The Bavarian Geographer - Latin Geographus Bavarus , also called East Franconian Völkertafel - is an early medieval manuscript in Latin that lists the names of peoples north of the Danube according to the introductory sentence Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii . The total of 59 peoples are predominantly Slavic peoples or tribes. The list of these tribes is divided into two sections. With one exception, the tribes mentioned in the first section can be clearly identified because they are also mentioned in other Franconian sources . A satisfactory identification of the strains mentioned in the second section has largely not yet been achieved. The meaning of the “civitates” assigned to most of the tribes and the occasionally used term “regiones” is also unclear.
The handwriting is very likely a copy of one or even several older texts. The author of the text (s), the place of origin of the manuscript and the date on which the texts and manuscripts were made are unknown. Although the decisive prerequisites for a historical interpretation of the text remain in the dark, the manuscript is considered one of the central written sources for the early medieval history of Central and Eastern Europe. The Bavarian geographer provides information about the political constellation at the time, the settlement system and he reflects the author's idea of ethnic categories.
Since the middle of the 19th century, modern historiography has primarily dealt with the question of the dating of the Bavarian geographer . Since the 1990s, history and archeology have come to a whole series of new discoveries independently of one another, which make the first section at the end of the 9th century and the second section at the beginning of the 10th century probable, while the manuscript is no closer to one determinable time of the 10th century could have been worked out.
The manuscript is in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich under the signature Clm 560 on folio 149v – 150r . It is the only surviving copy of the text. The place of origin of the manuscript is unknown. Since the typeface is palaeographically associated with a south-west German writing school of the 10th century, the Reichenau monastery and the writing school of the Constance Minster are considered as places of origin . The manuscript had been in the Prüll monastery, founded in 997 near Regensburg , for several centuries before it came into the possession of the book collector and Nuremberg city doctor Hartmann Schedel around 1487 . The codex had been in the ducal library in Munich since 1618. The text was published in French in 1772 by the French envoy at the Bavarian court in Munich, Louis-Gabriel Du Buat-Nançay . One of the first commentators, the Polish scientist Jan Potocki , who wrote in French, then referred to the author in 1796 as " Géographe de la bibliothèque de Bavière " and " Géographe de Bavière ".
The text is added on two single-column parchment sheets in the format 173 mm × 145 mm. These are bound in at the end of an anthology wrapped in leather with the dimensions 205 mm × 147 mm. The little book is composed of two older books, the first part of which dates from the 11th century. The second part is older and contains short treatises on astrology and geometry . Finally, the two pages with the unadorned text, written in a Carolingian minuscule , the initials in black uncialis . The writing appears hastily. Overall, the manuscript gives the impression of "useful literature". The second page is only half written on and cut off at the bottom to remove parchment waste. Another scribe wrote two glosses on the unwritten part of the second page .
The author of the text is unknown. Based on its geographical position south of the Danube, it makes sense to assume it is in Bavaria or in the Archdiocese of Salzburg . The use of the Enns as a starting point for a distance specification is also in dispute . The Polish historian Łowmiański suspected that the abbot Rudolf von Fulda was the author of the first part. Wolfgang H. Fritze assumes that the author was Grimald von Weißenburg . Most recently, the Russian historian Alexander Nazarenko discussed whether the text could be traced back to the Salonika Method .
The dating of the Bavarian geographer is still controversial today. Without a closer definition of the time of origin, the text cannot be classified historically, in particular a reliable interpretation of the listed tribal names cannot be made. The manuscript itself does not contain a date.
There is a broad consensus that the text and handwriting can have been created at different times, i.e. the handwriting can be a copy or compilation of one or more older texts. After research until the middle of the 20th century, based on text-critical examinations, assumed that it was written in the second half of the 9th century, Wolfgang H. Fritze dated the text to around the year 844 and at the same time spoke out against newer considerations that wanted to date the text to the beginning of the 9th century. The Polish historian Łowmianski joined this dating based on his own findings, which thus formed the prevailing opinion until the end of the 1980s.
Since the early 1990s, historians and archaeologists, independently of one another, have come to the conclusion that the text was written in the second half of the 9th century. A Slavic castle building to the extent described could only be proven from the end of the 9th century using dendrochronological dating. The historian Christian Hanewinkel suggested in 2004 that at least the origin of the first part of the text should be located in the reign of Arnolf of Carinthia around 889-892, especially since the Hevellers are also mentioned for the first time in another source around this time. The second part is now even assumed to date from the beginning of the 10th century.
The text first lists the areas of 14 Slavic peoples "that are adjacent to our borders." ( Iste sunt regiones quae terminant in finibus nostris. ) This refers to the tribes east of the borders of the Franconian or East Franconian empire . The list begins in the north on the border with Denmark with the Abodrites and continues to the Bulgarians in the south. With the exception of the Marharii and Merehanos, which may be a double mention of the Moravians , all of the tribes in this section can be clearly identified due to corresponding mentions in other Franconian sources.
This is followed by a list of 44 tribes, "the closest to their borders." ( Isti sunt qui iuxta istorum fines resident. ) Most of these tribes have no equivalent in other Franconian sources, but are only known from the text of the Bavarian geographer . Your identification has only been successful in a few exceptional cases. Of the total of 59 peoples named in the text, 43 are assigned a certain number of civitates . The range varies from two civitates for the Besunzanen to 516 for the Stadici. Only two peoples have urbes , including the Thadesi with 200. A subdivision into regiones can only be found in the tribal associations of the Abodrites, Wilzen and Sorbs as well as in the unknown Sittici. Another indication of the distance is geographically noteworthy: the Bruzzi area is larger than from the Enns to the Rhine .
The following rendition of the text corresponds to the editions by Erwin Herrmann from 1965 and Sébastien Rossignol from 2011. It is more closely based on the handwriting than, for example, the edition by Henryk Łowmiański from 1955, although his intention to depict it is not true to the original Reproduction of the manuscript, but consisted in highlighting the trunks. Christian Lübke , for example, provided a translation of the text into German, which in turn already represents an interpretation .
Clm. 560, fol.149v :
D escriptio ciuitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam
Da- nubii. Isti sunt qui propinquiores resident finibus Danaorum.
Quos uocant Nortabtrezi, ubi regio in qua sunt ciuitates
LIII, per duces suos partitae. Vuilci, in qua ciuitates XCV et
regiones IIII. Linaa est populus, qui habet ciuitates VII.
Prope illis resident quos vocant Bethenici, et Smeldingon,
et Morizani, qui habent ciuitates XI.Iuxta illos sunt qui uocantur
Hehfeldi, qui habent ciuitates VIII. Iuxta illos est
regio, quae uocatur Surbi. In qua regione plures sunt, quae had
ciuitates L. Iuxta illos sunt quos uocantur Talaminzi, qui had
ciuitates XIIII. Beheimare, in qua sunt ciuitates XV. Marharii
habent ciuitates XI. Vulgarii regio est inmensa et populus mul-
tus habens ciuitates V, eo quod multitudo magna ex eis sit et non
sit eis opus ciuitates habere. Est populus, quem uocant Merehanos
; ipsi habent ciuitates XXX. Iste sunt regiones quae terminant
in finibus nostris. Isti sunt qui iuxta istorum fines resident. Osterabrezi
, in qua ciuitates plusquam C sunt. Miloxi, in qua ciuitates
LXVII. Phesnuzi have ciuitates LXX. Thadesi plusquam CC urbes
habent. Glopeani, in qua ciuitates CCCC aut eo amplius. Zuireani have
ciuitates CCCXXV. Busani have ciuitates CCXXXI. Sittici, regio
inmensa populis et urbibus munitissimis. Stadici, in qua ciuitates
DXVI populusque infinitus. Sebbirozi have ciuitates XC. Vn-
lizi, populus multus, ciuitates CCCXVIII. Neriuani have ciuitates
LXXVIII. Attorozi have CXLVIII, populus ferocissimus.
Eptaradici have ciuitates CCLXIII. Vuillerozi have ciuitates CLXXX.
Zabrozi have ciuitates CCXII. Znetalici habent ciuitates LXXIIII.
fol.150r : Aturezani habent ciuitates CIIII. Chozirozi have ciuitates CCL.
Lendizi have ciuitates XCVIII. Thafbezi habent ciuitates CCL-
VII. Zeriuani, quod tantum est regnum, ut ex eo cunctae gentes
Sclauorum exortae sint et originem, sicut affirmant, ducant.
Prissani, ciuitates LXX. Velunzani, ciuitates LXX. Bruzi plus
est undique quam de Enisa ad Rhenum. Vuizunbeire, Caziri,
ciuitates C. Ruzzi. Forsderen. Liudi. Fresiti. Serauici. Lucolane
. Vungars. Vuislane. Sleenzane, ciuitates XV. Lun-
sizi, ciuitates XXX. Dadosesani, ciuitates XX. Milzane, ciuitates
XXX. Besunzane, ciuitates II. Verizane, ciuitates X.
Fraganeo, ciuitates XL. Lupiglaa, ciuitates XXX. Opolini, ci-
uitates XX. Golensizi, ciuitates V.
- Danaorum: Danes
- Nortabtrezi: The tribal association of the Abodrites from Ostholstein to Mecklenburg , according to the opposing view , only the abodritic sub-tribe of the Wagrier , while the Abodrites should be mentioned as a tribe on the Wismar Bay under [15.].
- Uuilci: The tribal association of the Wilzen in eastern Mecklenburg , Western Pomerania and in the north of Brandenburg
- Linaa: Linonen around Lenzen Castle in northwest Brandenburg
- Bethenici: Bethenzer between Goldberg and Plau in southern Mecklenburg
- Smeldingon: Smeldinger , either in the area around Parchim in southwest Mecklenburg or in Prignitz in northwest Brandenburg
- Morizani: Morizani east of Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt
- Hehfeldi: Heveller around Brandenburg Castle on the Havel in western Brandenburg
- Surbi: The tribal association of the Sorbs between Saale and Oder in Saxony and southern Brandenburg
- Talaminzi: Daleminzer on the middle Elbe around Lommatzsch in Saxony
- Residents: Bohemians in the Czech Republic
- Marharii: Doubtful. Probably the Moravians in the Great Moravian Empire
- Vulgarii: Bulgarians in the Danube- Bulgarian Empire from the lower Danube to the Dniester in today's eastern Hungary and Romania to far into western Ukraine
- Merehanos: Doubtful. Maybe again the Moravians like [12.], maybe from the principality of Nitra in western Slovakia, which was independent until 833 .
- Osterabtrezi: Doubtful. Probably the Praedenecenti north of Belgrade on the Danube and in Dacia , adjacent to the Bulgarians, according to the opposite view only the Abodritic sub-tribe of the Abodrites in the narrower sense on the Wismar Bay in eastern Mecklenburg (Lübke, Hanewinkel)
- Miloxi: Doubtful. Possibly again the Milzener in eastern Saxony like [53.]
- Phesnuzi: Unknown
- Thadesi: Unknown
- Glopeani - goplans on Goplo lake in what is now Central Poland
- Zuireani: Unknown
- Busani: Buschanen on the upper reaches of the Western Bug predominantly Western in today's Ukraine
- Sittici: Unknown. (possibly on the Žitava river in today's Slovakia ( Principality of Nitra ?))
- Stadici: Unknown.
- Seberozzi: Unknown.
- Unlici: Doubtful. Maybe the Ulitschen
- Neriuani: Unknown.
- Attorozi: Unknown.
- Eptaradici: Unknown. Describes perhaps a seven-castles (country) of unknown location (from Greek hepta = seven , radikoi = roots , origins )
- Uuilerozi: Unknown
- Zabrozi: Unknown
- Znetalici: Unknown
- Aturezani: Unknown
- Chozirozi: Unknown
- Lendizi: Doubtful. Perhaps the Lendizi as the forerunners of the Polans in southeastern Poland
- Thafnezi: Unknown
- Zeriuani: Doubtful. Perhaps it is in the Zeriuani the Tscherwjanen the castle Cherven in eastern Poland , the kingdom ( regnum ) speaks for the 981 of the Kievan Rus conquered, probably formerly independent Tscherwener Burgenland , as well as the situation in lendians . (33.) and Prissanen (36.)
- Prissanen: Doubtful. Come into consideration Prussians (as 39th), Pyritz to the castle of Pomerania in Polish Pomerania east of the Oder , or even a named after the Polish river San tribe in eastern Poland (Slavic pri = on in , so at the San )
- Uuelunzanen: Doubtful. Possibly Volhynians in western Ukraine to the Wolyn Castle
- Bruzi: Doubtful. Possibly Pruzzen , a Baltic tribe on the Baltic coast in what is now northern Poland and the Russian exclave Kaliningrad (without specifying the number of castles, therefore possibly an addition (37.))
- Uuizunbeire: Unknown. Possibly not a tribe, but the Alsatian monastery Weissenburg (Wizunburc)
- Casiri: Khazars in the Khaganat from the eastern Black Sea to far east in what is now eastern Ukraine , southern Russia and western Kazakhstan
- Ruzzi: residents of the Novgorod Rus , Russians or Ruthenians
- Forsderen: Unknown.
- Liudi: Unknown.
- Fresiti: Unknown.
- Serauici: Unknown.
- Lucolane: Unknown.
- Hungarians: Hungary , up to 896 north of the Black Sea in what is now western Ukraine between the empires of the Danube Bulgarians and the Khazars , from 901 west of the Danube in Pannonia , what is now western Hungary and adjacent areas.
- Uuislane: Wislanen on the Vistula / Wisła in Lesser Poland
- Sleenzane: Slensanen in the western, today Polish Lower Silesia , forerunner of the Silesian
- Lunsizi: Lusitzi on the middle Spree ( Lausitz ), ancestors of today's Sorbs
- Dadosesani: Dadosanen am Bober with Ilva Castle in what is now Polish western Lower Silesia
- Milzane: Milzener on the upper Spree , ancestors of today's Sorbs
- Besunzane: Besunzane
- Uerizane: Unknown
- Fraganeo: Doubtful. Maybe to Praga , the Czechs to Prague
- Lupiglaa: Unknown
- Opolini: Opolans around the later Upper Silesian castle Opole in today's Poland
- Golensizi: Golensizen in eastern Upper Silesia in what is now the northeastern Czech Republic
What the civitates of the individual tribes are supposed to be about has not yet been satisfactorily clarified. A civitas - literally “citizenship” - is the word in classical Latin for a semi-autonomous administrative unit of the middle level. The Roman civitates consisted of an urban center and surrounding area and were mostly named after their main town or the associated tribe. Whether the word is also used several centuries later in the Bavarian Geographer for an area (castle district, administrative district, settlement area or chamber) or for a place (castle, city, suburban settlement) is controversial.
The meaning of the term regio has not yet been clarified either. Christian Lübke considers them to be partial tribes.
- Wolfgang H. Fritze: Geographus Bavarus . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 4, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7608-8904-2 , Sp. 1269-1270.
- Wolfgang H. Fritz: The dating of the Geographus Bavarus and the tribal constitution of the Abotrites. In: Zeitschrift für Slavische Philologie 21 (1952), pp. 326–341.
- Christian Hanewinkel: The political significance of the Elbe Slavs with regard to the changes in rule in the East Franconian Empire and in Saxony from 887–936. Political sketches of the eastern neighbors in the 9th and 10th centuries. Dissertation, Münster 2004, in particular pp. 71–99 and 142–148 PDF (dating).
- Erwin Herrmann: On the origin and meaning of the so-called Geographus Bavarus (Descriptio civitatum). In: Yearbook for Old Bavarian Church History, 23 (1963), pp. 77–86.
- Christian Lübke: Eastern Europe. Siedler, Berlin 2004 (The Germans and the European Middle Ages, Vol. 2), ISBN 3-88680-760-6 Excerpt 1 (PDF) Excerpt 2 .
- Heinrich Kunstmann: The old Polish name Lach, Lech and the Lendizi of Geographus Bavarus. In: The World of Slaves, Ser. NS, 11, pp. 145-157 (1987).
- Heinrich Kunstmann: Nestors Dulebi and the Glopeani of Geographus Bavarus. In: The World of Slaves, Ser. NS, 8, 44-61 (1984).
- Sébastien Rossignol: Thoughts on the dating of the treatise of the so-called Bavarian geographer. in: Felix Biermann , Thomas Kersting and Anne Klammt (eds.): Der Wandel um 1000. Beier & Beran, Langenweissbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-941171-45-9 , pp. 305-316. PDF, restricted access (overview).
- Digital copy of the manuscript clm 560 : Astronomical and mathematical composite manuscript - BSB Clm 560 (9th - 11th centuries) , here the double page with the text of Geographus Bavarus.
- Original Latin text in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
- Source studies and literature
- Bernhard Bischoff : Catalog of the mainland manuscripts of the ninth century (with the exception of the wisigoth). Part 2. Wiesbaden 2004, pp. 221–222.
- Erwin Herrmann: On the origin and meaning of the so-called Geographus Bavarus (Descriptio civitatum). In: Yearbook for Old Bavarian Church History, 23 (1963), pp. 77–86, here p. 78.
- Hartmut Hoffmann : Writing schools of the 10th and 11th centuries in the southwest of the German Empire. Hanover 2004, p. 170.
- Erwin Herrmann: On the origin and meaning of the so-called Geographus Bavarus (Descriptio civitatum). In: Yearbook for Old Bavarian Church History 23 (1963), pp. 77–86, here p. 78.
- Le comte du Buat: Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Europe. T. 11. Paris 1772, pp. 145 ff.
- Jan Potocki : Fragments historiques et geographiques sur la Scythie, Sarmatie, et les slaves. Braunschweig 1796, p. 80.
- Jan Potocki: Fragments historiques et geographiques sur la Scythie, Sarmatie, et les slaves. Braunschweig 1796, p. 271.
- Erwin Herrmann: On the origin and meaning of the so-called Geographus Bavarus (Descriptio civitatum). In: Yearbook for Old Bavarian Church History 23 (1963), pp. 77–86, here pp. 77 f.
- "Suevi non sunt nati, sed seminati" (Suebi are not born, but sown) and "Beire non dicuntur bauarii, sed boiarii, a boia fluvio."
- Henryk Łowmiański: O pochodzeniu Geografa Bawarskiego. (About the origins of Geographus Bavarus), Roczniki historyczne 20 (1951/1952), pp. 45–47.
- Wolfgang H. Fritze: Geographus Bavarus . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 4, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7608-8904-2 , Sp. 1270.
- Bavarian geographer, In: AV Nazarenko: Nemeckie latinojazyčnye istočniki IX-XI vekov. , Moscow 1993, pp. 7-51.
- Wolfgang H. Fritze: The dating of the Geographus Bavarus and the tribal constitution of the Abodrites. In: Journal of Slavic Philology 21, Issue 2, (1952), Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 4, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7608-8904-2 , Sp. 1270. , pp. 326–342 and Wolfgang H. Fritze: Geographus Bavarus . In:
- Henryk Łowmiański, O pochodzeniu Geografa bawarskiego , Roczniki Historyczne, R. 20 (1955), pp 9-58; reed: w: Studia nad dziejami Słowiańszczyzny, Polski i Rusi w wiekach średnich , Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań 1986, pp. 104-150,
- Erwin Herrmann: Slavic-Germanic Relations in Southeast Germany from Late Antiquity to the Hungarian Storm. A source book with explanations. Munich 1965, pp. 220-221.
- Sébastien Rossignol: Considerations on the dating of the treatise of the so-called Bavarian geographer. In: Felix Biermann / Thomas Kersting / Anne Klammt (eds.): Der Wandel um 1000. Beier & Beran, Langenweissbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-941171-45-9 , pp. 305-316, here p. 313.
- Łowmiański representation can be found here
- Henryk Łowmiański: O pochodzeniu Geografa bawarskiego , Roczniki Historyczne, R. 20 (1955), pp 9-58; In: Studia nad dziejami Słowiańszczyzny, Polski i Rusi w wiekach średnich , Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań 1986, pp. 104–150, here p. 148.
- Christian Lübke: Eastern Europe. Siedler, Berlin 2004 (The Germans and the European Middle Ages, Vol. 2), ISBN 3-88680-760-6 , p. 22. PDF with translation (PDF).
- Christian Hanewinkel: The political importance of the Elbe Slavs with regard to the changes in rule in the East Franconian Empire and in Saxony from 887–936. Political sketches of the eastern neighbors in the 9th and 10th centuries. Münster 2004, p. 87., online (PDF; 5 MB) (PDF)
- Sébastien Rossignol: Rise and Fall of the Linons. Failed ethnogenesis on the lower Middle Elbe. in: Karl-Heinz Willroth, Jens Schneeweiß (ed.): Slavs on the Elbe. (= Göttingen research on prehistory and early history ., Vol. 1), Wachholtz, Göttingen 2011, pp. 15–38, here pp. 32–33.
- Fred Ruchhöft: From the Slavic tribal area to the German bailiwick. The development of the territories in Ostholstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the Middle Ages (= archeology and history in the Baltic Sea area. Vol. 4). Leidorf, Rahden / Westphalia 2008, ISBN 978-3-89646-464-4 ; Fred Ruchhöft: The development of the cultural landscape in the Plau-Goldberg area in the Middle Ages (= Rostock studies on regional history. Vol. 5). Neuer Hochschulschriftenverlag, Rostock 2001, ISBN 3-935319-17-7 .
- Fred Ruchhöft: From the Slavic tribal area to the German bailiwick. The development of the territories in Ostholstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the Middle Ages. (= Archeology and history in the Baltic Sea region. Vol. 4). Leidorf, Rahden (Westphalia) 2008, ISBN 978-3-89646-464-4 , p. 91.
- Christian Hanewinkel, The political significance of the Elbe Slavs with regard to the changes in rule in the East Franconian Empire and in Saxony from 887 to 936 - Political Sketches for the Eastern Neighbors in the 9th and 10th Centuries , Münster 2004, p. 146.
- Christian Hanewinkel: The political importance of the Elbe Slavs with regard to the changes in rule in the East Franconian Empire and in Saxony from 887–936. Political sketches of the eastern neighbors in the 9th and 10th centuries. Münster 2004, p. 94.
- Heinrich Kunstmann: The Slaves. Her name, her migration to Europe and the beginnings of Russian history from a historical and onomastic point of view. Steiner, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-06816-3 , p. 51.
- Eugenjusz Kucharski: Polska w zapisce karolińskiej, zwanej niewłasciwie "Geografem bawarskim". In: Pamiętnik IV Powszechnego Zjazdu Historyków Polskich w Poznaniu 6–8 grudnia 1925. I. Referaty . Lwów 1925, pp. 1–11, here p. 3 ( dLibra ).
- Review by Sébastien Rossignol: Civitas in Early Medieval Central Europe - Stronghold or District? In: The Medieval History Journal 14 (2011), pp. 71-98, in particular pp. 85-91.
- an interpretation as a settlement chamber, for example: Sebastian Brather: Archeology of the Western Slavs. Settlement, economy and society in early and high medieval East-Central Europe. 2nd revised and expanded edition de Gruyter, Berlin 2008 (supplementary volumes to the Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, vol. 61), ISBN 978-3-11-020609-8 , pp. 94-95 and Fred Ruchhöft: Vom Slavischen Stammesgebiet zur deutschen Vogtei . The development of the territories in Ostholstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the Middle Ages. Leidorf, Rahden (Westfalen) 2008, (Archeology and History in the Baltic Sea Region, Vol. 4), ISBN 978-3-89646-464-4 , pp. 68–70. Sébastien Rossignol argues against this opinion: Civitas in Early Medieval Central Europe - Stronghold or District? In: The Medieval History Journal 14 (2011), pp. 71–98, here p. 74, for which it is clearly a question of castles. Christian Lübke, however, remains undecided: Eastern Europe. Siedler, Berlin 2004, (The Germans and the European Middle Ages, Vol. 2), ISBN 3-88680-760-6 , p. 22 translates civitates once as “castle”, but defines it explicitly on p. 24 as “settlement areas” .
- Christian Lübke: Eastern Europe. Siedler, Munich 2004, (The Germans and the European Middle Ages, Vol. 2), ISBN 3-88680-760-6 , p. 22.