Gnigl ( district )
cadastral community Gnigl
|Pole. District , state||Salzburg (city) (S), Salzburg|
|Pole. local community||Salzburg|
|Area d. KG||149.9 ha (district)|
|Post Code||5023 Salzburg-Gnigl|
|prefix||+ 43/0662 (Salzburg)|
|Cadastral parish number||56513|
|Counting district / district||Gnigl / Langwied ; Sam / Kasern (50 101 48 [1–4]; 425)|
|Source: STAT : index of places ; BEV : GEONAM ; SAGIS|
The Gnigl district is located in the northeast of the city, about 3 kilometers from the city center, between the Kühberg , a foothill of the Gaisberg in the south, and the Heuberg in the north. The settlement area forms the valley entrance of the Alterbach into the Salzburg Pre-Alps , in the east the slopes of the Kühberg and the Heuberg approach ( bumpy curves of the Wolfgangseestrasse), then the Guggental leads towards Koppl. In the southeast, Neuhauserstraße and Anton-Graf-Straße form the age-old borderline against the Parsch district . In the north, the Alterbach , which flows into the Salzach in a large curve, borders the district towards Langwied and Sam . In the west, the Salzburg-Tyrolean railway line and the marshalling yard (shunting yard) now form the coherent border against Schallmoos .
A good 6,000 residents live in the Gnigl district with its 149.9 hectares.
The district includes:
- Obergnigl , the old village center and the locations towards Guggenthal
- Niedergnigl , the old locations on the two highways
- Neuhauserfeld , a young urban settlement below Obergnigl
- Gnigl Nord , a young residential and commercial area
Almost half of the Schallmoos district on the west side of the shunting station ( Schallmoos Ost ) , the lower part of the southern slope of the Heuberg and the steep northern slope of the Kühberg as well as the Schlossberg with the castle belong to the Gnigl cadastral community, whose boundaries can only be conclusively explained in a historical context Neuhaus .
- Neighboring districts, towns and cadastral communities
Heuberg (Stt., Salzburg and Ortsch.)
|Salzburg (Stt.)||Parsch (Stt.)||
Aigen (Salzburg) (Stt.)
Gnigl lies directly on the border of the Limestone Alps and the Rhenodanubian Flysch Zone : the Kühberg is Dachstein Limestone , plate limestone of the Norian Triassic, 230–210 million years (mya) old, the most northwestern corner of the occurrence that forms the northern Osterhorn Group . The Heuberg is formed near Gnigl from the Seisenburg formation , siltstone and claystone , clay marl of the lower Campanium of the Cretaceous (80, maybe 90 mya). The fault runs from Hammerau near Ainring and the Walser Berg over the Salzburg basin near Mönchsberg , through Guggental and on to the Wolfgangsee fault .
In the last great ice age, the Würm glacial period (around 100,000–20,000 years ago), the Salzach glacier split up - probably in the course of its decline - and a glacier tongue (Gnigler Lobus) excavated the Guggental eastward into the Thalgau where he came across the Dachstein glacier. In the course of the decline, an extensive glacier end lake formed in the Salzburg Basin , to which the streams from the moraine flowed here west and south-west. The Gnigler valley step was created by the post-glacial deepening by the Salzach and backwaters, and is covered by landslide material from the Gaisberg.
History of Gnigl
The name Gnigl comes from the Celtic word Glanicle . It means 'clear water' and is possibly an old name of the Alterbach, which flows through Gnigl. Gnigl was probably the site of a temple during the Roman settlement.
Neuhaus Castle was probably the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. Built in the 14th century, it has been the property of the prince-archbishopric and summer residence since the 14th century , and from 1508 the nursing court and later the regional court for the whole of the east as far as Eugendorf and origin . Gnigl became Hofmark .
In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, Gnigl was an important mill village, traffic junction, and also important for the city's water supply (water pipes from around 1485). In contrast to all other old city districts, Gnigl has two separate historical settlement centers: the old mill village Obergnigl on the old road to Ebensee in the Salzkammergut (Salz) and Eisenstraße in Styria (Grazer Bundesstraße, still an important file-cutting company in the 18th century ), with the Village church and the craft and smallholder village Niedergnigl (nowadays often referred to as Untergnigl) on the Linzer (federal) road towards Vienna.
After the Fürsterzbistums Salzburg came to Austria on the Enns , and creation of local congregations 1848/49 was Gnigl community, at the same time came Itzling as a village to Gnigl (temporarily double municipality Gnigl-Itzling ). Also Guggenthal belonged to the community.
The Mühlendorf experienced an unexpected economic boom with the construction of the railway line ( Giselabahn, Salzburg-Tiroler-Bahn ) after 1860, especially after the completion of the new marshalling yard in 1908. In
1881 the Gnigl volunteer fire brigade was founded.
In 1934 the municipality Gnigl / Itzling was the most populous municipality in the state of Salzburg after the city of Salzburg with over 10,000 inhabitants. The resulting strong increase in traffic led to the re-routing of the main road straight through the old Minnesheim Park , which in the 19th century was a much-visited sight with its picturesque miniature buildings. An early citizens' initiative could not prevent the construction of the new road, but achieved the permanent protection and thus the protection of the rest of the park area. From this time on, the young parts of Neuhauserfeld and Gnigl Nord also began to grow, especially after the Second World War, when there was a great housing shortage in Salzburg.
Gnigl was largely incorporated into the state capital in 1935, at the same time - after a vote - Guggenthal was connected to Koppl . Small outlying parts of Gnigl were incorporated into the municipality in 1939. The areas that formerly belonged to Gnigl, which came to be in the inner city of the Giselabahn in 1860, now belong to the Schallmoos Ost district .
Today Obergnigl has largely grown together with the city, but has retained a certain village character in the old core.
Transport and infrastructure
The main traffic axes are the B1 Wiener Strasse (here Linzer Bundesstrasse ) and the B158 Wolfgangsee Strasse (here Minnesheimstrasse - Grazer Bundesstrasse ), which branches off the B1 in Niedergnigl. In the south the Eichstrasse crosses the Salzburg-Tiroler-Bahn, there is no dedicated route to Parsch, more important are Ferdinand-Sauter-Strasse along the Salzburg-Tiroler-Bahn and Kühbergstrasse . The Bachstraße is the main route to the north .
Until December 2003 there was also a passenger train station (Bahnhof Gnigl) , which was replaced by a modern stop, Salzburg-Gnigl , under the Schwabenwirt bridge (Linzer Bundesstraße) as part of the local transport project S-Bahn Salzburg . When this stop was built, the sports facility of the 1. Salzburger SK had to give way. S3 trains stop at the S-Bahn station every 30 minutes. The travel time to the main station is 6 minutes. Gnigl can also be reached by trolleybus lines 2 (to Obergnigl), 4 (to Mayrwies) and 10 (to Sam), bus lines 23 (Hauptbahnhof - Sam - Obergnigl - Fadingerstraße / Parsch) and 151 (Mirabellplatz - Obergnigl - Gaisbergspitze). The train bus , regional bus routes to St. Gilgen (course 150) and via Eugendorf (Seekirchen - Obertrum 131, Neumarkt - Straßwalchen 130, Thalgau - Mondsee 140) also stop in the district.
Culture and sights
- Parish church of the Assumption of Mary and St. Michael , with cemetery and cemetery chapel : on the edge of the historic center of Obergnigl. The cemetery has Roman and Bavarian predecessors. The first church probably came from the Middle Ages (first documented in 1585), the current one from Prince Archbishop Firmian 1731–38, as a rococo-style church with an onion dome. Today's Gnigler Friedhof was laid out in 1699 and expanded several times. In the mortuary chapel in the cemetery there is an All Souls Scenic Altar, the finely inscribed skulls are kept in wooden boxes.
- Luggau Chapel Our Dear Lady on Schnoderbach , built in 1700 not far from the church.
- Neuhaus Castle is essentially the oldest surviving structure in Gnigl. The castle, located on a steep foothill of the Kühberg (the Neuhauserberg), was first mentioned in 1219 under Konrad von Neuhaus . The small fortress has been in the possession of the prince-archbishop since the early 14th century, and was expanded and strengthened by Archbishop Eberhard von Neuhaus in 1424. During the Thirty Years' War , the castle was a strong defensive facility to block the valley floor from the Kapuzinerberg. The castle was an important administrative and court seat after 1508 and again from around 1650 to 1697. After a lightning strike in 1795, the seat of the court was relocated to the meanwhile grown village of Obergnigl. In the 19th century, various historicizing elements were added, including the battlements of almost all components.
- Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron had Minnesheim Palace and the associated palace gardens (preserved parts: Minnesheim Park "Gniglerpark") built. The castle (today Grazer Bundesstrasse 22) has largely lost its previous character as a result of the extensive renovation in 1888. The part of Minnesheim Park that remained after the new road was built (former Johann-Nestroy-Straße) is now an English-style landscape garden. The earlier small-scale artistic design of the 18th century is hardly recognizable today. The bird house there has disappeared as well as the pleasure house, the Gothic chapel, the duck pond with the rabbit island, the Dutch Meierhaus and various monuments.
- The Gnigler schools . Gnigl has had its own "school owner" (teacher) since 1683. School lessons first took place in the Blümlhaus and later in the Pfarrerstöckl . In 1859 Gnigl received a new school building. After compulsory schooling had been introduced in 1869 and Gnigl also grew considerably in the course of the railway construction, there were soon major space problems in the Gnigler school. Individual classes were forced to move to the Thurnerwirt and a building on Eichstrasse next to the railway line. It was only in 1927/28 that today's spacious school building could be built.
- Andrä Blüml (1855 in Lochen – 1917 in Gnigl) landowner at Neuhauserhof in Gnigl and honorary citizen of the community; Andrä-Blüml-Strasse, which lies parallel to Eichstrasse, reminds of him
- Alexander Haidenthaller (February 9, 1868– February 24, 1945) was an honorary citizen of the Gnigl community and author of a 14-volume local history of Gnigl. Alexander-Haidenthaller-Straße in today's district commemorates him.
Sons and daughters:
- Eberhard Fugger (January 3, 1842 in Gnigl – August 21, 1919 in Salzburg ) Austrian natural scientist
- Albert Schwaiger (October 13, 1868 – May 1915) owner of the Gasthof Zur Plainbrücke , local councilor of Gnigl and founder of the villa colony there. Albert-Schwaiger-Strasse in today's Itzling district commemorates him.
- Matthäus Schiestl (born March 27, 1869 in Gnigl (Salzburg), † January 30, 1939 in Munich) painter and graphic artist.
- Helmut Vogl (* 1944 in Gnigl), caricaturist, actor and publisher
Persons with a relationship with Gnigl:
- Dora Hohlfeld (February 21, 1860 at Gut Niederbarkhausen near Oerlinghausen , Germany – February 11, 1931 in Salzburg), German writer, married to the academic portrait painter Bruno Hohlfeld (March 21, 1862 in Freiwaldau – January 18, 1917 in Salzburg)
- Sabine Veits-Falk, Thomas Weidenholzer, Martin Zehentner (book design): Gnigl, medieval mill village, community on the railway, Salzburg district . Gnigler district chronicle. Self-published by the community development association Gnigl-Langwied-Sam, Salzburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-900213-13-8 .
- 50101 - Salzburg. Community data, Statistics Austria .
- Gnigl . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
Austrian Geological Map , ÖGK200 sheet Salzburg and ÖGK50 sheet Salzburg (old), see also accompanying explanations and recording reports ;
detailed specific to the area: Siegmund Prey : 1960 report on geological recordings in the flysch portion of the map (1: 25,000) of Salzburg. Vienna 1961. In: Negotiations of the Federal Geological Institute 1960, Issue 3 (final issue), pp. A 54-55 ( pdf , geologie.ac.at, entire issue) - Plainberg – Hochgitzen – Söllheim area.
Siegmund Prey: Report 1961 on geological recordings in the flysch portion of the map (1: 25,000) of Salzburg. Vienna 1961. In: Negotiations of the Federal Geological Institute 1962, No. 3 (final booklet), Vienna 1962, pp. A 50-51 ( pdf , geologie.ac.at, entire booklet) - Hallwang, Hochgitzen and Muntigl, Lieferinger Hügel, Walser Berg .
- the occasional crossing of the Plainberg-Hochgitzen-Masse, and probably also the Heuberg, is proven on a glacier cut on the Nussdorf hill .
The marginal moraines are documented on Schwaighofenberg / Eugendorfer Berg , where he met again with the mighty Wallerseelobus
Johann Egger: Report 1992 on geological recordings in the Rhenodanubian Flysch Zone on sheet 64 Straßwalchen . In: Jahrbuch der Geologische Bundesanstalt , 136, Vienna, 1993, pp. 567-568 ( content ( memento of the original from July 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and Archive link according to instructions and then remove this note. , Geologie.ac.at); also Gustav Götzinger: Admission report by the chief geologist Prof. Dr. Gustav Götzinger on sheet Salzburg-Ost (4850) . In: Negotiations of the Federal Geological Institute 1937, Vienna 1937, pp. 37–41 ( content ( memento of the original dated August 30, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link accordingly Instructions and then remove this note. , Geologie.ac.at)
- Raphael Kleinsorg: Abriß der Geographie: For use in and outside schools. ... which contains the geography of Asia, Africa, America and Australia, along with an outline of the history and geography of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, and instructions on world and globe customers . tape 2 . Verlag Duyle, 1797, 2nd courts around the capital: 2) Nursing and regional court Neuhaus or Gnigl , p. 55 ( Google eBook, full view - complete edition p. 330).
- The separation of "Gnigl, divided into the upper and lower part" mentions Kleinsorg, for example: Abriß der Geographie . 1797, p. 55 (330) .
- The Grazer Bundesstraße used to go directly through Untergnigl, the beginning of this street is now a winding side street north parallel to Minnesheimstraße.
- Eichstraße through the village center Gnigl - Kühbergstraße below Schloss Neuhaus was the old overland path on the edge of the Mooswiesen to the village Parsch southwards, the lower Eichstraße was the sight-axis avenue of the castle towards the city center; the Parscher road is significant only in Neuhauser field, but was interrupted just after the Neuhauser road through a short section on dismantling bike path.
- Route network and area maps , Salzburger Verkehrsverbund , svv-info.at (various maps, pdf)
- see category: bus route . In: Salzburger Nachrichten: Salzburgwiki .
- Matthäus Schiestl at Wuerzburgwiki