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Statutory city
coat of arms Austria map
Coat of arms of Salzburg
Salzburg (Austria)
Basic data
Country: Austria
State : Salzburg
Political District : Statutory city
License plate : S.
Surface: 65.64 km²
Coordinates : 47 ° 48 '  N , 13 ° 2'  E Coordinates: 47 ° 48 '0 "  N , 13 ° 2' 0"  E
Height : 424  m above sea level A.
Residents : 155.021 (January 1, 2020)
Postcodes : 5020, 5023, 5026, 5061, 5071, 5081, 5082
Area code : 0662
Community code : 5 01 01
Address of the
municipal administration:
Mirabellplatz 4
5020 Salzburg
Mayor : Harald Preuner ( ÖVP )
Municipal Council : (2019)
(40 members)
11 6th 16 
A total of 40 seats
Location of Salzburg
Bezirk Hallein (Tennengau) Salzburg Bezirk Salzburg-Umgebung (Flachgau) Bezirk St. Johann im Pongau Bezirk Tamsweg (Lungau) Bezirk Zell am See (Pinzgau)Location of the Salzburg district in the province of Salzburg (clickable map)
About this picture
Template: Infobox municipality in Austria / maintenance / site plan image map
The old town of Salzburg at night
The old town of Salzburg at night
Source: Municipal data from Statistics Austria
View from the fortress in north direction
View of the city from the Gersberg, a foothill of the Gaisberg

Salzburg ( pronounced Soizbuag in Bavarian-Austrian dialect ) is the capital of the country of the same name in the Republic of Austria . With 155,021 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020), it is the fourth largest city in Austria after Vienna , Graz and Linz . It is located in the Salzburg basin . The town mountains, the Salzach flowing through the town and the Hohensalzburg Fortress, visible from afar, are characteristic of the town . The north-west of the statutory city of Salzburg borders on Freilassing in Germany ( Free State of Bavaria , Berchtesgadener Land district ), the rest of the city borders on the Salzburg-Umgebung district , commonly known as "Flachgau".

In 488 the decline of the Roman city of Iuvavum began in the same place . Salzburg was re-established in 696 as a bishopric and in 798 as the seat of the archbishop . The main sources of income for Salzburg were salt mining and trading, and at times gold mining. The core of the Hohensalzburg Fortress dates from the 11th century. It is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe and a symbol of the city. From the 17th century onwards, Archbishop Wolf Dietrich and his successors lavishly furnished the city as a royal seat. At this time, Hellbrunn Palace was built in the south of the city, complete with palace gardens, water features and avenues. The most famous Salzburg composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , who was born here in 1756 , which is why the city is nicknamed "Mozart City" and the airport is called "Salzburg Airport W. A. ​​Mozart". The historic center of the city has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1996 .

Today Salzburg is an important exhibition and congress location with many trade and service companies as well as an efficient tourism sector. In addition, the city is internationally significant thanks to the Salzburg Festival , which earned it the nickname “Festival City ”. Due to its convenient location, the city of Salzburg forms the core of the cross-border " EuRegio Salzburg - Berchtesgadener Land - Traunstein ". It is also a junction for important road and rail routes in west-east traffic ( Innsbruck- Salzburg- Vienna ) as well as transalpine and north-south ( Munich- Salzburg- Villach ).



The Salzach in the city center

The city of Salzburg lies on the northern edge of the Alps , in the middle of the Salzburg basin. The historic old town is located on the Salzach and is bordered by the fortress and Mönchsberg and its western foothills, the Rainberg .

East of the old town center rise on the right bank of the Salzach the Kapuzinerberg and the small Bürglstein, in the south of the city the Hellbrunner Berg and the Morzger Hügel , west of the district Alt Liefering the small Grafenhügel . The 1973 m high Untersberg, which is accessible by a cable car, borders the city in the southwest . The landscape dominates in the west of the Hohe Stauffen and in the south the Salzburg Kalkhochalpen with Göll , Hagengebirge and Tennengebirge . In the east, the 1288 m high Stadtberg Gaisberg and the Osterhorn group form the border of the Salzburg basin. North of the city, the foot of the Plainberg with the pilgrimage basilica Maria Plain reaches the city area. To the northeast, the hilly landscape of the Flachgau joins the Alpine foothills , with the Haunsberg as the last foothills of the Alps. A closed alluvial forest belt along the Salzach and Saalach extends in the north into the urban area.

The alluvial forest west of the Saalach and the hill country behind it, the Högl , already belong to the Berchtesgadener Land district in Bavaria. In the northwest, the Bavarian Freilassing , only separated by the Saalach, borders on the Salzburg district of Liefering-Rott.

The old town in the Salzburg basin is 420 to 426 m high. The highest point in the urban area is the Gaisbergspitze at 1288 m, the mouth of the Saalach at the foot of the embankment is the lowest at 404 m. The municipal area covers 65.64 km², 2238 hectares of which are building land (34.0%), 503 hectares of traffic area (7.7%), 1080 hectares of forest (16.5%) and 342 hectares of water (5.2%).


The Salzburg districts

Independently of the historical cadastral communities, the city ​​is divided into 24 districts and three adjacent landscape areas. The historic core of the city is the old town to the left and right of the Salzach (district of Salzburg's old town ), to which the old suburbs “ Mülln ” and “ Nonntal ” connect, dating back to the Middle Ages .

Around 1900, the “ Riedenburg ” district was built west of the old town . The Andräviertel (Neustadt) was formed in the area of ​​the demolished bastions and barracks on the right bank . The “ Elisabeth-Vorstadt ” district was built to the west of the main train station . The “ Lehen ” district developed in the northern part of Mülln .

The districts of Aigen , Parsch , Itzling and Gneis were essentially built after 1900. The once independent villages, later suburbs Maxglan in the west, Liefering in the north-west, Gnigl in the east and Morzg in the south became districts in the interwar period. During this time, the continuously built-up strip of settlements along Moosstrasse in Leopoldskron-Moos gradually formed .

After 1950, the youngest settlement center was Salzburg-Süd with the parts Josefiau , Herrnau and Alpensiedlung . The districts of Langwied , Kasern , Taxham and Schallmoos also date from the middle of the 20th century as an extension of old Umstadtdörfer , as well as the Itzling Nord district in the north as a young settlement splinter, which seamlessly connects to the settlement area of ​​the Bergheim community . The small settlements of Eichethofsiedlung and Birkensiedlung are also just south of Gneiss . They are summarized under the name Gneiss Süd . South of the airport is the Maxglan West district , which includes the Kendler settlement and the small former hamlets of Pointing and Loig . The Kendlersiedlung continues in the houses of the Glansiedlung , which already belong to the municipality of Wals-Siezenheim . The groups of houses Pointing and Loig connect to the Walser Himmelreich . Outside the settlement areas in the city of Salzburg are the closed landscape areas Hellbrunn , as well as Gaisberg and Heuberg at the foot of the Gaisberg city ​​mountain .

Cadastral communities

Salzburg is divided into 14  cadastral communities (area as of December 31, 2019):

  • Salzburg (878.46 ha)
  • Aigen I (834.65 ha)
  • Gnigl ​​(282.85 ha)
  • Itzling (276.86 ha)
  • Leopoldskron (869.35 ha)
  • Liefering I (664.67 ha)
  • Maxglan (621.59 ha)
  • Morzg (983.22 ha)

On the outskirts are:

  • Bergheim II (149.65 ha)
  • Gaisberg I (427.86 ha)
  • Hallwang II (294.08 ha)
  • Heuberg I (28.75 ha)
  • Siezenheim II (203.05 ha)
  • Wals II (50.16 ha)

The names of the districts as functional units largely correspond to the cadastral communities of the same name, the boundaries of which were largely determined in the early 19th century (before 1830). The name Aigen I means that the former municipality of Aigen was largely incorporated into the city of Salzburg in 1939. The remaining very small part was allocated to the neighboring community of Elsbethen as a very small separate cadastral community under the name Aigen II .


Early history and the Bavarian period

The area of ​​the city has been continuously populated since the Neolithic period until today. In the La Tène period it was an administrative center of the Celtic alums in the Kingdom of Noricum . The population on the city mountains was reduced after the Roman invasion in 15 BC. Moved to the old town according to Roman town planning. Since Emperor Claudius, the new city was one of the most important cities of the now Roman province of Noricum as Municipium Claudium Iuvavum . After the province of Noricum was abandoned in 488 at the beginning of the Great Migration, part of the Romanoceltic population remained in the country. In the 6th century the Bavarians took over the land . Bishop Rupert received the remains of the Roman city from Duke Theodo II of Bavaria around 696 AD in order to evangelize the country in the east and south-east. He renewed the St. Peter monastery and founded the Benedictine women's monastery in Nonnberg . The state of Salzburg and its counties soon gained more and more influence and power within Bavaria as a result of the flourishing salt mining and extensive missionary activities.

In 996 Salzburg was made by Emperor Otto III. Market, coin and toll rights were granted, and a city judge was already mentioned in a document in 1120/30. The oldest known town charter dates from 1287.

Prince-Archbishop's residence city

Salzburg around 1460 by J. Wolgemut
Salzburg 1644 by Ph. Harpff
Salzburg 1710 by J. Fr. Probst

Since the battle of Mühldorf in 1322, the archbishopric was hostile to the motherland of Bavaria. As a result, Salzburg became an independent prince-archbishopric in the Roman-German Empire . The economic boom of the city in the 15th century led to a self-confident middle class with increasing rights and duties. Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach , who was economically very successful, ended this autonomy by force. A few years after Martin Luther's theses was the majority of the urban population to Protestantism close, the indomitable Protestants were then referred all of the country until the 1590th The criticism of the archbishop's authoritarian power increased under Keutschach. In 1525 rebellious miners and peasants besieged the Hohensalzburg fortress, in which Archbishop Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg had entrenched himself. Only with the help of bought troops from the Swabian Federation could the rebels be forced to retreat. Around 1600 the prince-archbishopric was one of the richest principalities in the Roman-German Empire due to salt and gold mining. At that time, Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau redesigned the old town center. The large late Romanesque cathedral was demolished and rebuilt in the early baroque style by Markus Sittikus .

Paris von Lodron managed to keep Salzburg out of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) through a clever policy of neutrality . The city grew into one of the best fortified cities in Europe. (See also article fortifications of the city of Salzburg ).

Salzburg soon became a center of the Counter-Reformation, in which monasteries, a seminary and numerous baroque churches were built, a large number of the residents were united in lay brotherhoods. In the years between 1675 and 1690 the magic boy trials took place in Salzburg , as a result of which over 150 people were executed for alleged witchcraft . The majority of them were boys and young people.

In 1732, under Archbishop Leopold Anton von Firmian, the majority of the Protestants remaining in the country were forced to emigrate ( Salzburg exiles ).

Under Archbishop Hieronymus Franz Josef Colloredo von Wallsee and Mels , Salzburg became a center of the Late Enlightenment from 1772 to 1800 , when science and the arts flourished.

Part of Austria

In 1803 Salzburg became a secularized electorate by order of Napoleon Bonaparte , in 1805 it was added to the new Austrian Empire together with Berchtesgaden, and in 1810 it was re-incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria . In 1800, 1805 and again in 1809, Salzburg was occupied and plundered by Napoleonic troops.

In 1816, with the Treaty of Munich, most of the state of Salzburg fell again to the Austrian Empire and thus under the Habsburg government. Salzburg was initially a less important district town in the Crown Land of Upper Austria, to which only a few painters and writers, in addition to a few spa guests, got lost. But they were enchanted by the beauty of the city and their reports made Salzburg more and more a tourist destination. On April 30, 1818, a fire broke out in the city for four days. Around a hundred houses were destroyed. The demolition of the city fortifications began in 1860; they were primarily used as building material for the new slaughtering of the Salzach. In the same year, the people of Salzburg cheered the opening of the Vienna - Salzburg and Salzburg - Munich lines. This ensured a strong growth of the city and let trade and commerce flourish.

The end of the First World War brought a period of hunger for Salzburg too, and the economy only recovered gradually.

In the period between 1935 and 1939, various neighboring towns were incorporated. In the time of the Nazi regime , it was from 1938 to political arrests and deportations opponents and of Jews and other minorities. Prisoners of war kept the economy going. American aerial bombs damaged large parts of the city in 1944/45 . Colonel Hans Lepperdinger saved the city in 1945 by refusing to give orders by handing it over to the Americans without a fight. After the end of the war, Salzburg was the seat of the US High Command. In the first post-war years, the city was marked by the misery of the refugees. The barracks could only gradually be replaced by the construction of new parts of the city. In 1962 the university, which was dissolved in 1810, was re-established. In the period that followed, Salzburg became an economically successful trade, exhibition and tourism city.

The development of the city of Salzburg, shown as a time series of 30 years each
The development of the built-up area from 1800 to 2010 - and the respective number of inhabitants, area scale in steps of 10 ha

The graphic on the right shows the increasing decoupling of built-up area and the respective number of inhabitants after around 1970. Despite a hardly increasing number of inhabitants, the space requirement for new buildings (also) in the city of Salzburg continues to grow strongly. (Data: respective total of the built-up areas and adoption of the respective population figures)


Population development

The development of the population of the city of Salzburg from 1550 to 2020 Population new3.png

Around the year 1550 the city of Salzburg had about 8,000 inhabitants. In the first half of the 17th century the population increased only slightly, in the second half it increased sharply. In 1795, shortly before the end of the prince-archbishopric, 16,837 residents were counted. At the end of the Napoleonic period , which was characterized by occupation, looting and humiliation, the population fell to 12,037 in 1817, after 1860 it rose rapidly with the economic boom and continued to increase after the First World War. In 1934 there were already 40,232 residents in the then still small urban area.

With the incorporation in 1935 and 1939, the population jumped to 77,170. The Second World War caused great losses among soldiers from Salzburg and the civilian population. Due to the US occupation until 1955, the number of residents increased again after the war.

With around 15,000 refugees, mainly ethnic Germans , who found a new home in Salzburg, the number of inhabitants rose to 99,244 by 1947, and the subsequent economic upturn brought again large increases in population until 1970. While the population remained roughly the same between 1979 and 1990, it grew by a further 12,000 in the following 18 years.

In the metropolitan area of Salzburg around 367,000 people (2019) live. The population on January 1, 2020 was 155,021.

Population structure

The average number of children in the 36,396 families is currently 0.97. Despite the expected influx of people from the urban area and of migrants, urban planning assumes that the population will stagnate or decrease in the medium term.

77% of the residents of the city of Salzburg were born in Austria, others

Elisabeth-Vorstadt has the highest proportion of those born outside Austria with 36.9%, in Schallmoos 35.0% of the residents were not born in Austria. A high proportion of non-Austrians also live in fiefdoms, in the south of this district 15% profess Islam.

The Leopoldskron-Moos district has the lowest proportion of foreigners. In 2006, 13% of the city's population was under 15 years old, 69% between 15 and 64 years old, and 18% over 64 years old. The proportion of children and adolescents under 15 was highest in Outer Maxglan and Maxglan-West (21%), that of senior citizens in Riedenburg (22%). The highest proportion of adults of working age was to be found in the Right Old Town (80%).


Salzburg is shaped by the Catholic Church . Until the dissolution of the Prince Archbishopric of Salzburg in 1800 (or 1803), church and state formed a unit. The difficulties of the Protestant (see Salzburg exiles ) and the Jewish community as well as the Anabaptists testify to this. Numerous church towers dominate the image of the city, which was called the German Rome until the 19th century .

It was only after the tolerance patents of 1781 and 1782 that Greek Orthodox , Protestants and Jews in Austria could practice their religion again. In the second half of the 20th century, war, displacement and migration resulted in a greater variety of religions.

In 2001 the Catholics were by far the largest church community with 55.4% of the city's population. Since 2001 the number of Catholics (as in other parts of Austria) has decreased. The second largest group were the people of Salzburg without religious beliefs, 17.1% of the population, and another 6.5% had no religious beliefs.

The Muslims were at 6.8% of the urban population, the third largest group. In fourth place was the Evangelical Church AB in Austria and the Evangelical Church HB in Austria , to which 6.7% of the population committed themselves. This religious community is divided into three parishes with the associated churches in Neustadt , in Gneis and in Taxham. The communities of Orthodox Christianity ( Serbian Orthodox Church , Romanian Orthodox Church and Russian Orthodox Church ) comprised 5.3% of the population. The Russian Orthodox Church Maria Schutz is in fiefdom, the Romanian Orthodox Church in the east of Schallmoos.

A total of 1.6% of the city's population admitted to the faith communities of the Old Catholics , the Methodists , the New Apostolic Church , the Mormon Congregation , the Jehovah's Witnesses , the Federation of Evangelical Congregations , the Christian Community and the Free Christian Congregation - Pentecostal Congregation . There are also congregations of the Mennonites (peace congregation ) and the Baptists .

The Catholic Church is in dialogue with the Orthodox Churches, the Evangelical Church, the Old Catholic Church and the Methodists in ecumenical working groups; Common church services are celebrated regularly.

A total of 0.7% of the city's population admitted to other religious communities such as the Buddhist community , the Baha'i , the Hindu community and the Sikh community . Almost 50 residents are members of the Israelite religious community . Services are held several times a year in the Salzburg synagogue .

In addition to the three Muslim mosques in Schallmoos, Itzling and Neustadt, there is a Sikh Gurdwara in Schallmoos. Buddhist prayer rooms are in the right-hand old town, in Lehen and Liefering.


Heinz Schaden, Mayor of the City of Salzburg (1999-2017)
Harald Preuner (since 2017)

Local politics after 1880

In the period from the awakening of political forces to the end of the monarchy, the city was politically increasingly anti-liberal. It possessed strong clerical and German national forces, which were often fragmented and hostile to one another. In 1914, Robert Preußler was the first social democrat in Salzburg's municipal council . Excessive spending almost led to the financial ruin of the city around 1890. With the collapse of the monarchy, the dependence of the municipal council on the imperial central power ended. The number of community council members was increased from 30 to 40. Christian Socialists, Social Democrats and German Nationals subsequently had a similarly high percentage of votes. During the authoritarian period of the corporate state and under National Socialism, the municipal administration had hardly any freedom and was bound by instructions.

Local politics after 1945

The first post-war period was characterized by close cooperation between the SPÖ and its mayor Anton Neumayr , the ÖVP and the KPÖ . From 1957 to 1970 the popular Alfred Bäck led the city government.

In 1972, citizens' initiatives in Salzburg ran for the first time (initially unsuccessfully). The construction of the Freisaal and parts of the landscape garden of Hellbrunner Allee was planned. A compromise provided for the extensive preservation of the green space and the establishment of the Freisaal University. The planned expansion of the road network in 1976 brought new conflicts between housing and landscape protection, which continue to this day. "What was celebrated for years as the common good - namely to create a roof over people's heads, degenerated and became a cancer in the urban landscape".

In 1965 the art historian Hans Sedlmayr pointed out that the old town was being demolished and hollowed out. The culturally conscious governor Hans Lechner provided the first ensemble protection in 1967, supported by citizens' initiatives. In 1980, the citizens' initiatives around the actor Herbert Fux , the painter Wilhelm Kaufmann and Richard Hörl achieved improved protection for the old town.

The rapidly increasing inner-city traffic remained a controversial chapter of city politics. The inner city cooperative took action after 1960 against the plans to build a pedestrian zone in the old town and against the "cut off from traffic". In the course of the reorientation with priority given to public transport, separate bus lanes were set up in 22 streets between 1970 and 1994, largely initiated by the citizens' list.

Since 1999 the mayor of the city of Salzburg has been elected directly by the people. From then until September 20, 2017, Heinz Schaden ( SPÖ ) was mayor . After the 2009 election, Harald Preuner ( ÖVP ) remained the first deputy . Martin Panosch became the second deputy for the SPÖ, Claudia Schmidt (ÖVP) new city councilor, Johann Padutsch (citizen list) remains city councilor. On September 20, 2017, the first deputy mayor, Harald Preuner, took over the office of mayor; new elections were set for November 26, 2017. Preuner received the most votes in the mayoral election with 35.0%, but not the necessary 50 percent. In the runoff election on December 10, 2017, he prevailed against Bernhard Auinger (SPÖ) with 50.32% (294 votes ahead).

City administration

The municipal council consists of 40 members. In addition to a mayor, the city government consists of two deputy mayors and two city councilors, who are appointed according to the strength of the votes of the respective parties (proportional system). As a permanent committee of the municipal council, the city senate is primarily responsible for legal and financial issues and consists of twelve members. The city law provides for citizens' petitions at the request of citizens and citizen surveys at the request of the municipal council.

Local council
Voter turnout (%) 79.3 86.5 77.6 78.5 79.7 70.7 73.2 71.4 62.3 55.2 60.5 64.8 57.5 49.7 48.2
SPÖ 15th 15th 16 16 19th 17th 16 15th 21st 12 13 19th 15th 15th 11
ÖVP 12 14th 13 14th 13 14th 14th 12 9 11 11 11 11 8th 16
FPÖ * 12 10 10 9 8th 9 8th 6th 6th 6th 8th 4th 5 5 3
Citizen List - - - - - - 2 7th 4th 7th 6th 6th 7th 6th 6th
KPÖ 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1
Other ** - - - - - - - - - ABP: 2
Ch: 2
ABP: 2 - TAZL: 2 NEOS : 5
NEOS : 2

* "FPÖ" including its forerunner "WDU"; ** ABP: Austrian motorists and citizens' interest party, LM: List Masopust, TAZL: List Tazl & BZÖ , SALZ: Citizens for Salzburg


Citizens can fill out applications online via the e-government portal of the City of Salzburg and send them electronically to the responsible authority. This form of application simplifies the administrative process and the procedure can be completed more quickly. The form solutions cover u. a. the areas of “Building and Living”, “Cultural Funding” and “Nature & Environment”.

Town twinning

The first town twinning was signed in 1964 with the old capital of Champagne, Reims . Like Salzburg, this cultural city has long been an important intellectual center of Europe. Atlanta was added in 1967, but is no longer today.

1973 followed as partner Verona with its world cultural heritage old town. The city ​​partnership Salzburg-León (Nicaragua) has existed since 1984. Salzburg development projects support this city as well as the partner region Singida in Tanzania since 1984 . Singida, which belonged to German East Africa until 1918, is located in the center of Tanzania around 200 kilometers northwest of the capital Dodoma and is particularly dependent on help. Busseto in Italy has been a partner since 1988 and has special ties to Salzburg in its musical tradition. Another partnership has existed since 1989 with Vilnius in Lithuania , a center of secular and religious culture in Eastern Europe.

Dresden , the capital of Saxony, has been pointing to the cultural exchange between Salzburg and eastern Germany since 1991. Kawasaki in Japan was twinned in 1992. Down-to-earth and southern lifestyle meet in Merano , South Tyrol, a twin town since 2000. Since 2004, Salzburg has been deepening its diverse ties to the People's Republic of China through its friendship with Shanghai .

coat of arms

City arms

The coat of arms shows a tinned silver city wall in red, the side parts of which recede in perspective and in the middle part there is a city gate with open gate wings and raised portcullis; behind the city wall a hexagonal silver tower with a golden roof, flanked by two narrower, lower, tinned silver round towers with golden pointed roofs.

The oldest surviving depiction of the Salzburg city arms, on a city seal, dates from 1249 and was used in this form until the 15th century. Today's city coat of arms is a further development of the late Gothic city seal type that emerged later. A detailed coat of arms was used until a number of years ago , but today a strongly stylized one is in use.


Facade of the Salzburg Cathedral

The entire built-up old town , the Neustadt, Mülln, the Mönchs- and Kapuzinerberg as well as parts of Nonntal were added to the list of world cultural heritage by UNESCO on December 5, 1996 .

Churches and monasteries

The oldest existing monastery in the German-speaking area is Stift Sankt Peter with the Stiftskirche Sankt Peter . The Benedictine Women's Monastery Nonnberg is the world's oldest continuously existing women's monastery with the Nonnberg Collegiate Church . The first baroque church north of the Alps, the Salzburg Cathedral , was built between 1614 and 1628. The Kollegienkirche , a major work by the baroque master builder Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, is of importance . The Dreifaltigkeitskirche , the Markuskirche and the Johannsspitalkirche were built in Salzburg according to Erlachs's plans . The churches in Salzburg that have been preserved in Gothic style include the Nonnberg Church, the Franciscan Church and the St. Blasius Citizens Hospital Church . Old, later Baroque churches are the Michaelskirche , the Imbergkirche and the parish church of Mülln . The Kajetanerkirche and the Erhardkirche in Nonntal were designed by Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli in the baroque period .

Hohensalzburg Fortress

The oldest parts of the Hohensalzburg Fortress date back to 1077 when Gebhard , loyal to the Pope, tried to protect himself from troops loyal to the emperor during the beginning of the investiture dispute . The curtain wall around the castle was renewed in the time of the first peasant unrest and the first threat from the Turks 1465–1485 and reinforced around 1500 by Leonhard von Keutschach . He furnished the castle with sumptuous princely rooms and built the tearing train , the world's oldest surviving funicular. Paris Lodron expanded the medieval castle into a fortress by adding a strong outer ring of artillery bastions. He had the Hasengrabentorbastei, the Hasengrabenbasteien and the two Nonnbergbasteien built and the so-called cat was considerably reinforced. With over 7,000 m², including the bastions with over 14,000 m² of built-up area, the fortress is one of the largest castles in Europe.

Castles and other secular buildings

The old town from the fortress to the north

During the Mannerist and Baroque periods , several Salzburg prince archbishops had sumptuous summer residences built on the outskirts of the city. The oldest is Freisaal Castle , which was built as a moated castle by Archbishop-Administrator Prince Ernst of Bavaria in 1549.

Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau built Mirabell Palace , originally Altenau Palace , from 1606–1607 as a country residence. Markus Sittikus von Hohenems had the large Hellbrunn palace and landscaped gardens built between 1613 and 1615 . After Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun's death , construction of Kleßheim Palace in the north-west of the city was continued by Leopold Anton von Firmian . The successor to Johann Ernst, Prince Franz Anton von Harrach , interrupted the work on Kleßheim Palace and instead gave the well-known Baroque master builder Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt the order to expand Mirabell Palace into a stately Baroque palace. Leopold Anton von Firmian had Leopoldskron Castle with the large castle pond built for himself and his nephew Laktanz.

The Hellbrunn landscape garden along Hellbrunner Allee stretches from the green space Freisaal to the south to the palace and park. The Hellbrunn trick fountains are located on the water part of the palace . On the Hellbrunnerberg are themonths castle and the stone theater carved out of the rock. The two architectural axes of Hellbrunn were designed as avenues. In the castle axis, the Fürstenweg leads to the Salzach, the large garden axis is oriented towards Goldenstein Castle . Also Anif Palace was included over the landscape Saxony. Along the Hellbrunner Allee are small aristocratic castles built soon after the completion of Hellbrunn Palace, which structure the landscape garden. The Kayserburg is reminiscent of the builder Hauptmann Kayser, the Frohnburg to Freifrau von Frohburg. Herrnau Castle takes its name from the meadows and forests of Herren-Au. The name of the Lasserhof is derived from the Lasser gender. Emslieb Castle and Emsburg Castle in the south of the avenue commemorate the co-builder of these castles, Prince Archbishop Markus Sittikus von Hohenems.

Aigen Castle is an old Salzburg country castle on the foot of the Gaisberg, whose near-natural castle park was known for its springs from the 17th to the early 20th century. Small residences on the Mönchsberg are the Johannesschlössl and the Marketenderschlössl. Castle-like fortifications are the Franziskischlössl built by Paris Lodron on the Kapuzinerberg and the old Neuhaus Castle on the Kühberg.

Other special features among the secular buildings are the old and new residence with the carillon ; in the latter is the Salzburg Museum . Noteworthy are the Old University with the Sacellum and the Great Aula as well as the very old town hall. Opposite the old university are the festival hall with the Felsenreitschule and the horse pond . There is also the Sigmundstor , the oldest road tunnel in Austria. The Edmundsburg is located on the Mönchsberg .

Squares and alleys of the old town

The Steingasse with a view of the fortress

The house where Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born is located in the central Getreidegasse , which played an important role in trade from an early age. Other streets and squares in the old town are the Domplatz with the Mariensäule , the Kapitelplatz and Kapitelgasse and the Residenzplatz with the Residenzbrunnen. Also the Mozartplatz with the Mozart Monument and the PLAGE - Anti-WAA Monument, the Waagplatz , the Old Market with the Florianibrunnen, the Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse and the adjoining small town hall square are worth seeing. Kaigasse, Krotachgasse and Pfeifergasse to the left of the Salzach as well as Steingasse and Linzer Gasse on the Neustadt side have also retained their historical character. The Griesgasse between Anton-Neumayr-Platz and the Staatsbrücke, the Judengasse and the Herrengasse are also important parts of the old town.

In May 2018, the city archive presented a list of more than 60 streets and squares with names polluted by the National Socialists . 46 of them bear the names of prominent NSDAP members.


Petersfriedhof in the old town

The two large cemeteries in Salzburg's old town are of cultural and historical importance. The Petersfriedhof next to the monastery church of St. Peter is the oldest preserved cemetery in the city. Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich had the Sebastian cemetery redesigned based on the Italian Campo Santo . In the middle of the cemetery is his mausoleum. The largest cemetery in the city and state of Salzburg is the municipal cemetery in Gneiss , built in 1879 . The only crematorium in the State of Salzburg to date was opened here in 1931. The later expanded large cemetery in Aigen was inaugurated in 1891 instead of the small churchyard. The Maxglan cemetery, which dates back to the Middle Ages, has been expanded several times. Small cemeteries have mostly been created around suburban churches. Members of the order who have died for centuries have been buried in the idyllically situated monastery cemetery in the Benedictine women's monastery in Nonnberg . Many Salzburg soldiers were buried in the military cemetery in Nonntal between 1803 and 1882. The Jewish cemetery has been located in Aigen since 1893 .


Sigmund-Haffner-Gasse towards the town hall and Getreidegasse
Salzburg house facades on the rock

Romanesque and Gothic

The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the early monastery buildings and the half-timbered houses shaped the medieval city for a long time. The under Bishop Konrad III. The elaborate three-aisled Conradinian cathedral was the largest basilica north of the Alps at the time. The hall choir of the Franciscan Church , begun by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer , is one of the most impressive works of southern German civil Gothic. It was not until the end of the Gothic period that the Nonnberg Collegiate Church , the Margaret Chapel in St. Peter's Cemetery , the Georg Chapel and the stately halls on the Hohen Stock are built on the Hohensalzburg Fortress .

Renaissance and Baroque

Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, began with the conversion of the medieval city into one based on the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance, the "German Rome". The huge cathedral construction planned by Vincenzo Scamozzi was never carried out due to the fall of the Prince Archbishop. The following cathedral construction under the direction of Santino Solari was the first early baroque church building in Salzburg. It was groundbreaking for a large number of other church buildings in the southern German-Austrian region. Markus Sittikus and Paris Lodron continued the redevelopment of the city with important works such as the Hellbrunn summer palace, the princely residence, the university building, the fortress belt and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio Daria managed the construction of the large residential fountain on behalf of Guidobald von Thun . Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli built the Erhard Church and the Kajetan Church in the south of the old town on behalf of the same archbishop .

The redesign of the city was completed with buildings by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach under the "donor" Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun . After Ernst Thun, further expansion of the city slowed down, which is why no churches in the Rococo style were built. Sigismund Graf Schrattenbach set some new impulses with the construction of the Sigmundstore and the statue of Mary on Domplatz by the Hagenauer brothers. With the division of the former archbishopric of Salzburg into Upper Austria, Bavaria (Rupertigau) and Tyrol ( Zillertal , Matrei in Osttirol ), a long period of urban standstill began. Only in the early days of the city was construction activity revived. The master builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz played a key role in shaping the city.

Classic modern and post-war modern

Buildings of the classical modern as well as especially the post-war modern can be found in Salzburg. Examples of this are the Zahnwurzenhaus (a residential building at Linzer Gasse 22 in the right-hand old town), the outdoor swimming pool in Leopoldskron (built in 1964) and the original congress house built in 1957, which has since given way to a new building. In terms of popularity, the Great Festival Hall by Clemens Holzmeister, which opened in 1960, is outstanding from this architectural epoch .

Contemporary architecture

In the old town, meaningful contemporary architecture is difficult to implement without losing the historical ensemble. Nevertheless, with the new building of the Mozarteum directly at the baroque Mirabell Gardens (architecture: Robert Rechenauer), the Unipark Nonntal opened in 2011 (architecture: Storch Ehlers Partner - awarded the Salzburg State Architecture Prize in 2012), the 2001 newly built Makart footbridge (architecture: Halle1) , or the residential and studio house of the architects Christine and Horst Lechner in Priesterhausgasse (Architecture Prize 2010) in the UNESCO World Heritage and Old Town protection area. The central heating power station on the border of the protection zones is particularly controversial to this day .

About the building of the Faculty of Science: In recent years, the dominant modern buildings were also outside the Old City University (Architecture: Wilhelm Holzbauer ) as part of the overall redesign Univiertel Nonntal / Academy Street and the Neue Mitte Lehen (Architecture Hall 1), which this district a to give new impetus are examples of contemporary architecture motivated by urban planning in Salzburg. The complex, the blob architecture assignable glass construction of Hangar-7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller) at Salzburg Airport or Euro Park (architecture: Massimiliano Fuksas ) in Taxham are among the most economically successful modernist buildings in Salzburg.

In addition, there are also experimental approaches to contemporary architecture at the Bauakademie Salzburg by the soma group . An example of contemporary technical architecture is the Sohlstufe Lehen hydropower plant , which was built by Max Rieder and Erich Wagner in the immediate vicinity of the World Heritage Protection Area in a sculptural design language and which was awarded the European Concrete Construction Prize in 2014.


Music city of Salzburg


Even under Archbishop Arn von Salzburg there was an early musical tradition, the Salzburg composers were in close contact with scholars related to Charlemagne . In 870 Pope John VIII asked the Archbishop for an organ and an organist for the Vatican in view of the good reputation of the music city Salzburg. Neidhart von Reuental worked under Prince Archbishop Eberhard II . In 1424 Oswald von Wolkenstein stayed with Eberhard III . Under Pilgrim II von Puchheim , the monk of Salzburg lived at the Salzburg court , and his folk-song spiritual and secular songs are known to this day.

The composers Heinrich Fink, Caspar Clanner and, as the “King of the Organists” Paul Hofhaimer, worked under Prince Archbishop Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg . The early Protestant hymn author Paul Speratus also lived here until he was expelled. In 1591, Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich re-founded the court orchestra and choral music with a total of 78 musicians. On January 27, 1614, Markus Sittikus opened the new court theater and thus became the ancestor of the festive music and theater city of Salzburg, where the first opera performances outside of Italy took place. The inauguration ceremony for the Salzburg Cathedral in 1628 under the musical direction of Stephano Bernardi, who also performed his own works, was extremely glamorous.

The composer Georg Muffat , sponsored by Prince Archbishop Max Gandolf , was court organist from 1678 to 1687. Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber , whose son was succeeded as Kapellmeister by Leopold Mozart, was the court conductor and conductor of the boys' choir . Before Mozart, the composer Johann Ernst Eberlin and his student Anton Cajetan Adlgasser also worked in the city. Two students of Johann Michael Haydn , the most famous church musician in Salzburg, were Carl Maria von Weber and Sigismund von Neukomm . With the end of the independent principality of Salzburg, the tradition of the princely court orchestra ended in 1805.

Large Festival Hall : One of the three festival halls of the Salzburg Festival, opened in 1960

In 1841 the Dommusikverein and Mozarteum and in 1847 the Salzburger Liedertafel were founded, both of which were under the direction of Alois Taux until the end of his life. In 1842, the inauguration ceremony for the first Mozart monument initiated the tradition of the Mozart Festival, which, largely supported by Joseph Friedrich Hummel and Lilli Lehmann , led to the foundation of the Salzburg Festival in 1920. The Franciscan Father Peter Singer composed many sacred works. Around 1880 the song composer Hugo Wolf worked in the Salzburg court theater . Franz Xaver Gruber, a grandson of the well-known composer Franz Xaver Gruber , founded the cathedral choir in 1921 with honorary singers, which received a good reputation under his successor Joseph Messner . The International Mozarteum Foundation was founded in 1870, the Mozarteum Music School in 1880. Clemens Krauss , Bernhard Paumgartner , Klaus Ager and Gerhard Wimberger worked in the Mozarteum . After the First World War, the Salzburg Mozarteum Orchestra broke away from the Conservatory. After the Second World War, the composers Cesar Bresgen and Carl Orff worked there .

The oldest orchestra in Salzburg is the Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg . It emerged from the orchestra of teachers and advanced students of the Mozarteum Academy. As a symphony orchestra of the city and state of Salzburg, it is primarily dedicated to the music of the Viennese classic. The Camerata Salzburg , a chamber orchestra, was founded in 1952 by Bernhard Paumgartner and later directed by Sándor Végh for over 20 years . In 1998 Elisabeth Fuchs founded the Junge Philharmonie Salzburg with young musicians and has directed it ever since. The Austrian ensemble for new music, based in Salzburg, was founded in 1975 by Klaus Ager and Ferenc Tornai and initially directed by Klaus Ager.

Mozart and Salzburg

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in 1756 as the son of the court composer and vice-music director Leopold Mozart and his wife Anna Maria Pertl in the house at 9 Getreidegasse. Leopold worked in the prince-archbishop's court chapel of Count Sigismund Schrattenbach , which was directed by Johann Michael Haydn . Schrattenbach supported the Mozart family very much. At the age of seven, Wolfgang Amadeus drew attention to himself on concert tours as a child prodigy.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was appointed unpaid court concertmaster in Salzburg in 1769 and was appointed concertmaster of the band under the newly elected Prince Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo in 1772. The musical life was too cramped for the freedom-loving Mozart in the small town. It became a “place of begging” where his genius was not allowed to “slip away”. It was also not possible to perform large musical theaters in Salzburg. Colloredo also showed little understanding for constantly taking Mozart off for tours. He therefore resigned from his service in Salzburg in 1781 and continued his career in Vienna, where he died in 1791. Mozart's name and music only became known to the general public long after his death. The writer Julius Schilling was the first to suggest in 1835 that a monument be erected to Mozart in Salzburg, which was completed in 1842. When the statue was inaugurated on Mozartplatz, very few visitors knew the composer. Nevertheless, for a long time the celebration was one of the greatest the city had ever known. With boat trips, torchlight procession and other attractions, a real folk festival was created in honor of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The first complete edition of Mozart's works was not completed until 1907 by the Mozarteum Foundation. Today many places and institutions in Salzburg are reminiscent of the musician. From the international music festivals that took place in Salzburg in honor of Mozart from 1877, the Salzburg Festival emerged in 1920.

Salzburg Festival

Everyone on Domplatz, 2014

The largest series of events in Salzburg with concerts, operas, recitals and plays has been taking place since 1920 as part of the Salzburg Festival. These developed from Mozart festivals and international music festivals in Salzburg in the 19th century. The festival community was founded in 1917 after years of initiatives by Heinrich Damisch , and Max Reinhardt took over the management of the festival, supported by Hugo von Hofmannsthal . The first performance of the festival took place on August 22, 1920 with Jedermann von Hofmannsthal in the production of Reinhardt in front of the cathedral. The backdrop of the Domplatz is still the venue for the Hofmannsthal mystery play. Today the festival has three festival halls, the Festspielhaus, which opened in 1925, now known as the Haus für Mozart , the Felsenreitschule , which was played for the first time in 1926, and the Great Festival Hall, which was completed and opened in 1960 . The Great Hall of the Mozarteum , the Salzburg State Theater and the Pernerinsel in Hallein are also regularly used. Other venues for the Salzburg Festival are spread across the entire city.

In 1956 the Mozart Week of the International Mozarteum Foundation was founded, which takes place at the end of January / beginning of February - around Mozart's birthday on January 27th. Founded by Herbert von Karajan , the Easter Festival has existed since 1967 and the Whitsun Festival since 1973 ; since Karajan's death the latter have mainly been dedicated to baroque music . In 1992 the Pernerinsel in Hallein was also adapted as a venue for the Salzburg Festival .

Classical music

Concert halls for classical music include the Vienna and the Great Hall of the Mozarteum, the Great Hall of the University, the Yamaha Hall in the orchestra house of the Mozarteum Orchestra Salzburg and the Solitaire for chamber music performances in the building of the Mozarteum University. The large studio there is used for theater performances.

The marble hall of Mirabell Palace has been the venue for the Salzburg Palace Concerts since 1954 . The over 250 chamber concerts a year have been under the musical direction of solo violinist Luz Leskowitz since 1991 .

Outside the festival season, the International Mozarteum Foundation is one of the well-known organizers with its dialogues . It is primarily used for contemporary work interpretation, the Mozart Week in Salzburg and other concerts in the Great Hall.

In addition to well-known concert series, the concerts of the Salzburg Cultural Association include the Salzburg Culture Days and various opera and ballet evenings, such as the Oper im Berg Festival . The aspects Salzburg are dedicated to contemporary music. Above all, you are creating the International Festival for Contemporary Music .

The range of chamber music events in Salzburg is rich. Regular concerts are offered here as part of the Salzburg Fortress Concerts, the Salzburg Palace Concerts in Mirabell Palace and the concerts of the Salzburg Court Music . The Salzburg Advent Festival , founded by Tobi Reiser in 1950, is known beyond Salzburg. Every year in the Great Festival Hall, it offers folk music for choir and instrumental music including a shepherd's play.

Jazz music and alternative music

The Salzburg Jazz Autumn Festival took place between 1996 and 2013. International jazz stars as well as Austrian musicians took part. The Jazz & The City series of events has been taking place every year in October since 2000, with free admission at various locations and in halls, bars and clubs.

From the concert series Jazz im Theater , founded in 1981, the jazz bar Jazzit emerged in 2002 . The alternative jazz club also offers space for experimental electronic music. The Jazzclub Life Salzburg has existed since 1983 and is mainly dedicated to traditional forms of jazz.

The consortium culture Salzburg , from the consortium Rainsberg emerged and later as ARGE Nonntal known originally wanted to move into a building at Rainsberg. It sees itself as a protest movement against a detached festival culture. With its affiliated associations, it is an important alternative cultural carrier.

The Rockhouse opened in 1993 and hosts around 200 events annually. The six rehearsal rooms are often used by bands from Salzburg. Music workshops are designed for children and young people.

The accordion initiative Akkorde - On - Stage Salzburg with the accordion orchestra Viel-Harmonie has existed since 2004. As a counterpoint to the more folk music-related accordion, various contemporary styles are presented.

The JIMS - summer academy for Jazz and Improvised Music Salzburg was closed in 2008.


The two largest and most visited museums in Salzburg are the Salzburg Museum and the House of Nature Salzburg . The Salzburg Museum, founded in 1834 as a provincial museum, became the property of the City of Salzburg in 1846. In 1850, the Dowager Empress Caroline Augusta took over the patronage of the museum. The former Carolino-Augusteum moved into the New Residence as the Salzburg Museum in 2007. The museum is primarily dedicated to the art and cultural history of the city and state of Salzburg. Affiliated museums are the Panorama Museum for the Sattler Panorama , the Folklore Museum in the Hellbrunn Monthly Palace, the Toy Museum in the former Citizens Hospital and the Cathedral Excavation Museum on Residenzplatz and the Fortress Museum .

The House of Nature, founded in 1924 by the zoologist Eduard Paul Tratz, is primarily dedicated to the fields of nature and technology. At the end of 2008, the former museum rooms of the Salzburg Museum Carolino Augusteum were incorporated into the House of Nature, and the enlarged museum was reopened at the end of June 2009.

The old residence , in the foreground the Residenzplatz

The Salzburg Baroque Museum in the Orangery of the Mirabell Gardens and the Salzburg Cathedral Museum are also important . In addition to regular special shows, the latter shows the largely reconstructed former prince-archbishop's chamber of curiosities . The also reconstructed collection of oil paintings by the Salzburg princes is on display in the Residenzgalerie of the Alte Residenz. The prince-archbishop's state rooms there can also be viewed independently of the gallery. Small, interesting museums dedicated to Mozart's work have been set up in the house where he was born and where he lived.

The Museum der Moderne Salzburg, with its locations on Mönchsberg and in the Rupertinum, is dedicated to the presentation of contemporary visual art. The Rupertinum is also home to one of Salzburg's two institutions that are important for Austrian photography : the “Photography and Media Collection” founded by Otto Breicha with the “Austrian Photo Gallery”, which was founded in 1983. The second institution is the verge - 1981 - Founded in since 2012 feud location Fotohof .

The cathedral district of Salzburg was opened on May 16, 2014. For the first time, visitors have the opportunity to walk in the footsteps of the former prince archbishops. In the participating museums - Residenzgalerie, Salzburgmuseum, Dommuseum and the new Museum St. Peter - around 2,000 exhibits are presented on 15,000 square meters.


Hugo von Hofmannsthal at a young age

One of the oldest literary descriptions of the city of Salzburg is the song of praise that the Nuremberg “Meistersinger” Hans Sachs wrote in 1549 for the city of Salzburg. The dialect poet Franz Stelzhamer and Sylvester Wagner lived in Salzburg for a long time . In the late years of the monarchy, the impressionist Hermann Bahr , the short story and novelist Franz Karl Ginzkey , the librettist, poet, playwright and co-founder of the Festival Hugo von Hofmannsthal , the epic poet Thomas Mann , the essayist Stefan Zweig as well as the novel and Travel book author Erik Wickenburg . The lyricist Georg Trakl , one of the most important representatives of lyrical expressionism , wrote many pictorial poems about Salzburg, where he spent most of his short life. In 1952, the Georg Trakl Prize for Poetry was created in memory of the artist. Alja Rachmanowa , Johannes Freumbichler , whose literary work only became known through his grandson Thomas Bernhard , who also lived here for a long time , the poet Erna Blaas and Georg Rendl , also lived in Salzburg . Gerhard Amanshauser and his son Martin Amanshauser are popular for their poems and novels. The famous poets H. C. Artmann and Peter Handke also lived in Salzburg for many years . Were born here, among other Bodo Hell , Kathrin Röggla and Karl-Markus Gauss . Christine Haidegger and the writer Walter Kappacher also live or lived in Salzburg .

Since 1991 the Literaturhaus Salzburg has acted as a mediator of sophisticated contemporary literature in the Eizenbergerhof in Lehen. Among other things, the “Europe of Mother Tongues” festival is organized there every spring and the “Salzburg crime festival” in autumn. In addition to the sponsoring association, the literary institutions erostepost, Graz Authors 'Assembly / Salzburg, prolit & Edition Eizenbergerhof, the Salzburg Authors ' Group and the Salzburg Literature Forum Reading Lamp work in the Literaturhaus with the literary magazine SALZ. The literary scene has been managed by the Salzburg Literature Archive since 1977, founded by Adolf Haslinger.

Since 2008 there has also been a literary festival held annually in spring , at which literary works by well-known authors are presented at various locations in the city.


The Salzburg State Theater was founded in 1775 by Prince Archbishop Colloredo under the name Hoftheater as an educational institution for the Salzburg population and revived as a city theater in 1893. Owned by the state and city of Salzburg, it has fulfilled an important cultural mission with opera, operetta with drama, dance theater and children's theater for over 240 years. With the establishment of the Salzburg Marionette Theater in 1913, Anton Aicher renewed an old Salzburg tradition in the spirit of the baroque era. Since then, the puppet theater has performed operas by Mozart and other composers as well as fairy tales.

In addition to the performances of the Landestheater and the Salzburg Festival, drama performances take place almost daily in the Schauspielhaus Salzburg , the former "Elisabethbühne". The house is the largest independent ensemble theater in Austria, with around ten plays and one children's play in two theaters every year. An acting school and a publishing house for children's musicals are connected. In the Toihaus, in the Small Theater , in the Theater an der Salzach and in the Republic of the Szene Salzburg, plays are regularly performed, but occasionally also in the Oval, the stage in the Europark . In 1970 the Salzburg Cultural Association founded the Salzburg Street Theater , which every year during the festival time delights many visitors with performances on a horse-drawn stage in the city and state of Salzburg.

Visual arts

Medieval painting in Salzburg was largely shaped by monks. The antiphonary of St. Peter's Monastery, today in the Austrian National Library , is one of the most important achievements of medieval book illumination in the Alpine region. Many Romanesque and Gothic illuminations of European importance were created in the city. The high mediaeval frescoes and the Gothic glass window (clan window) in the collegiate church of Nonnberg are significant . Well-known late Gothic artists were the Salzburg citizens Rueland Frueauf the Elder and his son and Conrad Laib .

Hans Bocksberger the Elder is an early modern painter. He also gave views of the early modern city of Salzburg. Pictures of the city have also been preserved from his Regensburg contemporary Albrecht Altdorfer . The first and best-known baroque painters in the southern German-Austrian region were the Salzburg Johann Michael Rottmayr with paintings in the Residenz, the Kajetan Church and the Trinity Church and Martino Altomonte with a residence painting . The third major Salzburg painter of this time was Paul Troger , who painted the high altar and dome fresco of the Kajetan Church. His ceiling fresco in the Sebastianskirche was lost. During the Romantic period, the “rediscovery” of Salzburg was largely done by painters. Above all, Ferdinand Olivier and Adrian Ludwig Richter , and later Johann Fischbach, were deeply impressed by the aesthetics of the splendid but also musty-looking city and its surrounding landscape. Her pictures transfigured Salzburg and, together with descriptions by travel writers, became the early basis for the emerging tourism. Also Andreas Nesselthaler , Rudolf von Alt and Hubert Sattler drew pictures of the city and its surroundings. During this time, the Salzburg-born Hans Makart worked , whose lavish pictures had a great influence on the younger generation of painters. This included the Salzburg landscape painter Franz Kulstrunk . His main work "The City of Salzburg in 1916" is a monumental panorama and architectural portrait of the city and its expansion between the early days and the Belle Époque.

After the First World War, Anton Faistauer was artistically active in Salzburg , who created large frescoes in the Morzger Church and in the Salzburg Festival Hall. After the Second World War, Oskar Kokoschka founded the International Summer Academy for Fine Arts Salzburg at Fortress Hohensalzburg . The painters Eduard Bäumer and Wilhelm Kaufmann also lived and worked in Salzburg .

Medieval sculpture in Salzburg was almost entirely sacred . Well-known late Gothic sculptors were Michael Pacher and Veit Stoss . Michael Pacher created one of the largest and most beautiful winged altars in Central Europe for the Franciscan Church, of which only the Madonna sculpture has survived. The small winged altar of the Johanniskapelle on Nonnberg comes from the school of Veit Stoss. The Baroque period, which was so joyful to present, gave the artists a wide range of tasks. The most famous baroque sculptor in Salzburg was Bernhard Michael Mandl . Inspired by Italian artists, Mandl created his own sculptures. His works include the horse tamer of the Marstallschwemme as well as Peter and Paul in front of the facade of the cathedral. The art of the early 18th century was shaped in Salzburg by Georg Raphael Donner , whose early works include the marble staircase in Mirabell Palace. Important artists were Sebastian Stumpfegger , Johann Georg Hitzl and Anton Pfaffinger. The baroque language of form was often passed on through the Rococo until the early 19th century. Johann Baptist Hagenauer created well-known works in Salzburg such as the statue of Mary on Domplatz and the artistic design of the Sigmundstore. A Salzburg artist of late classicism was Johann Piger .

Giacomo Manzù stands out among the artists of the 20th century with his sculptures . The "Salzburg Foundation" with numerous sculptures by Manfred Wakolbinger , Anselm Kiefer , Mario Merz , Marina Abramovic , Markus Lüpertz , James Turrell , Stephan Balkenhol , Tony Cragg , Christian Boltanski , Jaume Plensa , Kowanz and Erwin Wurm represented in the city .

Cinema and film

In 1921, the Salzburg Stiegl brewery in Maxglan made agricultural buildings available to the newly founded company Salzburger-Kunstfilm. There the film production company set up a laboratory and a film studio. The first documentary was “The Festival 1921”, the first feature film “The Tragedy of Carlo Prinetti” (1924). At that time, the Maxglaner Kino was the second largest cinema in Austria outside of the federal capital Vienna.

The Mozartkino in Kaigasse was established in the Hotel Kasererbräu in 1905. It was last expanded in 1987. The forerunner of the Elmo Cinema was created in 1947 in the gym of the Plain elementary school. In 1949 Alfred and Else Morawetz built a new building on the Lehener Brücke with a hall for 100 visitors. In 1977 a second room was added, four years later a third and fourth and after 1980 a fifth room, the largest of which with 435 seats. In 2012, however, the Elmo Kino had to close due to financial problems. At the beginning of Steingasse is Das Kino, whose program focuses on cultural films and retrospectives. A mountain film festival is also held here every autumn. The CityCenter, in which the Cineplexx City-Kino is housed, is on the station forecourt , and the Cineplexx Airport is located just beyond the city limits in the municipal area of ​​Wals-Siezenheim near Salzburg Airport.

Regular events

The annual national musical events are the Mozart Week in January, the Aspects Festival in March, the Salzburg Easter Festival at Easter, the encounters in May, the Salzburg Whitsun Festival at Whitsun , the International Cantus MM Music & Culture Festival in June / July and the Salzburg Festival in July and August . The Salzburg Culture Days, the Jazz Autumn, the “Krimifest” and the Dialoge Festival take place in autumn .

Further annual series of events are the literature festival in May and the summer scene in July. Popular folk festivals are the Salzburg Dult around Pentecost and the Rupertikirtag in September. The annual Christmas markets, which also sell handicrafts, are also well known. The most important are on Domplatz, Mirabellplatz, at Hohensalzburg Fortress and in Hellbrunn . The "Winterfest" is a festival for contemporary circus art in the Volksgarten Salzburg.


Salzburg belongs to the Bavarian-Austrian language area , especially to the Central Bavarian dialects. Although dialect is spoken by young and old people in Salzburg, two professors of linguistics at the University of Salzburg, Irmgard Kaiser and Hannes Scheutz, have noticed that the percentage of dialect speakers in the city has been falling over the past few years. More and more young students speak standard German, but Scheutz thinks that has more to do with media consumption than with their upbringing.

Environment and ecology


The city is located directly on the northern edge of the Alps. The Gaisberg with the Kühberg , the Kapuzinerberg and the Festungsberg are parts of the Kalkvoralpen. Its rugged northern slopes form the northern edge of the Alps, which runs through the city in an east-west direction. The hill country in the north belongs to the flysch zone and thus to the Alpine foothills.

The Salzburg Basin was carved out by the Ice Age Salzach Glacier. Afterwards, the basin, which was initially filled by a lake, was largely refilled with sediments . Only the Mönchsberg, Rainberg and Hellbrunner Berg are remnants of solidified gravel ( conglomerates ) from the last interglacial period. The Salzburg Basin consists of a lower alluvial plain close to the salt . Above the striking terrace edge on the left bank that runs through the city from north to south, there is the cemetery terrace, on which productive fresh soils formed in Liefering and Morzg, while in Schallmoos and Leopoldskroner Moos there were once extensive moor areas.


The climate in Salzburg is cool and temperate . The influence of the oceanic climate is stronger than that of the continental climate. The mean annual temperature between 1971 and 2000 was 9 ° C. In January the average temperature is −0.8 ° C, while in July it rises to 18.6 ° C. The amount of precipitation is comparatively high due to the northern accumulation. During the period mentioned, it averaged 1184 mm. The wettest month is July with an average of 160 mm, the wettest months are January, February and March with less than 70 mm. In Salzburg, due to its proximity to the Alpine region, there are pronounced foehn areas with warm and dry south winds. Due to the Salzach Valley, the winds in the city mainly blow in a southerly and northerly direction. Strong winds come mainly from the northwest.

Natural monuments and protected areas

Hellbrunner Allee

There are 41 natural monuments in the urban area, most of them old, landscape-defining or culturally significant trees. Hellbrunner Allee, laid out in 1615, is one of the protected parts of the landscape . It is one of the oldest preserved manorial avenues in Europe and the largest stock of old wood in the country outside of the mountainous region. It is of particular importance for the protection of species of wood-dwelling beetles, bats and woodpeckers. The pollarded willows on the Almkanal with over 500 trees are the only old polluted willows in the state of Salzburg. The uninterrupted tradition of polled willow goes back to the Middle Ages. The rock steppe on the Rainberg is home to a particularly drought-loving flora and fauna.

The Itzlinger Au , the Kühberg and the Gaisberg natural forest reserve have not been used for a long time . The Samer Mösl in the northeast of the city is a well-preserved moorland .

Large parts of the green space in the city are protected landscape areas, such as the Kapuzinerberg, the Mönchsberg and the Rainberg. The green space around Hellbrunn and Hellbrunner Allee, the cultivated moor landscape of the Leopoldskroner Moos , the landscape around the Leopoldskroner Weiher and the green space around the Salzachseen are landscape protection areas.

Grassland declaration

In 1985, the city of Salzburg, in response to the progressive destruction of the valuable urban landscapes , decided on a grassland declaration and thus established an immovable building land-grassland border. In a renewal of the declaration in 2008, this was legally anchored and the duration of the declaration was specified at 30 years. The land use for the construction of settlements should braked with this instrument and at the same time within the settlement boundary through the planning development densification to promote and use undeveloped building land.


Sports facilities

The Red Bull Arena not far from the city during the European Championship 2008

In the city of Salzburg there are 59 gymnasiums and sports halls as well as 39 soccer fields. 22 tennis facilities with 68 outdoor and 18 indoor courts are also established in the city. Five outdoor pools and the Liefering swimming lake are available in summer. The Paracelsusbad next to the Kurhaus is an indoor pool that is used all year round. Eleven curling lanes, three squash courts, an ice arena, three mini golf courses and seven sports shooting ranges enrich the offer. An important sports facility that is used for many different sports is the Alpenstrasse sports hall with a capacity of 2200 visitors.

The Salzburgring , a permanent race track opened in 1969, is located 10 km to the east from the center of Salzburg .

sports clubs

Most of the sports clubs in Salzburg are united in the umbrella organizations ASKÖ , ASVÖ and the Christian sports union . The Salzburg gymnastics club was founded in 1861, the Maxglaner gymnastics club in 1902. The oldest pure sports club in the state of Salzburg is the Salzburger AK 1914 from the Nonntal. The ASK Salzburg in the Maxglan district has existed since 1922.

The most successful soccer club in Salzburg was SV Austria Salzburg, founded in 1933 . In 2003, the club relocated to the Wals-Siezenheim stadium , where three European football matches were played in 2008. In 2005 the club was renamed FC Red Bull Salzburg , which was able to win the Austrian championship title three times in the following five years. The SV Austria Salzburg was founded as a "moral" successor new and first played in Nonntal and later in Maxglan. The ice hockey club EC Red Bull Salzburg , founded in 1977 as Salzburg EC , has played in the first division since 2004. The women's team Ravens Salzburg won the championship title in the 2005/06 season. In American football , the Salzburg Lions won the first ever Austrian championship title in this young sport in 1984. Today they play as the Salzburg Bulls in the second-rate Division I amateur sport at a high level.

Wheelchair dancing can be at the Salzburg wheelchair dance sport club Wheelchair Dancers .

The performance dance pairs of the club are members of the national team and represent Austria in international competitions. At the 2010 World Cup in Hanover, a couple danced the bronze medal.

The AMREF Salzburg Marathon has been held annually since spring 2004 . Runners from over 30 nations take part in the running festival through the old town and the old avenues. The road cycling world championship was held in 2006 in Salzburg and the surrounding area. More than 330,000 visitors attended the major event over the four days of the race. Salzburg applied for the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics , but couldn't convince the jury.

Public parks

The Mirabell Gardens with a view of the Hohensalzburg Fortress

Well known in the north of the extensive Hellbrunn Palace Park is the large Renaissance garden with its geometric paths and ponds. In the south of the Anifer Alterbach is the once sacred wilderness park. The baroque Mirabell Gardens with the hedge theater, the dwarf garden and the bastion garden are among the famous gardens . The Kurgarten directly adjoins the Mirabell Gardens in Neustadt . The preserved earth core is the last remnant of the former great Lodron St. Vitalis bastion.

The Baron-Schwarz-Park in the Schallmoos district emerged from old gardens. It was created in place of the garden of the Schallmooshof and the later extensive garden of the Baron-Schwarz-Villa. The Minnesheim Park in Gnigl ​​is the remainder of the former garden of the Lodron Castle Minnesheim . The Preuschenpark in Aigen-Abfalter used to be the garden of the Villa Preuschen , the former Abfalterhof . The Stölzlpark in Maxglan-Burgfried was the garden of the villa owner and later Maxglan mayor Stölzl in the early 20th century.

The Volksgarten in Parsch, formerly called Franz Josef Park, was to mark the 50th anniversary of emperor I. Franz Joseph redesigned. Built in place of the Brothäuslau, it is still a recreational area for the people of Salzburg today. The core area of ​​the Donnenberg Park in Nonntal was built at the same time. It was created, expanded several times from the garden of the Nonntal nursing home .

The Salzachsee recreation area near the Salzachseesiedlung is a park-like space. It was laid out on a large garbage dump that was recultivated in 1967 and made available to the population with a swimming lake and other small quarry ponds. In Lehen, towards the city center, there is the Lehener Park, a remnant of the former meadow. In 1996 Salzburg AG handed over the Dr.-Hans-Lechner-Park in Schallmoos to the people of Salzburg.


Traditional regional and Austrian cuisine is strongly represented in Salzburg, and can be found in a down-to-earth version as well as in a good bourgeois environment and sometimes in an upscale atmosphere. A number of such restaurants also enjoy a good reputation in a wider area. In the old town there are a few upscale and middle-class restaurants as well as numerous trendy pubs and bars with a young crowd, which are particularly located along the Salzachkais.

A flagship of traditional Salzburg gastronomy is the Augustiner Bräu Kloster Mülln , founded in 1621 - popularly known as "Bräustübl". Here, beer is only served in stone mugs directly from the wooden barrel. The historical rooms include several halls, a beer garden and shops selling bread and meat products etc. for a typical snack. The traditional beer pub, which has an old Bavarian character, is not only a popular meeting place for Salzburg residents, but is also a tourist attraction.

Culinary specialties

Mozart balls from Fürst

In 1890 the Salzburg confectioner Paul Fürst invented the Mozartkugel , a chocolate ball with a marzipan core . It became the city's culinary landmark, and Mozart balls have been offered by various manufacturers ever since. Also typical are the Salzburger Nockerln , a baked dessert made from sugared and beaten eggs. Also popular is the Bosna , a snack that consists of pork sausages in a white bread roll with chopped onions and curry spices and was first offered in 1949.

Economy and Infrastructure

The city of Salzburg is the economic center of a region that extends to Upper Austria in the north and the Bavarian districts in the west. This makes it the state's economic engine. The economic power of the city, measured against the gross value added of the entire state of Salzburg, is around 43%.

In 2001, 7,838 companies with a total of 100,055 employees in 10,210 individual workplaces were based here. In 2001, 10,729 more people were employed in Salzburg than ten years earlier, which corresponds to an increase of 12%. The number of workplaces grew by 24.8% from 1991 to 2001, from 8,182 to 10,210. Salzburg has a distinctly small business structure.

Quite a few employees in Salzburg are commuters. 44,082 or 57% of the employees commuting to Salzburg come from the Flachgau, 13% from the Tennengau. 9% come from the remaining Salzburg districts. Over 14% of non-Salzburg residents who are employed here commute from Upper Austria - above all from the Braunau and Vöcklabruck districts, and 7% from the other federal states. The proportion of employees commuting from Salzburg is 15,027, who mainly work in companies close to the city in Flachgau.


Salzburg is the seat of well-known international companies. The largest commercial enterprise in Salzburg is Porsche Holding , with a group turnover of 22.4 billion euros in 2017 . It is active in the import and export of motor vehicles and in the management of land and real estate.

SPAR Österreichische Warenhandels AG follows in second place with 10.88 billion euros . The company is one of the leading Austrian companies in the food retail sector and in the development and operation of shopping centers.

The largest and oldest Austrian building society is Wüstenrot Versicherungs-AG. The two motor vehicle import companies BMW Austria and Mercedes-Benz Austria are important.

The largest forwarding company in Salzburg is Lagermax Lagerhaus und Speditions AG, which offers parcel services, vehicle logistics and express services in addition to goods transport.

The largest private brewery in Austria is the Stiegl Brewery . It was founded in 1492 in the old town and has been in the Maxglan district since 1863. In 2005 the Stiegl brewery was expanded and the most modern brewhouse at that time was inaugurated.

With Unito Versand & Dienstleistungen , the globally operating Otto Group is in Salzburg. The second largest construction company in Austria, Porr , has a branch in Salzburg, in which other group companies such as Teerag-Asdag are also represented.

Shopping centers

The two supraregional shopping centers in Salzburg are the shops in the old town (turnover in 2005: 206 million euros) and the Europark in Taxham. In terms of sales per square meter, Europark is the most successful shopping center in Austria. In 2007 it was also the first shopping center in Austria to be recognized by the ICSC as the best shopping center in the world .

Regional centers are the Shopping Arena, formerly the Alpenstrasse Shopping Center (SCA with sales of 135 million euros), the Zentrum Im Berg (ZIB) and its surroundings (66 million) and the train station area (56 million). Including the local shopping centers, an annual turnover of 909 million euros was achieved across Salzburg on 217,514 m² of retail space.

In 2009, the Designer Outlet was opened near Salzburg Airport on a total area of ​​28,000 m².


Tourism is an important economic factor for the city. With over three million overnight stays in 2017, it ranks second among Austria's cities after Vienna. The growing congress and trade fair tourism as well as new flight connections favor this development.

The total tourism turnover in the city of Salzburg is around 800 million euros. According to an estimate, the share of tourism in the local gross national product is around 20%. Tourism in the city will secure over 8,000 jobs.

Although only 5.6% of Salzburg residents work in the tourism sector itself, its effects on other service sectors, especially trade, are high. The festival has a macroeconomic benefit of around 276 million euros per year and an employment effect of around 5,000 jobs (around 220 employees per year). In addition to the festival, the Mozart Weeks, Easter Festival, Whitsun Festival & Baroque and the Salzburg Advent Singing all contribute to the attractiveness of Salzburg. In addition, visitor magnets such as the Hohensalzburg Fortress (around 1.14 million visitors), Mozart's birthplace and home (around 500,000 visitors) and Hellbrunn Palace (around 300,000 visitors) ensure excellent results. The trade fair and congress sector is also important for the tourism of the city of Salzburg, it leads to better utilization of the accommodation capacities outside the main season.

measure up

Salzburg is becoming more and more important as a trade fair city thanks to the exhibition center . In 1973 the City of Salzburg , the State of Salzburg and the Salzburg Chamber of Commerce founded the “Salzburg Exhibition Center Ges.mbH”, today Messezentrum Salzburg GmbH. Messezentrum Salzburg GmbH is owned by the State of Salzburg and the City of Salzburg with a share of 39.3% and the Salzburg Chamber of Commerce with a share of 21.4%.

With the A1 junction "Messe" (Exit 291), the exhibition grounds have their own motorway access and exit, which leads directly to the parking area with around 3,300 parking spaces.

The Salzburg Exhibition Center with its ten exhibition halls and a total of 36,625 m² of exhibition space and the Salzburgarena of 2,545 m² counted around 630,000 visitors in 2011. The operating company Messezentrum Salzburg GmbH and the guest organizers offer around 32 specialist and public fairs each year.

In autumn 2011, the construction of a new congress exhibition hall with an exhibition area of ​​15,163 m² was completed. In August 2012, a 4,600 m² conference area also opened.


Rail network, motorways, federal and state roads around the city of Salzburg

Traffic development

The development of traffic in the city of Salzburg is characterized by the steady increase in private motor vehicle traffic. The proportion of journeys made by public transport, on the other hand, fell between 1995 and 2004 from 21% to 16%, a value that is below average in a Central European comparison. However, cycling increased from 12% to 20% between 1995 and 2008. In 2017, the degree of motorization (passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants) was 557.

From the early Middle Ages until 1859, the wooden city bridge, on the site of today's State Bridge, was the only bridge over the Salzach. At that time the next bridge was about 20 km north in Laufen and in the south in the city of Hallein . First in the middle of the city bridge, later on the left bank of the Salzach, the tolls were collected by toll officers. In 1859 the first Karolinenbrücke was opened as the second bridge in the city, and a year later the railway bridge. After the motorway bridge, the Lehener, Karoliner and Staatsbrücke are the three most important crossings of the Salzach.

Special traffic regulation measures

A long-standing problem is the approach of motor vehicles to the pedestrian zone in the old town. Due to frequent non-compliance with driving bans, the "bollard regulation" came into force on June 21, 2010. This regulation caused complaints, especially among neighbors, because their needs were not taken into account and the responsible politicians did not listen. A total of 36  traffic bollards are intended to prevent illegal access to the old town. Some of the bollards are permanently installed and can be lowered in some places by remote control. The latter can also be lowered with a police key , a code console and at Mozartplatz with the Euro key . During the loading and delivery times from 6:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m., the bollards are always lowered. In the pedestrian zone, the charging time has been extended to 11:00 a.m.

Due to the high volume of traffic in the summer of 2012, a so-called “noon rule” was introduced. From July 16 to August 17, the approaches to Neutor, Müllner Hügel and Staatsbrücke in the area of ​​the left-hand city center were prohibited from Monday to Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Exceptions existed for residents and hotel guests, among others.

The measure was assessed very differently and was heavily discussed in public.

Since 2016 attempts have been made to reduce traffic with "gatekeeper" traffic lights with prolonged red phases in the Linzer Bundesstrasse, Innsbrucker Bundesstrasse and Münchner Bundesstrasse in bad weather-related high traffic, diversion of the cars by overhead signs on the autobahn, increased signage to the park & Ride parking spaces and special Park & ​​Ride tickets.

Pedestrian and bicycle traffic

Morning rush hour on the banks of the Salzach

Especially in the city center, many destinations can be reached quickly on foot or by bike. Much of the old town is designated as a pedestrian zone. The bicycle plays an important role , its share of the total traffic at 18% and thus Austria-wide (after Innsbruck and Bregenz on par with Graz) is in the top field. In June 2017, the city decided to create a “cycling strategy 2025+”, according to which the share of cycling should increase to 28% by 2025 and which obliges the city administration to invest in the infrastructure for cycling.

The city administration has had its own cycling coordinator since 1991. Today there are over 170 km of cycle paths in the city. The bike paths along the Salzach in particular are heavily used. They allow the entire city to be traversed without having to cross with motor vehicles. Bridges are crossed under, footbridges over the river allow easy changing of the sides of the Salzach.

The partly free bicycle rental system Citybike also contributes to the high volume of bicycle traffic. Secure bicycle garages have been built at the main train station, Itzling station and other locations.


Map of the trolleybus network
S-Bahn stop with a Talent multiple unit
Salzburg Central Station (2013) from the monk mountain seen from

Since 1940 the city has had a trolleybus network, which was later expanded . The Salzburg trolleybus , operated by Salzburg AG under the name OBus SLB, is the main public transport carrier in the city of Salzburg. The trolleybus connections are supplemented by a dense network of bus routes that create tangential connections and open up areas that are not connected to the trolleybus network. The network is mainly oriented in a star shape. As a result, some important cross-connections are missing.

In total, Salzburg AG operates a network with twelve trolleybus routes on a route length of 124 kilometers. 120 trolleybuses cover 5.3 million kilometers per year and transport 41.5 million passengers per year. The surrounding communities can be reached via a well-developed regional bus network operated by Postbus GmbH . The modes of transport are coordinated in the Salzburger Verkehrsverbund and combined in a common tariff system.

Salzburg is an important rail hub in Austria. The Salzburg station is frequented by about 28,000 daily passengers. The Westbahn takes you to the east of Austria and the federal capital Vienna. The Tauern Railway reaches the south of the country. Munich and Innsbruck are connected to Salzburg by the Rosenheim – Salzburg railway line . There are therefore numerous national and international long-distance transport connections from Salzburg's main train station. ÖBB trains have connections to Budapest, Munich and Zurich every 2 hours. Deutsche Bahn also operates EC connections to Stuttgart and Dortmund. In addition, the train station is an important stop in the ÖBB night train network. From Salzburg you can reach destinations in Italy, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Croatia and Switzerland.

The railway lines departing from Salzburg also serve regional traffic and offer numerous commuters an opportunity to get to Salzburg. One of the most important local transport carriers is the Salzburg S-Bahn , which is becoming more and more popular as an inner-city means of transport. On the section between Salzburg Hauptbahnhof and Freilassing, numerous new stops have been built in recent years. The Taxham Europark stop opened on June 17, 2006. In December 2009, with the S-Bahn stops Mülln-Altstadt and Aiglhof, two traffic junctions were put into operation in the densely built-up parts of the city. The three-track expansion from Saalachbrücke to Freilassing had been completed by 2014, and another inner-city traffic station was put into operation at the Liefering stop (2013). Most of the stops along the Tauern Railway in the south of the main train station (Salzburg-Süd, Aigen, Gnigl, Parsch and Sam) have also been redesigned.

Salzburg AG operates two important S-Bahn lines in the central area of ​​Salzburg on the Salzburg – Lamprechtshausen and the Bürmoos – Ostermiething lines. The S1 runs from the local train station via Oberndorf and Bürmoos to Lamprechtshausen , the S11 serves the Ostermiethingen branch line.

From the end of 2008 to the end of 2014, Salzburg's main train station was largely redesigned. By replacing the previous head platforms with additional through platforms, the station was expanded into a through station in order to be able to handle more trains. In addition to the barrier-free accessibility, special attention was paid to the preservation of the listed building structure, whereby the historical roof construction over the central platform is also preserved.

Freight transport by rail

The carriage of goods serve Located in the east of the main station freight station and the large rail yard between the districts and Gnigl Schallmoos. Tracks for freight traffic also lead from the main railways to the industrial areas of Gnigl, Schallmoos, Itzling and Maxglan, the latter being the so-called Stieglbahn . In front of the Salzburg main train station, the Salzburg container terminal has developed a high-frequency combined transport facility with an annual turnover of over 150,000 container / trailer loading units .

Car traffic

The highest traffic loads can be found in the inner city in the north of Vogelweiderstraße (50,000 vehicles per day), Lehener Brücke (43,000 vehicles), Fürbergstraße (34,000) and Alpenstraße (33,000). In the city's major radial streets, traffic grew by around 300% between 1961 and 2005. In order to maintain air quality, EU law requires measures to be taken against increasing individual traffic.

The peak traffic volume due to tourism also puts a strain on the city's transport system. During the festival season, all vehicles without a Salzburg license plate must therefore be diverted to large parking spaces on the periphery to avoid a collapse of inner-city traffic. There are large park-and-ride car parks both to the south of the Alpenstrasse and to the east by the exhibition grounds . Outside of the pedestrian zone, the entire city center is a paid short-term parking zone. From there, the center can be easily reached by public transport.

The A1 and A10 motorways converge at the Salzburg junction . Connections in the city are Salzburg North, Messezentrum, Salzburg Mitte, Kleßheim, Siezenheim (half connection), Airport, Salzburg West and Salzburg South . The Hagenau motorway half-connection is in the planning stage. The section between Salzburg North and Salzburg West is also important as a city motorway.

Air traffic

The Salzburg airport is located in the district of Maxglan west of the city just 3 km west of the Salzach River and the city center. In 2014, 1,819,520 passengers were handled. The tendency is increasing due to the strong winter tourism in the region. The national road B1 passes under landing and runway and connects to the west of this airport building.

Shipping, water sports

The river Salzach takes its name from the salt transports that took place on it in earlier times. In 1891 motorized shipping was discontinued due to numerous shallows and insufficient engines.

The Amadeus Salzburg has been cruising the river for sightseeing tours close to the city since 2002 from around March to November. The jet boat takes 80 passengers and has a draft of only 38 cm, with over 1000 HP engines allowing it to glide at speeds of up to 50 km / h.

Since September 2016, the same operator, Erich Berer, has been offering an amphibious bus that embarks via a fire station and takes 26 passengers on the landing stage.

The Amadeus Salzach Insel Bar is a ship's hull on the left bank of the river, a little below the Markartsteg, which is firmly moored to a jetty and serves as a restaurant or event room for 90 to 140 people.

Boating with canoes, kayaks or rowing boats is forbidden due to an ordinance from 2001 from the old town down to Lehen due to excessive danger. The ban extends from the Müllnersteg to the Traklsteg, which has been in the underwater area of ​​the power plant since the Salzburg-Lehen river power plant opened in 2013. Salzburg AG, as the power plant operator, refer to the risk of a bottom step, which forms a dangerous water roll when the backlog is lowered during maintenance of the power plant. The Christian-Doppler-Gymnasium in Salzburg-Lehen, as a neighbor of the new “reservoir”, bought a racing rowing boat for its students, but is not allowed to use it.

The Urstein power plant of Salzburg AG is located 10 km above the center of Salzburg in Anif (left bank) in its storage area at Puch near Hallein (right bank), a rowing club has been established for several years, boating is allowed here. 7 km south-south-west of Salzburg center is the Almwelle in the Almkanal , a place with a developed water roller for paddle boat acrobatics.

Electricity, drinking water and sewage

The supply of around 60,000 electricity customers is largely provided by Salzburg AG , as is the supply of drinking water. Only a very small proportion of the population, especially on the Gaisberg, have private spring catchments. Two large elevated tanks on Mönchsberg and Kapuzinerberg, each with 25,000 cubic meters, and various smaller elevated tanks ensure the supply of water. Most of the drinking water comes from the deep wells in St. Leonhard and Glanegg at the foot of the Untersberg . Until a few decades ago, the Fürstenbrunn spring primarily supplied the city with water. However, the constant quality of deep water spoke in favor of switching to groundwater from very deep water horizons. A special feature is the Almkanal, an additional canal system that has existed since the Middle Ages, which supplies the city with water from the Untersberg.

The expansion of the urban sewer network was largely completed in 2004. Only around 100 remote buildings, mainly on the Gaisberg, are not connected to the sewer network.

The city's garbage disposal is handled by the municipal waste service. The household waste is mechanically and biologically pretreated in the plant of the Reinhalteverband in Siggerwiesen in the neighboring municipality of Bergheim . The city's organic waste has been collected separately since 1994.


The two largest hospitals by far are the Christian Doppler Clinic on the southern edge of Liefering and the State Hospital , also: St. Johanns Spital, in Mülln. Since 2004 they have been combined with other Salzburg hospitals to form the umbrella company Salzburger Landeskliniken (SALK).

The St. Johanns Hospital was founded in 1695 by Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun . After the Second World War it was redesigned and expanded. The West Surgery Department was last established in 2001. In over 1,000 hospital beds, around 48,000 patients are cared for annually in 19 specialist departments and seven institutes.

In addition to the two hospitals, there is the accident hospital of the accident insurance institute am Äusseren Stein , the hospital of the Barmherzigen Brüder next to the Kajetanerkirche , the deaconess hospital in Aigen, the Dr. Pierer sanatorium, the private clinic Wehrle as well as a special hospital and a convalescent home for alcohol and Drug addicts.


The Salzburg State Police Department acts as the security authority for the city . Subordinate to you as the station of the guard for the urban area is the Salzburg City Police Command .

Senior care

Around 1,600 people are accommodated in 13 retirement homes in Salzburg. A good 1000 of them live in the five largest, the Hellbrunn, Itzling, Liefering, Nonntal and Taxham nursing homes, all of which are run by the city administration. In addition, the Diakonie in the Aigner Diakonie Center and Caritas Salzburg each run a house for senior citizens. In addition to the home administrations, the city of Salzburg offers many senior events, senior recreational activities, a senior lunch table and meals on wheels.

Education and Research

Child and youth care

In the city of Salzburg there are 30  crèches with more than 600 places and over 200 day care places. Over 65% of the children of kindergarten age are looked after in the city's 31  kindergartens . Afternoon care is also possible in these kindergartens.

Salzburg students and apprentices have access to six student dormitories with 350 and four apprentice homes with 240 places. With 20 student residences for more than 2000 residents, Salzburg also offers foreign students the opportunity to continue their education in Salzburg. The school and student residences are largely supported by associations such as the Salzburg Student Union and church organizations.

In the city of Salzburg there are eleven youth centers and the mobile project “Road Salt - Mobile Youth Work in the City of Salzburg”, in which young people are looked after by street workers .


In the 24 districts of Salzburg there are 21 urban primary schools , nine urban new secondary schools , four urban special schools  and seven non-urban compulsory schools.

Three of the twelve grammar schools are run by church institutions.

Several higher schools are located in the Nonntal district, including the Nonntal Federal High School, the BORG Nonntal, the Akademiestraße Federal Realgymnasium, the Realgymnasium for Music and Sports and the Federal Realgymnasium for Business Studies. With the Unipark-Nonntal, the district Nonntal became a closed unit and the central educational location of the city. Other high schools are the Academic High School Salzburg in Riedenburg, the Federal High School Zaunergasse in Maxglan, the Christian Doppler High School at Franz-Josef-Kai in Mülln and the Musisches Gymnasium in Itzling.

Catholic private schools are the archbishop's private grammar school Borromäum in Parsch, the private grammar school of the Sacred Heart Missionaries in Liefering and the grammar school and upper secondary grammar school St. Ursula in Aigen . Another private school is the Rudolf Steiner School (Waldorf School) with more than 200 students.

English-speaking schools are the International Preparatory School on Moosstrasse and the Salzburg Seminar in Schloss Leopoldskron.

In addition to the general high schools, there are six vocational middle and higher schools in Salzburg, which are attended by more than 3,500 students. These include the Federal Commercial Academy and Federal Commercial School I and II, the higher federal college for business professions, called Annahof .

A higher technical federal teaching and research institute has also been located in Salzburg since 1867 , with around 2,700 students and around 300 teachers.

Catholic private schools are the Higher Education Institute for Social Management, the Educational Institute for Kindergarten Pedagogy and the Technical School for Business Professions.


The International Summer Academy for Fine Arts is an artistic academy . The Federal Education College trains primary and secondary school teachers, the Religious Education Academy trains Catholic religion teachers. The Advertising Design Academy Salzburg serves to study communication design. The Austrian Media Academy of the Board of Trustees for Journalist Training serves prospective journalists.

In the medical field, there is the midwifery academy and the academies for occupational therapy and orthopedic services. There are also training opportunities for medical-technical laboratory services, radiological-technical services and physiotherapeutic services. The nutrient academy in Salzburg is scientifically dedicated to applied nutritional medicine.


Building of the Mozarteum University

The following universities and colleges are located in Salzburg:

The Salzburg Management Business School was established in 2001. Only university courses for business students are offered; the academic degrees are awarded by the University of Salzburg.
  • The Mozarteum , which was run as a university from 1939 to 1953, was re-established as a university in 1970. Concerts for strings, wind instruments and other instrumentalists are offered at the Mozarteum. Pedagogical subjects as well as study opportunities in acting, stage design and directing are also available.
  • The Paracelsus Medical Private University (PMU) was established in 2003 with two thirds from private funds and one third from state funds and offers courses in human medicine, nursing sciences and postgraduate studies in molecular medicine. The clinical training of the students takes place at the university clinics in Salzburg . The PMU also cooperates with hospitals in Upper Bavaria, especially with the Rosenheim Clinic, for practical training.

Adult education

The Salzburg Adult Education Center provides a large part of adult education with over 1,000 courses. In addition, the church educational center St. Virgil, the Catholic educational institute, the Salzburg educational institute and the rural training institute are active in adult education. The professional development institute of the Chamber of Labor and Salaried Employees and the Economic Development Institute of the Chamber of Commerce are active in professional training, but also in adult education .


The Salzburg City Library (formerly City Library) is one of the most popular service facilities in the city, with over 1000 visitors every day. The library, which used to be largely housed in Mirabell Palace, was moved to a new building in Lehen designed by the HALLE1 architects at the beginning of 2009 . It is divided into the main library, children's library, media library and mobile book bus departments. Since March 2009 it has also been possible to borrow digital media online.

The university library , which also includes the individual faculty and departmental libraries , is primarily an educational institution for students, academics, teachers and scientists, but it is also available to the public. The Mozarteum University also has its own extensive library.

Another publicly accessible specialist library is the Robert Jungk Library for Future Issues, founded in 1985 by Robert Jungk in Strubergasse. Book presentations, workshops and discussions are also organized here on a regular basis.

In addition, a number of privately run libraries that have restricted access usually consist, such as the library of the Mozarteum Foundation with a focus on Mozart research that Wilfried Haslauer- library (Political Science Library), the library in St. Peter or Max Reinhardt Library in Schloss Leopoldskron .


The Salzburger Nachrichten is one of the most important media in the city of Salzburg . Its main area of ​​distribution is in the city and state of Salzburg. In 2008 the newspaper had a print run of almost 100,000 copies.

The Salzburger Fenster (founded in 1979) and Stadt-Nachrichten (since April 2002) are free weekly newspapers.

The former Asfalter, now called Apropos , is a monthly street newspaper that is mainly written by professional journalists as part of a social project and sold by people in social need.

The news- illustrated Echo has been published monthly since 2005 and the city magazine Qwant, which is available free of charge and geared towards a younger audience, quarterly since 2017 .

The ORF State Studio Salzburg in Nonntal is a branch of the Austrian Broadcasting Corporation. The building, designed by Viennese architect Gustav Peichl in 1972 , is a listed building. The broadcasts of Ö2 and Radio Salzburg as well as the television news program Salzburg are recorded in the studio today . The supraregional broadcasting mast of ORF-Salzburg has stood on the summit of the Gaisberg since 1930. In addition, the second oldest private radio in Austria is broadcasting in Salzburg with Antenne Salzburg . In 1995 it began broadcasting at the exhibition center under the name Radio Melody.

The Radiofabrik - Freier Rundfunk Salzburg, founded in 1998, is the only radio community in Salzburg. The program is designed by volunteers. The Radiofabrik is also involved in Community TV FS1 , which has been broadcasting according to a similar concept since February 2012.

Also in 1998 the private radio Welle 1 went on air. The former regional broadcaster Salzburg TV, based outside the city, mainly dealt with overarching topics from the city and state of Salzburg, today the broadcaster can be received as Servus TV in Austria and Germany and via satellite. From the end of 2010 to the beginning of 2012, Salzburg Plus broadcasted. The current regional broadcaster is RTS - Regionalfernsehen Salzburg.

The news portal Salzburg24 has been online since November 27, 2007 and primarily reports on regional news from Salzburg, Upper Austria and Bavaria.


The appointment as an honorary citizen is the highest distinction that the city of Salzburg can award. Associated with it are all the rights of a Salzburg citizen without their obligations. Honorary citizenship was first awarded on May 6, 1829 to the landscape painter Johann Michael Sattler . After almost 100 years, the Kammersängerin Lilli Lehmann became the first woman to be made an honorary citizen of the city of Salzburg in 1920 .

In addition to the people already mentioned in the Culture chapter, Christian Doppler and Paracelsus are of particular importance to Salzburg:

Christian Doppler was born in 1803 as the son of a wealthy stonemason family in Makartplatz 1, right next to Mozart's house. In 1850 he was appointed to Vienna as a university professor for experimental physics, where he became the founder and head of the University's Physics Institute. Above all, he discovered the Doppler effect, which is widely used today . Doppler's discoveries form the basis of many scientific works, for example by Ernst Mach, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg. Doppler died of a lung disease while on convalescence leave in Venice in 1853.

Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim , known as Paracelsus , is buried at the Salzburg Sebastian Cemetery in Linzer Gasse. In 1524/25 he was  at home in the Kumpfmühlhaus at Pfeifergasse 11. Paracelsus, who had sympathized with the rebels in 1525, fled Salzburg hastily in the same year and did not return until 1540. He lived in the house at Platzl 3 and died there in 1541.


  • Josef Brettenthaler: Salzburg synchronicity . Salzburg 2005, ISBN 3-85380-055-6 .
  • Paul Buberl: The monuments of the judicial district Salzburg . tape 11 . Vienna 1916.
  • Bernd Euler: Salzburg city and country . Ed .: Dehio Salzburg. Vienna 1986, ISBN 3-7031-0599-2 .
  • Heinz Dopsch , Hans Spatzenegger : History of Salzburg . Salzburg 1984, ISBN 3-7025-0197-5 .
  • Heinz Dopsch, Robert Hoffmann : Salzburg. The whole history of the city . 2nd updated edition. Pustet, Salzburg / Vienna / Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7025-0598-1 .
  • Lieselotte Eltz-Hoffmann: The churches of Salzburg . Salzburg 1993, ISBN 3-7025-0308-0 .
  • Franz Fuhrmann: Salzburg in old views . Salzburg / Vienna 1963, ISBN 3-7017-0291-8 .
  • Adolf Haslinger , Peter Mittermayr: Salzburger Kulturlexikon . Residenzverlag, 2001, ISBN 3-7017-1129-1 .
  • Robert Messner: Salzburg in March . Ed .: Association of the Austrian Scientific Society. Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-85369-930-8 .
  • Bernhard Paumgartner : Salzburg . Salzburg 1966.
  • Historical atlas of the city of Salzburg . In: City of Salzburg (ed.): Series of publications from the archive of the city of Salzburg . No. 11 . Salzburg 1999.
  • Hans Sedlmayr : City without a landscape: Salzburg's fate tomorrow . Salzburg 1970, ISBN 3-7013-0445-9 .
  • Hans Tietze , Franz Martin : Austrian Art Topography Volume IX. The church monuments of the city of Salzburg . Vienna 1912.
  • Friederike Zaisberger : History of Salzburg . Vienna 1998, ISBN 3-7028-0354-8 .
  • Franz Valentin Zillner : History of the City of Salzburg . In: Special volumes of the messages of the Salzburg regional studies . Salzburg 1885, DNB  551619767 (new edition: 1985).
  • Gerhard Ammerer, Ingonda Hannesschläger, Jan Paul Niederkorn, Wolfgang Wüst (eds.): Courts and residences of clergy princes. Structures, regions and Salzburg's example in the Middle Ages and modern times ( Residency research. Volume 24). Ostfildern 2010, ISBN 978-3-7995-4527-3 .
  • Florian Stehrer: The structure that we want to call Greater Salzburg: The incorporation of the surrounding communities through the city of Salzburg. City Archives and Statistics of the City of Salzburg, Salzburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-900213-41-1 .


Due to its historical structure, Salzburg is ideal as a backdrop for film projects. The following list shows only a small selection of the more than 200 films made in Salzburg.

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Individual evidence

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This article was added to the list of excellent articles on April 13, 2009 in this version .