Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
|coat of arms|
|Alternative names||Archbishopric Salzburg|
|Form of rule||Electoral principality / corporate state|
|Today's region / s||AT-5 ; AT-7 ; DE-BY|
|Parliament||1 virile vote on the ecclesiastical bench in the Reichsfürstenrat|
|Reichskreis||Bavarian Imperial Circle|
|District council||1 virile vote on the spiritual bench|
|Language / n||German|
|Incorporated into||Secularization 1803; Duchy of Salzburg|
|See also||Archdiocese of Salzburg|
The Archbishopric of Salzburg was an independent territorial principality between 1328 and 1803 , which, as a Catholic Archbishopric , was ruled by a Prince Archbishop . After territorialization , it had consolidated its independence in 1328 through its own regional order and existed as an electoral principality in the Holy Roman Empire until the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , since the Augsburg Reichstag of 1500 as an influential member of the Bavarian Imperial Circle . The secular territory of the Archbishops of Salzburg , in contrast to the larger, older and largely still existing Archdiocese of Salzburg (established in 739, Archbishopric from 798), was led in personal union by an archbishop who held the titles Legatus natus and Primate Germaniae and resided in Salzburg . The state of Salzburg sees itself as the successor state, which is why the Salzburg coat of arms bears a prince's hat .
The origins of Christianity among the Baier population in the Salzburg region go back to the 6th century under the Agilolfingers , while there were certainly Christians among the Romanesque rest of the population in the Salzburg area (Juvavum). It begins in the territorial sense with the building mission of Franconia Rupert , today's patron saint, who settled in Salzburg in 696 . In the 7th century in particular, several monasteries and monasteries emerged that later became the church's organization. Around 700 a large church was built in honor of St. Peter , from which the cathedral chapter later developed. The Anglo-Saxon monk and mission bishop Bonifatius brought in 739 the papal confirmation for the newly founded diocese and established the diocesan borders. On April 20, 798 at the request of the Frankish king Charlemagne, the diocese was by Pope Leo III. raised to the archbishopric . The Bavarian suffragan dioceses Freising , Neuburg , Passau , Regensburg and Säben were assigned to him. This ecclesiastical province temporarily comprised the entire Old Baier tribal area, i.e. most of today's Austria and Bavaria (except Franconia and Swabia), today's South Tyrol and large parts of Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia. Arn [o] became the first archbishop. The creation of the ecclesiastical province is related to the efforts to establish a Bavarian state church. When the Archdiocese of Gran was founded in 1001, today's Burgenland became the border of the ecclesiastical province. The dioceses of Gurk (1072), Chiemsee (1215), Seckau (1218) and Lavant (1228) were established in the Salzburg diocesan area .
Only in the 13th century did the narrower episcopal territory develop its first political independence. This did not affect the spiritual area of responsibility of the Archdiocese of Salzburg, which remained in cross-border canonical law.
Archbishop Eberhard II , a staunch partisan of the Staufer , managed to build up a closed archiepiscopal territory from 1200 to 1246 from counties, courts and bailiffs. From 1275, with Archbishop Friedrich II , the last phase of the separation of the state of Salzburg from the motherland of Bavaria began. In 1328, under Archbishop Heinrich , the Salzburg bishopric was given its own regional order. The Salzburg archbishops became princes within the Holy Roman Empire and after around 1350 ( Ortolf or Pilgrim II. Von Puchheim ) carried the title of Prince Archbishop ( Latin archiepiscopus et princeps ). The provincial estates of the Prince Archdiocese of Salzburg were also established during this period . In the diet of the Holy Roman Empire , the prince-bishop belonged to the spiritual bank of the imperial council . Until the end of the archbishopric through secularization in 1803 as part of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , it belonged to the Bavarian Imperial Circle .
From 1520, the Reformation also spread strongly in Salzburg . Especially in the 17th century, however, the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau and later Markus Sittikus Graf von Hohenems worked in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation . Nevertheless, secret Protestants could stay in the Alpine valleys . The anti-reformatory policy of the prince-archbishopric became known as early as the 18th century due to the rigid action against the Protestants. In 1731 Count Leopold Anton von Firmian drove around 19,500 Salzburg exiles from his country.
At the end of the 18th century, the economic relations of the Archbishopric of Salzburg were so extensive that an independent letter post connection was set up between Salzburg and Trieste . From August 2, 1787, this postal rate ran twice a week. The Salzburg Prince Archbishop (then: Count Colloredo ) had secured the support of the Imperial Court in Vienna for this. A conflict soon arose with Prince Thurn und Taxis's post office because the new postal rate diverted income from postage to the Salzburg court. The Salzburg postal service was discontinued.
According to an inscription on the monument to Archbishop Andreas Jakob von Dietrichstein (1689–1753) in Salzburg Cathedral , he was the first Salzburg Archbishop to be formally awarded the title " Primate Germaniae " by the Roman-German Emperor .
In the years between 1675 and 1690, especially under the Salzburg Archbishop Max Gandolf von Kuenburg, 153 people were executed in the witch hunts for alleged sorcery, the focus of which was the skinner's son Jakob Koller, called Schinderjackl , or his mother Barbara Koller. The last witch trial on Salzburg soil took place in 1750. Maria Pauer , a maid in Mühldorf am Inn , was arrested on January 27, 1750 for witchcraft and executed in the same year as the last witch in Salzburg. On June 18, 2009, the Archbishop of Salzburg, Alois Kothgasser , issued a statement on the witch trial against Maria Pauer, in which he described the conviction as a judicial murder and a horrific crime and asked God and the people for forgiveness for this atrocity .
The secularization of 1803 deprived the Salzburg archbishops of political power. As Salzburg electorate , which, moreover, the Electorate was awarded, it coincided with the high pins Berchtesgaden , Passau and Eichstätt to the Grand Duke Ferdinand III. of Tuscany , Habsburg secondary school . In 1805 it came with the Berchtesgadener Land also formally to the Austrian Empire , 1809/1810 to the Kingdom of Bavaria . As a result of the Congress of Vienna , most of Salzburg returned to Austria in 1816, only as a Salzach district part of Austria above the Enns , from 1850 as a re-established duchy and crown land . The Berchtesgadener Land and the Rupertiwinkel remained with Bavaria. The ecclesiastical archdiocese of Salzburg remained in existence. The use of the title prince (arch) bishop and the use of the secular signs of dignity associated with it (such as the prince's hat and coat ) was approved by Pope Pius XII in 1951 . also formally abolished, while the Archbishop of Salzburg retained the title of Primate Germaniae .
- Rudolf Leeb among others: History of Christianity in Austria. From antiquity to the present . Ueberreuter, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-8000-3914-1 . (Standard work with 60 pages of literature)
- Franz Ortner: From the history of the Archdiocese of Salzburg . In: Yearbook of the Catholic Church in Austria 1998 . Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-9500963-0-2 .
- Ernst Tomek: Church history of Austria . Tyrolia, Innsbruck - Vienna - Munich 1935–59.
- Manfred Scheuch : Salzburg - Archdiocese and Imperial Principality . In: Austria. Province, empire, republic . Das Beste, Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-87070-588-4 , p. 36 f . (Online processing of the Archdiocese of Salzburg , Austria Forum - licensed edition).
- Josef Vodka: Church in Austria. Guide through their history . Herder, Vienna 1959.
- Cölestin Wolfsgruber : Church history Austria-Hungary . Kirsch, Vienna 1909.
- Erwin Gatz , Franz Ortner, Christine Tropper: Archbishopric and Archbishopric of Salzburg as well as Chiemsee, Gurk, Lavant, Seckau and Wiener Neustadt dioceses around 1500 ; in: Erwin Gatz (ed.): Atlas on the Church in Past and Present. Holy Roman Empire - German-speaking countries , Regensburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-7954-2181-6 , pp. 126–127.
- Joachim Helbig: Streit Salzburg - Taxis 1787. In: Die Briefmarken, Philatelistische Fachzeitschrift. 66th year, April 2018. pp. 18-20.
- Statement by the Archbishop of Salzburg, Dr. Alois Kothgasser on the trial of Maria Pauer on June 18, 2009.
- Franz Gall : Austrian heraldry. Handbook of coat of arms science. 2nd edition Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-205-05352-4 , p. 219.