In Rhineland-Palatinate, the status "Ortsgemeinde" (local community) stands for a legally independent community that belongs to an association community as an administrative unit. Cities can also belong to a municipality, but according to the Rhineland-Palatinate municipal code, they are not referred to as local municipalities, although they have no special rights within the municipality. However, they are often the seat and namesake of the respective association community.
Each local parish is legally independent and has a local parish council headed by a local mayor and its own budget. The local communities themselves decide on income, in particular the tax rates for trade tax and property tax, as well as their expenditure. Local communities, however, have no administration of their own, in contrast to municipalities that do not have an association. In accordance with the Rhineland-Palatinate municipal code, the municipality administration manages the administrative business of the local municipalities on their behalf and on their behalf. It is bound by the resolutions of the local councils and the decisions of the local and city mayors.
With the regulation made in Rhineland-Palatinate, it was possible to maintain the independence of the sometimes quite small communities during the community reform of the 1970s, and yet through the establishment of association communities, the local administration could be made more efficient and reorganized overall. In most other countries , many municipalities had to give up their independence during the municipal reform and became districts or municipalities or districts of larger municipalities.
Municipality in Switzerland
In Switzerland, the term has a different meaning depending on the canton :
- In the canton of Thurgau , the local community of the late 19th and 20th centuries, the smallest territorial unit, formed the basis of the Thurgau community . As part of the community dualism of the political community , which existed from 1799, several local communities were usually included in one municipal community . The local community emerged as local residents 'communities from the old local citizens' communities, but then became civil communities as a public corporation that was responsible, among other things, for wells, roads and the fire brigade, and from 1944 to 2000 had citizenship . With the abolition of communal dualism by 2000 required by the cantonal constitution in 1987, local and municipal congregations became part of the political community.
See also: Former municipality organization of the Canton of Thurgau
- In the canton of St. Gallen , the local parishes correspond to the local citizens' parishes in other cantons, whereby a political municipality can comprise several local parishes . In some regions there are also corporations or Rhodes .
- In the canton of Glarus , the political municipality was referred to as "local parish" until the end of 2010.
"As far as parishes are mentioned in the following articles, the local parishes are to be understood."
The term comes from the time of the reforms of 1848/1849 , when independent communities were constituted for the first time. The term local community was created at that time on the one hand to distinguish it from the district and district communities that were considered but not introduced at the time, and on the other hand to differentiate from the tax or cadastral communities .
Occasionally the term Ortsgemeinde is used as opposed to Markt- und Stadtgemeinde . However, it is clearer to speak of the mere local parish in this context , since market and town parishes are also local parishes in the sense of the Federal Constitution.
- Municipality (Germany)
- Municipality (Austria)
- Municipality (Switzerland)
- Cadastral parish
- Municipal code of Rhineland-Palatinate (GemO) in the version dated January 31, 1994
- Municipal code of Rhineland-Palatinate including administrative regulations. Rhineland-Palatinate municipal breviary, accessed on April 18, 2020 .
André Salathé: Local parish. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
This section is based on the entry in the Historical Lexicon of Switzerland (HLS), which, according to the HLS's usage information, is under the license Creative Commons - Attribution - Share under the same conditions 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0).
- Municipal administration TG. On the website of the Kreuzlingen school, accessed on November 13, 2019
- Constitution of the Canton of St.Gallen (KV) of June 10, 2001. On the website of the canton of St. Gallen.
- Wilhelm Rausch: Area and name changes of the municipalities of Austria. (= Research on the history of cities and markets in Austria, Volume 2). Linz, 1989. p. 5.