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Wenden is an outdated term for Slavs in German-speaking countries ( Germania Slavica ) . The ethnonym , which has been in use since the 12th century, goes back to Old High German forerunners and was used by users as a foreign name to distinguish them from “the others”. In addition to the Slavic inhabitants of areas along and east of the Elbe ("Elbslawen"), Wenden also referred to Slavs north of the Danube , in the Upper Palatinate and Upper Franconia ( Bavaria Slavica ) and in the Eastern Alps . In Niederlausitz the term is still used today for the Sorbs . The people of Styria and Carinthia refer to their Slovenian and Croatian neighbors as Windische to this day . In addition, the term has been preserved in a large number of toponyms such as Wendland .

Word history

First mentions

In the tradition of the German-speaking area, the term Wenden first appears in written sources around the year 660. In the fourth book of the Fredegarchronik it is used in Latinized version as Winedi / Winodi / Winidi , which is another name for Slavs. Fredegar reports that the Wends had chosen the Franconian merchant Samo as their king, who was joined by the Slavic Sorbs, also known as Wends, under their prince Derwan . Elsewhere it is said that Wenden settled under a Prince Walluch in a marca vinedorum (Wendenmark) between Pannonia and Bavaria, which cannot be localized . After the Sorbs, the other two large Elbe Slavic tribal associations of the early Middle Ages are also called Wends: In 789 the Fragmentum chesnii names the princes of the Wilzen as reges Winidorum , and in 810 the Annales Sancti Amandi speak of the Abodrites as Wenedi .

Origin of the term

The origin of the term is still unclear today. According to the most common explanation, it is derived from the Venedi , but they should not have any ethnic connection with the Wends. The Venedi settled on the Baltic coast. Its origin is unknown. They are first mentioned by Pliny († 79) in his Naturalis historia as Venetae and then lived east of the Vistula. Next, Tacitus († 120) reports in his Germania that the Venedi lived on the eastern edge of Germania between the Teutons and the Sarmatians , and in case of doubt he would rather attribute them to the Teutons because they “build solid houses, wear shields, gladly and well go on foot, in contrast to the Sarmatians, who are at home on carts and horses. ”In contrast, according to Claudius Ptolemaios († around 175), the Uenedai described by him in his Geographike Hyphegesis are Sarmatians. Around the year 550, Jordanes mentions Venethi in his Gothic story , who settled from the sources of the Vistula over immense stretches. However, it is unclear whether the name of the Venetians, who settled on the Adriatic Sea in antiquity, is associated with the term Venedi and thus with that of the Wends. On the other hand, the similarity with the name of the Celtic Venetians who settled in northwestern Gaul is considered to be coincidental .

Wends and vandals

Since the Middle Ages, turns and the Germanic vandals that can be distinguished from them have been equated again and again . Even in the Middle Ages, this was not always done by mistake. In the 20th century, the primary purpose of equating was to justify nationalist and revanchist interests and territorial claims. In Latin texts the same term (Vandali) was often used for Vandals and Wends, e.g. B. on the Corona Danica of 1618.

The Polish chronicler Vinzenz Kadlubek invented the Wanda (legend) in order to give the newly created Duchy of the Polans a long history. Kadlubeks often repeated and interpreted as true story equated Poland with vandals and called the river on which his "Wanda" and their people lived, "Wandalus" (Vistula).

The Slavist Aleksander Brückner stated the following about Kadlubek's inventions: “Only one of everyone who has ever dealt with Polish prehistory saw the right thing, the Archbishop of Lviv , Gregor von Sanok in the 15th century. Century (...) (he) rejected the statement by Mag. Vincentius (...) Gregor correctly recognized that the wrong equation Poloni = Vandali alone had seduced Mag. Vincentius into appraising his Vanda and consequently rejected it; all of his successors have been less careful and have only piled error upon error. Since the Poles had no tradition whatsoever, Mag. Vincentius invented the legends. "

"Wendisch" and "Windisch"

"Windisch" is the attribute derived from the noun Wenden through umlaut formation , which is often used as a linguistic variant and synonym for "wendisch", as can be seen from place names in the catchment area of ​​the Elbe. Wenden used to live in Windischenbernsdorf as well as in Wendisch Evern .

The Slovene language is traditionally referred to in German as “ Windisch ”, not “Wendish”. Since the fall of the Habsburg Monarchy , this name has been limited to the Slovene speakers in the Republic of Austria for political reasons and contrasted with Slovene in Yugoslavia and the Republic of Slovenia. In today's Austria, "Windische" is a common name for the Carinthians living in the border area as well as the self-name of those who use this language (dialect) but do not want to be considered Slovenes. In the Upper Palatinate , too , the name “ Windisch ” can be found not only as a family name, but also as part of place names such as Windischeschenbach and Windischbergerdorf . In the time when German was still the official language in the areas concerned, places Windischgrätz (Slovenia) and Windisch Kamnitz (Czech Republic) were mentioned. In the Upper Palatinate, Slavs encountered sparsely populated areas and settled there in their own villages, which were given German names by the German residents of surrounding villages or by the authorities at the time.

"Wendish" and "Sorbian"

Wendish wedding in 1931 in the Spreewald

The German self-designation of the long-established Slavs in the Brandenburg Lower Lusatia is the subject of disputes. While the common name Sorbs was used mainly in the GDR for the Slavs of Lower and Upper Lusatia, many Lower Lusatians see themselves as a Wends to differentiate them from the Sorbs in Upper Lusatia in Saxony . In this sense, the Slavic language in Lower Lusatia is also called Wendish or Lower Sorbian , from which (Upper) Sorbian in Upper Lusatia differs. In the meantime, only the term Sorbian emerges as a cultural unit and recognized minority in the entire Lusatia region, which reflects the self-denomination in both languages ​​(Lower Sorbian Serby , Upper Sorbian Serbja ). A word Wendojo or Wendski does not exist in either Sorbian language.


Turning image from the Sachsenspiegel . The woman (left) wears the typical temple ring, the men “twisted” leg wraps, which, however, are neither archaeologically nor from written sources: a “talking” image for the mass of those who are unfamiliar with writing.

Early Slavic settlement

Since the 7th century, Slavs immigrated into the areas abandoned by Germanic tribes during the late Roman Empire and the Great Migration . The settlements and burial grounds that have so far been archaeologically evaluated justify the assumption that the immigrants were smaller groups the size of family associations. From the remnants of their material culture and the results of dendrochronological studies of construction timber, mainly from wells, there are hiking trails from Silesia along the Oder and from Bohemia along the Elbe to the north. However, older hypotheses of immigration from the east have not been confirmed. In the first half of the 7th century, the immigrants first settled in the areas on both sides of the Elbe and the lower Saale , before reaching regions north of it as far as the Baltic Sea from around the year 650 . Regardless of the inconsistent state of research, it is now clear that the individual areas were populated with different densities at clearly distinguishable times. While the excavations found in the Uckermark , Havelland , Wismarer Bucht or on the Peene in Western Pomerania showed a relatively dense population as early as the 7th century, other areas followed relatively late despite their natural suitability. such as Ostholstein from the year 700 and Rügen only in the late 8th century. Other areas such as Lower Lusatia initially remained thin or even unpopulated.

On the other hand, according to another opinion, the settlement of the areas along the Elbe and Oder was not part of the early medieval Slavic expansion process in Central Europe, but rather a "Slavicization" of existing remnants of the population. They adopted the superior cultural model of the Slavs, spoke a common language with them, or developed an identity-creating community awareness based on a Frankish or Saxon foreign name, such as Wenden, in order to subsequently appear as an Elbe Slavic tribe. This view is countered by the fact that, according to the current state of knowledge, there was a lack of a remaining population between the Elbe and the Oder to be transformed. The thesis is to be distinguished from the nationalistically motivated Slav legend , according to whose content the Wends were Germanic peoples erroneously classified as Slavs.

The emergence of tribes and tribal associations ( ethnogenesis ) only occurred within the newly developed settlement areas. The early "state formation" of the Abodrites in the area of ​​present-day Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the 11th century represents a high point in the history of West Slavic development . The Slavs fought against Danes and Germans for supremacy in the southern Baltic region (for example in the Wendenkreuzzug ) and finally lost. There were also Slavic settlements on the Danish islands of Lolland and Falster .

Tribes and tribal associations

Elbslawische settlement with jetty
in Oldenburg Wall Museum
(about 8 to 9 century)

In sources from the East Frankish-German Empire , a large number of tribes and tribal associations are mentioned, especially since the 8th century. The largest associations were those of the Abodrites in the northwest, the Wilzen and later the Lutizen in the northeast and the Sorbs in the south. It often remains unclear who is behind these names. As was usually assumed in the 19th and 20th centuries, it was not a question of firmly established, homogeneous and sharply defined groupings. Rather, it can be assumed that there are quite dynamic groups whose composition has changed again and again.

In the description of the so-called Bavarian Geographer ( Geographus Bavarus ) from the middle of the 9th century with later revisions and additions, the tribes known at that time and the number of civitates belonging to them - settlement chambers with a central castle complex and associated settlements and smaller fortifications - called ( Table of Nations of St. Emmeram ).

In the mediaeval sources, the Sorbs are clearly separated from the Sorbs after the disintegration of the Sorbian tribe

Eastern colonization

In the course of the medieval colonization of the east from the 11th century, but intensified in the 12th and 13th centuries, the Elbe Slavs merged with the newly immigrated German settlers and the groups of Mecklenburg , Pomerania and Silesia formed .

In eastern Lower Saxony and Brandenburg in particular, this process did not proceed without economic displacement processes and conflicts: Wends were excluded from the guilds and the cities assigned them special residential areas, especially after the plague epidemic of 1349/50 triggered an influx of the Slavic rural population into the cities . The Wends were then assigned to the unfree and "dishonest". They were even banned from brewing beer.

The West Slavic languages ​​and dialects in the Holy Roman Empire were also pushed back in a centuries-long process of Germanization - often through restrictions (prohibitions on use). As early as 1293 the use of Wendish was forbidden in court in Anhalt , and in 1327 also in Altenburg, Leipzig and Zwickau. However, it was still used in everyday life, and Martin Luther complained about "Wendish speaking" farmers in the area of Wittenberg . In some areas, such as Wendland in Lower Saxony (see also Drawehn ) or in the Brandenburg-Saxon Lausitz , the Slavs were able to maintain their cultural independence and their languages ​​well into the 18th century or until today.


In the area east of the Elbe and Saale there are countless testimonies to the archaeological culture of the Elbe and Baltic Sea Slavs. These include ramparts and open settlements as well as material culture.

The first archaeological culture was the Prague culture in the 7th century. It was replaced by the groups of Feldberger Keramik , Menkendorfer Keramik , Leipziger Gruppe and others.


Forms of settlement

Floor plan of the round village Köhlen in Wendland , 1830

Round villages are typical of the Wenden settlement . The village shape, which emerged in the Middle Ages during internal colonization , has a horseshoe-shaped arrangement of farmhouses and properties. The distribution area of ​​the Rundling stretches in strips between the Baltic Sea and the Ore Mountains in the contact zone between Germans and Slavs at that time. Rundling villages have been best preserved in the economically weak region of the Hanoverian Wendland and in Prignitz. The Slavic settlement forms in front of the Rundlingen have not yet been adequately researched archaeologically.

Religion and cult

See also: Christianization of the Elbe Slavs

Until the 11th and 12th centuries the northern Elbe Slavs were dominated by non-Christian cults. While sacred groves and waters were initially venerated as places of worship, a priesthood and places of worship gradually developed in the 10th and 11th centuries , which often also had supraregional significance. Examples are the temple castles in Cape Arkona (Rügen) and Rethra . Important Slavic deities were Radegast and Triglaw . The gods of the gods of other Slavic peoples also existed here, but tribal deities developed more strongly than elsewhere. Often old gods changed their meaning.

The Slavs in the Elbe-Saale area and in Lusatia came under the influence of the Christian Church even earlier. In 968 the Archdiocese of Magdeburg was set up with the suffragans Zeitz , Merseburg and Meißen and Christianization continued. In the more northerly areas of Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Brandenburg, which had withdrawn from the rule of the Holy Roman Empire and Christian proselytizing for over 200 years with the Slav uprising of 983 , Christianization was not complete in many places until the 13th century.


For centuries, the German Empire east of the Elbe and Saale was bilingual. In addition to the German dialects , West Slavic languages ​​and dialects were spoken for a long time . In the 15th century the dialect of the Ranen died out on the island of Rügen , only in the 18th century the Polabian of the Drevanen / Drevänopolaben in the Hanoverian Wendland. The Protestant part of the Kashubians, the Slovinces , who lived in Western Pomerania , lost their Kashubian idiom around 1900. However, the Kashubian language is still spoken further east in the former West Prussia and the current Polish Pomeranian Voivodeship . In addition to Kashubian, the Sorbian language of the Lusatian Sorbs is the only remaining language of the Wends. The number of Sorbian speakers is estimated at 20,000 to 30,000 people today, around 150,000 around 1900. Kashubian is used as an everyday language by 50,000 people today.

Research history

The "Wendish story" by Krantz; Title page of the print from 1636

History about the Wende has already been written down by contemporary chroniclers , in particular by Thietmar von Merseburg , Adam von Bremen , Helmold von Bosau and Saxo Grammaticus , but not from a long-term perspective. In the 15th century, the Wends were almost completely integrated between the Elbe and Oder, the Baltic Sea and Fläming in the “ new tribes ” formed as part of the German eastern settlement , and they participated in their high-medieval development. The Hamburg scholar Albert Krantz gave the first major look back at the history of the Wends, which was completed to this extent . The short title "Wandalia" of his "Description of the Wendish History" shows that, referring to ancient Roman writers, he mistakenly considered the Wends to be the descendants of the Vandals (not the Venetians ), that is, an East Germanic tribe; however, this false equation was already common in the Middle Ages. The statesman Krantz, who was also active in Lübeck, began his work with the words:

"In this line of the Wendish Land Seaward, where the Wends (which our own are also called Sclauen ) inhabit years ago and now the Saxons , formerly beautiful, marvelous cities whose power was so great that they were also the mighty kings of Dennemarck offtmals given to create the now partly umbgekehret gantz, but partly as außgemergelt at low spots and Vorwercken been made being. Nevertheless, under the government of the Saxons, in whose city others, so God praise now stand in full wealth and power, are inherited, who are not ashamed of the old name of these countries and are therefore still today called the Wendish cities. For their sake I have been all the more willing to write these Wendish histories. And from now on I want to show what deeds this nation uttered ominous years ago, what princes were raised and born in them, and what still exist today for beautiful cities in this region by the sea. "

- Albert Krantz Wandalia

In the "V. Chapter " he continues:

"After the Saxons brought these Wendish lands under themselves and into the utmost servitude, this name is so despicable that if they get angry, one of the serfs and always under their feet must otherwise scold not but a claw. But if we take the history and deeds of our ancestors too hard and consider them, we shall draw from us not for a vice but for an honor that we were born from such people. "

- Albert Krantz Wandalia

Krantz repeatedly refers to the most famous chroniclers Adam, Thietmar, Helmold and Saxo, emphasizing above all the laudable, for example the splendor of Vineta described by Adam . He also mentions the paganism of the Slavs, but without the disgust common with chroniclers, because for Krantz the Wends were originally a tribe of the Teutons, who were also pagan. In their struggle against the Reich, for him, the Wends are no different from the Danes. Krantz deals with all Slavic peoples of Europe, but the focus of his interest is the land of the Obotrites , on which the " Wendish quarter " of the Hanseatic League was built. Also on the Mark Brandenburg he goes on ( "The Mark of Brandenburg is the vornembsten parts of a land with the Wendish"), first on the margravial possession on the west bank of the Elbe:

“And I want to believe that at the time of the Dreyer Ottonum, the Saxons, after the expulsion of the Wends, were ready to take over these lands. For Keizer Heinrich , Ottonis of the great father, also made the conquered city of Brandenburg a Saxon colonies and decreed a marggraffen there , whose descendants received a splendid portion of his. [...] As the Saxons now rose again [after the Slavs' uprising in 983], they have slain most of the Wends and expelled the others through both gentlemen Heinrich and Marggraf Albrechte . "

- Albert Krantz Wandalia

The Brandenburg historians Johann Christoph Bekmann (1641–1717) and Jacob Paul von Gundling (1673–1731) have expressly stated in their historical works “Historical Description of Chur and Mark Brandenburg” and “Life and Deeds of Herr Albrechte the First, Margrave of Brandenburg” With reference to the “famous scribbler Crantzius”, however, nothing qualitatively new has been added to his view of the Wends. All three knew the most important source for the creation of the Mark Brandenburg ( Heinrich von Antwerpen , around 1150 to 1230) only in fragments without knowledge of the context and the author.

This was also Fontane's level of knowledge when he wrote the chapter in the volume “Havelland” of his “ Walks through the Mark Brandenburg ” in 1873 : “The Wends and the colonization of the Mark by the Cistercians .” Like Bekmann and Gundling, he took over from Krantz Keywords “murder and expulsion of the Wends by the Saxons” and “colony” (“eastern colonization”). Without the source Heinrich von Antwerp (and today's research results) they were not or not sufficiently aware that Albrecht's contemporaries Pribislaw-Heinrich von Brandenburg and Jaxa von Köpenick had been Christians since birth, like almost all Slavic princes of that time. They were also not aware of the inheritance contract concluded by Pribislaw with Albrecht the Bear at the beginning of his reign about his successor in the Hevellerland. The two classic topoi of historiography about the changes in the Mark Brandenburg, namely "bloody struggle" and "Christianization" therefore do not have the meaning that today's popular literature still attaches to them. The inheritance contract with Pribislaw and the Christianity of Jaxa are now correctly reported, but without correcting the overall picture of the Wends as belligerent pagans without culture (Fontane: "unculture"). This is all the more astonishing as the Hamburg statesman Krantz, who was at the beginning of the history of the Wende, considered it an honor to descend from the Wende.

Place names

The following places and districts have the word Wenden and Wendisch , but also Windisch in the name and refer - at least in part - to a Wendish origin. With these place names, it cannot always be assumed with certainty that the places were Wendish settlements. However, some are too much in the German core area west of the Elbe; their place names are therefore likely to be derived from the prehistoric brook name wend . With the addition wendisch a direction can also be described.

Numerous place names can also be recognized as such by their typical Slavic endings, e.g. B. Rochlitz (characteristic Slavic ending -itz ) or Panitzsch (also Slavic ending -itzsch). These are very typical in central Germany, but also widespread beyond that. In addition, there are also very many place names in northeast Germany with the almost always Slavic ending -ow (in Germany as in Sorbian spoken with a mute -w at the end, e.g. the pronunciation of Grabow as “Graboh”), more rarely with the Slavic ending Ending -in , like Berlin or Schwerin . Numerous other place names with other endings, such as B. Dresden , Leipzig and Rostock , are of Slavic origin.

See also


  • Sebastian Brather : Archeology of the Western Slavs. Settlement, economy and society in early and high medieval East-Central Europe . In: Herbert Jankuhn, Heinrich Beck et al. (Ed.): Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde . Supplementary volumes . 2nd Edition. tape 30 . Walter de Gruyter Inc., Berlin, New York NY 2001, ISBN 3-11-017061-2 .
  • Sebastian Brather:  Slavic ceramics. Elbe Slavs. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 29, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-018360-9 , pp. 79-87.
  • Christian Lübke : Slaves between Elbe / Saale and Oder. Wenden - Polaben - Elbslaven? Observations on Name Choice . In: Yearbook for the history of Central and Eastern Germany . No. 41 , 1991, pp. 17-43 .
  • Christian Lübke: The Germans and the European Middle Ages. Eastern Europe . Siedler Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-88680-760-6 .
  • Madlena Norberg: anthology on Sorbian / Wendish culture and identity . Can the Sorbian / Wendish language and identity still be saved? In: Potsdam contributions to Sorabistics . No. 8 . Universitäts-Verlag, Potsdam 2008, ISBN 978-3-940793-35-5 ( kobv.de [PDF; accessed on February 28, 2010] from the Opus and Archiving Service of the Berlin-Brandenburg Cooperative Library Association).
  • Alfried Wieczorek , Hans-Martin Hinz (Ed.): Europe's center around 1000 . Theiss, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8062-1545-6 .
  • Felix Biermann , Thomas Kersting (Ed.): Contributions of the Section on Slavic Early History of the 5th German Archaeological Congress in Frankfurt (Oder), April 4th to 7th, 2005 . Settlement, communication and economy in the West Slavic area. Langenweißbach 2007.
  • Felix Biermann et al. (Ed.): Contributions of the Section on Slavic Early History of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Central and East German Association for Antiquity Research in Halle an der Saale, March 19-21, 2007 . Settlement structures and castles in the West Slavic area. Langenweißbach 2009.
  • Roland Steinacher: Wends, Slavs, Vandals. An early medieval pseudological equation and its afterlife until the 18th century. In: W. Pohl (Ed.): In search of the origins. On the importance of the early Middle Ages. Vienna 2004, pp. 329–353. (Research on the history of the Middle Ages 8) ( PDF )
  • Jerzy Okulicz: Some aspects of the ethnogenesis of the Balts and Slavs in the light of archaeological and linguistic research . Quaestiones medii aevi, Vol. 3, 1986, pp. 7-34.
  • Julius Pokorny: Indo-European Etymological Dictionary. Francke, Bern / Munich 1959.
  • Michał Parczewski: The beginnings of early Slavic culture in Poland. Austrian Society for Prehistory and Early History, Vienna 1993. (Publications of the Austrian Society for Prehistory and Early History; Vol. 17)
  • Andrej Pleterski: Model etnogeneze Slovanov na osnovi nekaterih novejših raziskav / A model of an Ethnogenesis of Slavs based on Some Recent Research. In: Zgodovinski časopis. In: Historische Zeitschrift, 49, No. 4, 1995, ISSN  0350-5774 , pp. 537-556 (English summary: Catalog entry at Cobiss).
  • Alexander M. Schenker: The Dawn of Slavic: an Introduction to Slavic Philology. Yale University Press, New Haven 1996, ISBN 0-300-05846-2 .

Early works

  • Albert Krantz : Wandalia . Of the splendid, well-educated Mr. Albert Crantzii Wandalia. Or: Description of Wendish history: Inside the Wends actual Vrspuung some peoples and diverse metamorphoses ... From what should be in ... Kingdoms ... Wendish and other nations in Dennemarcken / Sweden / Poland / Vngarn / Bohemia / Austria / Mährern / Silesia / Brandenburg / Prussia / Reussen / Lieffland / Pomerania / Mecklenburg / Holstein. Junge, Lübeck 1636.
  • Theodor Fontane : Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . The turning point in the market. tape III , 1873.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Eduard Mühle : The Slavs in the Middle Ages. De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2016, ISBN 978-3-11-049015-2 , p. 24 f.
  2. ^ Fredegar IV, 48: in Sclavos coinomento Winedos perrexit.
  3. Bruno Krusch (Ed.): Chronicarum quae dicuntur Fredegarii Scholastici libri IV. Cum Continuationibus. In: Bruno Krusch (ed.): Fredegarii et aliorum chronica. Vitae sanctorum (= Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores. 2: Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum. Vol. 2, ISSN  0343-7574 ). Hahn, Hanover 1888, p.144
  4. Bruno Krusch (Ed.): Chronicarum quae dicuntur Fredegarii Scholastici libri IV. Cum Continuationibus. In: Bruno Krusch (ed.): Fredegarii et aliorum chronica. Vitae sanctorum (= Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores. 2: Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum. Vol. 2, ISSN  0343-7574 ). Hahn, Hanover 1888, p.155
  5. Bruno Krusch (Ed.): Chronicarum quae dicuntur Fredegarii Scholastici libri IV. Cum Continuationibus. In: Bruno Krusch (ed.): Fredegarii et aliorum chronica. Vitae sanctorum (=  Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Scriptores. 2: Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum. Vol. 2, ISSN  0343-7574 ). Hahn, Hanover 1888, p. 157.
  6. Annales Sancti Amandi 810 : Carolus… placitum habuit in Fereda: et ibi Wenedi venerunt, et dedit illis regem.
  7. ^ Christian Lübke : The Germans and the European Middle Ages. Eastern Europe. Siedler, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-88680-760-6 , p. 34.
  8. Sebastian Brather : Archeology of the Western Slavs. Settlements, economy and society in early and high medieval East Central Europe ( Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde , Volume 61). de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2008, ISBN 978-3-11-020609-8 , p. 51; Roland Steinacher : Wends, Slavs, Vandals. An early medieval pseudological equation and its afterlife until the 18th century. In: W. Pohl (Ed.): In search of the origins. On the importance of the early Middle Ages (= research on the history of the Middle Ages, vol. 8). Vienna 2004, pp. 329–353, here p. 329.
  9. Pliny, Naturalis Historia 4,? .
  10. ^ Tacitus, Germania .
  11. ^ Ptolemy 2:10 .
  12. Jordanes, Getica 34.
  13. ^ A. Brückner: Archive for Slavic Philology. V. Jagic, Berlin 1901, pp. 224-230.
  14. ^ Felix Biermann : Centralization processes among the northern Elbe Slavs. In: Przemysław Sikora (Ed.): Processes of centralization and the formation of rule in early medieval East Central Europe (= Studies on the Archeology of Europe 23). Habelt, Bonn 2014, pp. 157–193, here pp. 158–161.
  15. ^ Fred Ruchhöft: From the Slavic tribal area to the German bailiwick; the development of the territories in Ostholstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the Middle Ages (Archeology and History in the Baltic Sea Region, Volume 4). Frame / Westf. 2008, ISBN 978-3-89646-464-4 ; ders .: The development of the cultural landscape in the Plau-Goldberg area in the Middle Ages (Rostock studies on regional history 5). Rostock 2001.
  16. ^ Winfried Schich: Economy and cultural landscape: Collected contributions from 1977 to 1999 on the history of the Cistercians and the "Germania Slavica". Berlin 2007, p. 418 ff.
  17. Hardt, Matthias: The "Slavic Village" and its transformation during the colonization period according to written and historical-geographical sources. In: settlement research. Archeology - History - Geography 17/1999, pp. 269–291.
  18. Fernando Amado Aymoré: The Jesuits in colonial Brazil: Catechesis as cultural policy and social phenomenon (1549-1760) . Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-58769-0 ( google.de [accessed on February 14, 2019]).
  19. ^ Theodor Fontane: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . tape 2 . Berlin / Weimar 1994, p. 41 .
  20. ^ J. Leupold: Places with "Wendisch" in their names. In: Wendisch Evern information. Retrieved February 28, 2010 .
  21. Hans Bahlow: Germany's geographical world of names: etymological lexicon of river and place names of ancient European origin . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 978-3-518-37721-5 , pp. 529 .