Max Gandolf von Kuenburg
Maximilian Gandolf Graf von Kuenburg (also Gandolph; until 1665 Freiherr von Kuenburg ) (born October 30, 1622 in Graz ; † May 3, 1687 in Salzburg ) was Archbishop of Salzburg from December 8, 1668 to May 3, 1687 (the third Kuenburger in this office) and cardinal .
In his youth he studied in Graz and at the Collegium Germanicum in Rome. He initiated various measures in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation: He founded the Seekirchen Abbey (1679), built the original church (first pilgrimage church) in Maria Plain , he founded the court library and founded the Augustinian monasteries of Hallein ( Augustinian monastery Hallein ) and Tittmoning ( All Saints Church ) as well as the Theatine monastery in Salzburg. He also renewed the Imberg Church in Salzburg and had the Erhard Church and the Kajetan Church built. As a secular, authoritarian ruling prince, he issued a wealth of directives and ordinances:
- The Salzburg Fire Extinguishing Ordinance (1677) with annually sweeping chimneys in the city of Salzburg,
- the cleaning regulations for cleaning the streets once a week, with the prohibition of emptying toilets in squares and the like. Roads and sewage drains had to be contained and led into the ground, all rubbish had to be thrown into streams and rivers, toilets were only allowed to be emptied at night, public wells were not allowed to be polluted.
- The alms order (1678) including the "beggar cadastre" (only very old and sick people were allowed to beg with ID) to "combat" the high number of beggars
- the rules of rest and security,
- the order of infection (1679)
- the embarrassing and civil procedure code also served for the precise application and regulation of the "highly embarrassing questioning", i. H. the torture,
as well as many others.
Max Gandolf showed a high degree of intolerance and stuck to the tradition of the Catholic Church. The nepotism of this ruler is also known .
Expulsion of the Protestants
His work is often viewed extremely critically: He carried out the expulsion of the Protestant Dürrnberger miners under their leader Joseph Schaitberger and the Deferegger Exulanten (see Deferegger and Dürrnberger Exulanten , Salzburger Exulanten ).
In the years 1675-1690 was Max Gandolf of Kuenburg in the archdiocese in the Magic Jacks processes 153 people for alleged sorcery and witchcraft to death, most of them children and teenagers. With this approach he wanted to fight in his own way the "begging nuisance" (ie the begging of the poorest of the poor). The defendants were almost all beggars, vagrants or otherwise largely destitute people. Confessions were obtained through torture. The focus was on the trial against Barbara Koller and her son Jakob Koller, called Schinderjackl. The "magician Jackl" had gathered many young people in a "blood community" around him. In the city of Salzburg , the accused beggar boys were also held in the Hexenturm in Salzburg because of the overcrowding of the prisons from 1678 to 1679 . Most of the executions themselves took place at the execution site in Salzbuirg-Gneis. Felix Mitterer deals with the court process in his drama The Devil's Children .
The last witch trial on Salzburg soil took place long after the death of Max Gandolf Kuenburg in 1750. The maid from Mühldorf am Inn Maria Pauer was arrested in 1750 and executed in the same year as the last “witch” in Salzburg in Salzburg-Gneiss. There is no cross or stone in memory of the numerous executions at the old Salzburg execution site in Salzburg-Gneiss.
Archbishop Kuenburg died on May 3, 1687 of a brain abscess. His body was buried in a pewter coffin in the crypt of Salzburg Cathedral , heart and entrails were placed in the pilgrimage basilica in Maria Plain . The funeral music was composed by Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber .
- In 1644 he became a canon in Salzburg.
- In 1647 he becomes canon .
- In 1665 he was raised to the rank of count by Emperor Leopold I.
- July 30, 1668 he is elected archbishop
- He receives his pallium on December 8th .
- In 1681 he had the fire bastion and the Kaplanstöckl built on the Hohensalzburg Fortress .
- In 1683 when Vienna was besieged by the Turks, he sent a contingent of 800 soldiers as well as weapons, ammunition and cash to support.
- On September 2, 1686 he was appointed by Pope Innocent XI. elevated to cardinal.
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Kuenburg, Maximilian Gandolph . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 13th part. Imperial-Royal Court and State Printing Office, Vienna 1865, p. 322 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Manfred Weitlauff : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4 , p. 515 f. ( ).
- Christoph Brandhuber: Max Gandolf von Kuenburg. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 26, Bautz, Nordhausen 2006, ISBN 3-88309-354-8 , Sp. 812-823.
|SURNAME||Kuenburg, Max Gandolf von|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Kuenburg, Maximilian Gandolph Count of; Kuenburg, Maximilian Gandolph Freiherr von|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Archbishop of Salzburg|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 30, 1622|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Graz|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 3, 1687|
|Place of death||Salzburg|