the Oberspree valley and is part of the Berlin glacial valley . At that time there were still old, puggy arms of the Spree and swampy soil. In autumn and spring, large parts of the floodplain were flooded. Roads and railways were therefore led on dams. This changed with the clearing of the Cöllnische Heide.
The name Lohmühlenweg is found for the first time in an official document in 1842 . The land that emerged after the deforestation of the Cöllnische Heide was well suited for plant cultivation, so that the corresponding businesses settled. Around 1875, the area between today's Lohmühlenstrasse and Elsenstrasse, west of the parade ground and the Berlin-Görlitz railway line , which was built in the 1860s, was mainly home to gardening centers. To the east of the railway line, on today's Jordanstrasse, were the buildings of the chemical factory founded in 1850 by Dr. phil. Jordan , the first industrial company in Treptow. Later the Actien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation ( Agfa ) had its seat there.
Between the Treptower Chaussee and the Spree, to the north on the Landwehr Canal, Carl Beermann's factory for agricultural machinery was established in 1859. His sons, the brothers Hermann and Georg Beermann, moved the expanded company headquarters to Eichenstrasse in 1872. In 1924 the Beermann factory was taken over by the Allgemeine Berliner Omnibus-Aktien-Gesellschaft (ABOAG) and used for the construction and repair of buses. From 1904 to 1938, Beermannstrasse, which has been called this again since 1947, commemorated this Protestant entrepreneurial family of Jewish origin.
After 1860, the Kampffmeyer leather factory (later: Dr. M. J. Salomon & Co.) took over one of the two lohmühlen there, namely the Bussetsche lohmühle.
Ehrich & Graetz , which was founded as a craft business in 1866 , mainly manufactured petroleum lamps until 1902 and developed into an internationally sought-after company for gas lighting technology and gas burners. With its Grätz lanterns, the company made a significant contribution to the first street lighting in Berlin. From 1907 to 1962 the most important shopping street in Alt-Treptow was called Graetzstraße, now it is reminiscent of the Treptow worker and resistance fighter Karl Kunger, who was executed in 1943 .
Rural community of Treptow
On January 22, 1876, the Treptow manor district was converted into the Treptow rural community by royal decree, which was part of the Teltow district . The area corresponded roughly to today's districts of Treptow, Plänterwald and Baumschulenweg. In 1876 the rural community consisted of 37 properties and had 567 inhabitants.
The first industrial settlements that arose in the middle of the 19th century brought additional financial resources, so that Treptow not only benefited from excursion traffic. Between 1876 and 1878 put Gustav Meyer the Treptow Park on.
In the course of the preparations for the Great Berlin Trade Fair in 1896, numerous infrastructure changes and improvements were made in the rural community of Treptow . Many roads were laid out and paved, and local public transport was expanded.
In 1895 the single-track Spreetunnel Stralau-Treptow was built between Treptow and Stralau , a little north of today's Insel der Jugend . It was a first attempt at building an urban subway in Berlin . The tunnel was 454 meters long, 200 meters of which ran under the Spree; the deepest point of the tube was twelve meters below the water level. The first test drive took place on July 17, 1899, and regular operation of the so-called Knüppelbahn began on December 18 . In 1931, rail traffic was stopped because traffic safety was at risk. After that, the tunnel was still allowed to be used by pedestrians; during World War II it served as an air raid shelter. On February 26, 1945 it was destroyed and flooded.
On the occasion of the trade exhibition, an observatory (initially only provided temporarily) was built, equipped with what is still the longest lens telescope in the world (21 meters in length). It is named after its co-founder Friedrich Simon Archenhold Archenhold-Sternwarte .
The building in Lohmühlenstrasse 52 was built in 1899 between Heidelberger Strasse and Isingstrasse, and until 1945 the post office SO 36 in Berlin was located there. It was responsible for almost the entire district of Treptow and large parts of Kreuzberg and was destroyed in the Second World War.
In the northern part, the Wilhelminischer Ring apartment houses were built in the second half of the 19th century .
Also in 1899, the lamp factory Ehrich & Graetz OHG moved to the newly built building complex in Elsenstrasse.
From 1902 to 1903 the Rixdorf branch canal was dug, which began at what is now the Lohmühlenbrücke and ran to the Ringbahn . From 1912 to 1913 it was extended to the Teltow Canal and is now called Neuköllner Schifffahrtskanal . As a result of the construction of the canal, the groundwater level fell by an average of around two meters, sometimes more. The groundwater sank even further due to the commissioning of many deep wells. The location became economically uninteresting for the nurseries due to the increased irrigation costs, but the land could be sold at a profit. After many nurseries had relocated or given up their businesses within a short period of time, wood storage areas, sawmills, carpentry shops and building materials wholesalers were set up on Lohmühlenstraße, and later coal storage areas for Hedwigshütte Kohlen- und Kokswerke AG . The location on the Landwehr Canal was well suited to transport the building materials and fuels to the vicinity of the city center.
The metal goods and lantern factory Fritz Weber & Co. known as "Lantern Weber" began production in 1907 at Graetzstrasse 68 (today Karl-Kunger-Strasse).
The factory complex on Jordanstrasse also continued to develop. In 1901 the still existing buildings between Jordanstraße and Görlitzer Damm, towards Lohmühlenstraße, were built. In 1905, Agfa Treptow employed almost 2,000 people. During the First World War , poison gas was also produced there. At the turn of the century, large parts of the production were relocated to the Agfa film and paint factory in Wolfen near Bitterfeld .
Formation of the Treptow district
The rural community of Treptow had financial problems due to its strong growth, especially due to the infrastructure measures that had become necessary. Incorporation into the city of Berlin has been under discussion since 1910. After the First World War, these problems became increasingly acute. In 1920 the Treptow district was formed and incorporated into Greater Berlin . It reached south to Bohnsdorf . The district of Treptow enclosed the area between Kreuzberg, Neukölln, Stralau and the Ringbahn plus the Treptower Park. This district is now called Alt-Treptow.
Between the world wars
In 1925 the former halls of the agricultural machinery factory of the Beermann brothers were acquired by the Allgemeine Berliner Omnibus-Actiengesellschaft (ABOAG) and used as a depot for bus operations.
The area between Hoffmannstrasse and the Spree opposite the Treptow train station served as a wood storage area for the Kempfer and Lucke company until 1926. In that year it changed hands and the AEG group built the Treptow apparatus factory there.
In the Agfa company complex, Agfa photo and sales facilities of the IG Farben group remained in the 1930s . From 1934, the Treptow weapons factory of Gustav Genschow and Co. AG moved there .
After the " seizure of power " by the National Socialists , the "Heereswaffenmeisterschule" of the Wehrmacht was housed on the grounds of the barracks and tested weapons and ammunition for anti-tank defense here.
From 1935 to 1940, a new factory complex was built for Fritz Weber & Co. on the corner of Kiefholzstrasse and Lohmühlenstrasse . Weber himself was a military economic leader and a member of the NSDAP . War materials were manufactured there by more than 2,300 workers and employees. Forced laborers were employed who were recruited from the forced labor camps also located in Lohmühlenstraße ("Ostarbeiterlager Lohmühlenstraße 23/24" and "Ausländerlager Lohmühlenstraße 55").
The Reschke box factory took over the location of Dr. M. J. Salomon & Co.
The second World War
- June 21, 1944 and February 3, 1945: American air raids
- April 23 or 24, 1945: The Vienna Bridge was blown up (last tram ride on April 21, 1945)
- Until April 26th: last fights for Lohmühlenstrasse and the surrounding area
Time of the GDR
The Soviet Memorial , which was built from June 1946 to 1949 and inaugurated on May 8, 1949, is located in Treptower Park . The Soviet monument building administration was quartered in the nearby barracks area Am Treptower Park until 1951. Police forces were also again stationed on the premises; after 1949 the People's Police . In 1962 the GDR border troops took over the barracks.
The building of the Apparatewerk Treptow of the AEG served in the GDR the parent company of the nationally owned combine Elektro-Apparate-Werke Berlin-Treptow (EAW). In the former Agfa company complex on Jordanstraße, after the Treptow weapons factory, the VEB Steremat and departments of the sports and cultural goods wholesaler were located. The Weber armaments factory was expropriated after 1945. Production area 3 of the VEB Berliner Werkzeugmaschinenfabrik (BWF) was located in the Lohmühlenstrasse / Kiefholzstrasse complex .
On August 13, 1961, the border between Alt-Treptow and the West Berlin districts of Kreuzberg and Neukölln was hermetically sealed. Between August 13 and 23, 1961, there were border crossings to Kreuzberg and Neukölln for ten days at Puschkinallee and Elsenstrasse . The Berlin Wall , offset a few meters to the rear, ran along the Flutgraben, Landwehr Canal, Harzer Strasse, Bouchéstrasse, Heidelberger Strasse and Treptower Strasse to Kiefholzstrasse. Curiously, the north-easternmost building in the district, the fishery, was on the Obere Freiarchenbrücke, beyond the wall and was only accessible from the west.
The watchtowers were arranged so that the death strip could be seen from there. As one of the few in the city, the - rather untypical - tower of the former command post in the "Silesian Bush" has been preserved. At the Görlitzer Bahn , a gate in the wall allowed the transit of freight wagons between the Berlin-Treptow freight yard in Neukölln and the remaining commercial operations on the site of the Görlitzer Bahnhof . This crossing was secured with a viewing bridge and two flanking watchtowers.
The strip between the canal and the wall, especially in the somewhat wider section between the Treptower bridge leading over the Flutgraben and the railway line, was popular with people from Kreuzberg, who were not spoiled with green spaces at the time, and in the last years of the wall's existence it was even called " wild camp site ”.
The temporary pedestrian walkway at the site of the former Vienna Bridge lost its function when the wall was built . The balconies of the houses on this side of Lohmühlenstrasse opened towards the death strip or protruded into it.
At Lohmühlenplatz , part of the district was ceded to the West in 1988 as part of an exchange of territory between the GDR and West Berlin, which gave West Berliners better access to the Neukölln area around Harzer Straße via the Lohmühlenbrücke .
On June 11, 1962, 55 East Berliners managed to escape through an approximately 75-meter-long tunnel that was dug by a restaurant on the corner of Heidelberger and Elsenstrasse. This tunnel was rediscovered during construction work in October 2004. Other people who wanted to flee also took advantage of the convenient location of the narrow death strip on Heidelberger Strasse, which was built on both sides. On March 17, 1962, he managed to escape with the help of a ladder, and in 1963 the fugitive was seriously injured by gunfire while attempting to escape with an armored personnel carrier. A spectacular escape was made in 1983 via Bouchéstrasse on a rope from house to house.
The second, also strictly guarded gate for the transfer trains to Kreuzberg was located near the corner of Kiefholzstrasse and Treptower Strasse.
After the fall of the wall
The barracks area between Elsenstrasse and Bouchéstrasse was taken over by the Bundeswehr in 1990 . Asylum seekers were housed in part of the barracks . From 1996 to 1999, the barracks buildings were refurbished in accordance with historical monuments, since then part of the Federal Criminal Police Office and the Office for the Protection of the Constitution have been housed there.
The halls of the former agricultural machinery factory Gebrüder Beermann served as a depot for bus operations until 1993; today they are used as a location for major events under the name Arena Berlin . The industrial complex Lohmühlen- / Kiefholzstraße south of Lohmühleninsel was reconstructed after 1990 and is a listed building . Companies from the field of communication design have settled there. In 1992 the listed Agfa complex on Jordanstrasse was renovated by a private foundation.
Also in the 1990s, the Treptowers were built on the former site of the Apparatewerk Treptow of the AEG Group, the tallest building of which, at 17 floors and 125 meters high, clearly exceeds the eaves height of the surrounding buildings and is therefore a landmark in this area.
Between 2000 and 2003, the district at the intersection of Elsenstrasse / Am Treptower Park received a shopping center (“Park Center”) south of Am Treptower Park and the multiplex cinema north. Behind the building complexes, the reserve area for the Treptower Park exit from the 16th section of the A 100 city motorway remained free, which will become a junction when the motorway construction continues.
The Museum of Capitalism was founded in 2014.
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Alt-Treptow
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Alt-Treptow
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Alt-Treptow
- Cinemas in the district on the district list
- Helga Pett: Alt-Treptow in Berlin. Support association for the local history museum Treptow e. V., 2004 (based on a manuscript by Gerhard Hänsel).
- Judith Uhlig: Treptow - history of the Berlin administrative districts. Stapp Verlag, 1995.
- Monika Becker, Ronald Friedmann, Anja Schindler: Jews in Treptow. They were called as you are , publisher: Kulturbund e. V. Berlin-Treptow, Edition Hentrich 1993.
- Alt-Treptow . District Office Treptow-Köpenick
- Kulturbund Treptow (ed.): Families can make coffee here: Treptow in the course of history . 1st edition. be.bra, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-930863-14-6 , pp. 184 .
- Friends of the Treptow Local History Museum (ed.): Alt-Treptow in Berlin . Mercedes Druck, Berlin 2004, p. 124 .
- Berlin Week . Advertising newspaper for Treptow, January 26, 2005
- I carried my daughter over the wall . In: BZ aktuell , September 17, 2012; Retrieved September 17, 2012
- Photo archive Alex Waidmann Berlin , accessed on September 17, 2012
- How a wall escape with a bow and arrow succeeded . Welt Online , March 31, 2008; Retrieved September 17, 2012
- Map of Berlin 1: 5000 (K5 - color edition): Elsenstrasse 115