Revolution of 1848/1849 in the Austrian Empire
The revolution of 1848/1849 in Austria was part of the bourgeois- democratically motivated revolutions of 1848/1849 , which covered a large part of Central Europe. After the February Revolution in France in 1848 , the spirit of the revolution quickly spread to the Austrian Empire with its crown lands . The multi-ethnic state of Austria was threatened by violent uprisings in the capital Vienna and by revolutionary unrest in the countries under his rule. These included the uprisings in the Kingdom of Bohemia , in the Kingdom of Hungary and in the Upper Italian Kingdom of Lombardy-Veneto , where the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont came to the aid of the revolutionaries. In all of these regions, as in the states of the German Confederation , the rebels aimed at a liberal and democratic change in government policy and the end of the restoration . The Hungarian, Bohemian and Italian uprisings also aimed at the emancipation of the respective ethnic groups within the Habsburg dominion.
All the uprisings that took place in three waves were bloodily suppressed and remained without result apart from one change of throne.
In the famine winter of 1847/1848, economic hardship hit the already disadvantaged population groups hardest. In the working class, too, anger against the traditional political system was on the verge of overflowing. Works like Alfred Meißner's Neue Sklaven or Karl Beck's poem Why we are poor give a vivid picture of the anger and despair that prevailed among the population.
Finally, on March 13, 1848, the revolution broke out in Austria. The storming of the Ständehaus was followed by attacks by social revolutionaries against shops and factories in the Vienna suburbs. The song What comes from there from the height , where the "height" referred to the police and the barracks, became the song of the revolution. It is still sung today by various student associations to commemorate the participation of the Academic Legion .
Before the storming of the Ständehaus, a speech written by the Hungarian nationalist leader Lajos Kossuth on March 3, 1848, expressed displeasure against the political system and the demands of the revolutionaries for a constitutional transformation of the monarchy and for constitutions for the Austrian states. This speech was read out by Adolf Fischhof at the meeting of the estates . The attempt to deliver a petition to Emperor Ferdinand turned into a real demonstration; the order to fire from Archduke Albrecht claimed the first deaths. On the night of March 14, 1848, looting and arson broke out in the suburbs and suburbs, against which the civilian military intervened with force of arms. There were a total of 46 dead, of which, according to contemporary reports, 23 were victims of military operations against the political movement that began on March 13.
On the evening of March 13, 1848, the now 74-year-old State Chancellor, Prince Metternich , the hated symbolic figure of the Restoration , resigned and fled to England . This event was thematized , for example, by Hermann Rollett's poem Metternich's Linde .
On March 15, 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I made the first concessions. He promised the abolition of censorship and a state constitution . A provisional state government formed on March 21, 1848 then drafted the Pillersdorf constitution , albeit without the participation of a representative body . This imposed constitution was presented at the end of April 1848 and again led to popular protests, which culminated in the second Viennese uprising. In response to revolutionary pressure, the March constitution was withdrawn on May 15, 1848. The overburdened and weak emperor escaped the growing unrest on May 17, 1848 by fleeing to Innsbruck .
On July 22, 1848, the constituent Austrian Reichstag with 383 delegates from Austria and the Slavic Crown Lands was opened by Archduke Johann in the Winter Riding School . Among other things, the peasants' exemption from inheritance was decided there at the beginning of September . The gratitude among the farmers is documented, for example, in the “new song from the all-venerated Emperor Ferdinand” (1848).
As a result of the events in Hungary that began on September 12, 1848, when the Hungarian uprising, led by Lajos Kossuth , culminated in a military conflict against the imperial troops, and came after the murder of the Austrian Minister of War Theodor Graf Baillet von Latour on October 6, 1848 it in Vienna for the third phase of the Austrian revolution.
The Vienna October Uprising of 1848 , often also called the “Vienna October Revolution”, was the last uprising of the Austrian Revolution of 1848. When Imperial Austrian troops were to march from Vienna against the rebellious Hungary on October 6, 1848 , the Viennese workers who sympathized with the Hungarians tried to Students and mutinous troops prevent the march. Street fights broke out, and blood was shed even in St. Stephen's Cathedral ; War Minister Count Theodor von Latour was lynched by the crowd . The court fled to Olomouc with Emperor Ferdinand on October 7 , the Reichstag was relocated to Kremsier on October 22 . The farm was saved by the first Austrian train driver, Carl Grundmann , who later founded the monarchy's largest locking goods factory in Herzogenburg, financed with the rewards received. In the course of the fighting, the Viennese citizens, students and workers succeeded in taking control of the capital after the government troops had fled.
But the revolutionaries could only hold out for a short time. On October 23, Vienna was surrounded by counterrevolutionary troops, who had advanced from Croatia (under the Banus Joseph Jellačić ) and from Bohemian Prague (under Field Marshal Alfred Fürst zu Windischgrätz ). On October 26, the Austrian and Croatian military began bombarding Vienna. After a week, Vienna was retaken by the imperial troops against the fierce but hopeless resistance of the Viennese population and the inner city was stormed on October 31.
Around 2,000 insurgents had fallen. Other leaders of the Vienna October Revolution fell victim to the bloody revenge of the military that followed. Many were sentenced to death or long prison terms. Among them were Wenzel Messenhauser , an important leader of the rebels, the journalists Alfred Julius Becher and Hermann Jellinek , all of whom were executed in the following days.
Among the victims who were legally shot was the popular member of the Frankfurt National Assembly , Robert Blum , who was assigned to the left wing of the Liberals , who was executed on November 9, 1848 despite his parliamentary immunity and thus became a martyr of the revolution. His death underscores the powerlessness of the Frankfurt National Assembly and makes him a symbol of the failed March Revolution . For the young labor movement in Germany, he becomes one of its key figures. Blum's fate is described in numerous literary works, such as the Robert Blum song or the song by Robert Blum by Ludwig Pfau , 1849, but these were mainly sung in Germany.
On December 2, 1848 there was a change of throne in Austria . The revolutionary events had made Emperor Ferdinand I's weak leadership clear. On the initiative of Field Marshal Lieutenant Prince Felix zu Schwarzenberg thanked Ferdinand departed, leaving the throne to his 18-year-old nephew Joseph, the emperor named Franz Joseph I accepted. With this name he leaned consciously on his great-great-uncle Joseph II (1741–1790), whose politics had stood for reform . Franz Joseph I was crowned on the spot in Olomouc.
The revolution in Austria was thus suppressed. The constitution drawn up in March never came into force. However, the events in Hungary and Italy initially remained an obstacle for Franz Joseph I to assert his claim to power in the entire Habsburg Empire.
From a cultural point of view, the year 1848 was marked by the brief lifting of press censorship by Ferdinand I on March 15, 1848. As a result, a large number of works were published, magazines shot up and disappeared, and the writing culture changed fundamentally. Friedrich Gerhards The press free! , MG Saphirs Der tote Zensor , the Zensorlied or Ferdinand Sauter's Secret Police give a picture of the spirit of optimism. There was also sharp criticism of the existing system. Examples of this can be found in Johann Nestroys Freiheit in Krähwinkel , The Old Man with the Young Woman , Sketches on Hell Fear , Lady and Tailor or Die Liebe Anverwandten (1848), political poems by Anastasius Grün and writings by Franz Grillparzer ( Dem Vaterlande , thoughts on Politics ).
Italian provinces and states
In the 19th century, after the military termination of Napoleonic hegemony in Europe and also in the Italian principalities, Italy consisted of various individual states. The northern Italian regions ( Lombardy, Veneto , Tuscany and Modena ) were under Austrian sovereignty. The Risorgimento uprisings ("resurrection"), which sought a unified Italian state and thus also directed against Austrian rule in northern Italy , had already begun in the 1820s. From the underground, the groups around the radical democratic national revolutionaries Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi were particularly active in the 1830s, when they initiated several uprisings in various regions of Italy in the wake of the French July Revolution, but all of them failed.
They also played an important role in the revolutionary movements in Italy during the March Revolution. Mazzini's theses of a united, free Italy in a Europe of peoples liberated from monarchical dynasties , which were published in the forbidden newspaper Giovine Italia (" Young Italy "), not only influenced the revolutions in the Italian states, but also influenced them the radical democratic currents in many other regions of Europe.
The revolutionary events of 1848 found a strong echo not only in northern Italy, but also in other Italian provinces. Revolts by Italian freedom fighters began in January 1848 in Sicily , Milan , Brescia and Padua against the predominance of the Bourbons in the south and that of the Austrians in the north and spread to Venice and Milan on March 17, 1848 . In Milan the revolutionaries declared the independence of Lombardy from Austria and demanded the connection to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont . In Milan the popular uprising (five days from March 18-22, 1848, hence the Italian name Cinque giornate (di Milano) ) assumed such serious proportions that the Austrian troops under Josef Wenzel Radetzky moved into the fortress quadrangle Mantua - Peschiera del Garda - Verona - Legnago had to withdraw to wait for reinforcements from Austria. This situation eventually led to the First Italian War of Independence .
King Karl Albert of Sardinia , who had already enacted a representative constitution based on France on March 4, 1848, with which he introduced a constitutional monarchy , wanted to use the revolutionary mood to unite Italy under his leadership. After Karl Albert's initial successes, however, on July 25, 1848, at the Battle of Custozza near Lake Garda, the king's troops were defeated by the Austrians under Field Marshal Radetzky. In the armistice of August 9, Lombardy was ceded to Austria, which then reoccupied the country. Only Venice remained unoccupied for the time being. It had declared itself independent on March 23, 1848 and proclaimed a republic under the leadership of Daniele Manin .
A coup by insurgents in February 1849 against Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg in Tuscany led to another war. This was again decided in favor of the Imperial Austrians under Radetzky in their victory on March 23, 1849 in the battle of Novara against the 100,000-strong army of Sardinia. This crushed the Italian movement for unification for the time being and essentially restored Austrian supremacy in northern Italy. King Karl Albert of Sardinia abdicated in favor of his son Victor Emmanuel II and went into exile in Portugal . The new king signed a peace treaty with Austria on August 6th in Milan .
As the last bastion of the northern Italian uprisings of 1848/49, the revolutionary republic of Venice was put down on August 24, 1849. Radetzky received the post of general, civil and military governor of Lombardy-Veneto from the emperor .
In many non-Austrian areas of Italy, for example in the Kingdom of Naples-Sicily (also called the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ), revolts and revolutionary unrest had broken out since January 1848, whereupon King Ferdinand II of Naples-Sicily issued a constitution.
In the Papal States fled Pope Pius IX. because of the unrest in November 1848 from Rome and settled in Gaeta . On February 9, 1849, the Roman revolutionaries under Giuseppe Mazzini proclaimed a republic in the Papal States. On July 3, 1849, the Roman Revolution was suppressed by French troops, which had partly led to protests in France itself (e.g. in Lyon ). After the suppression of the Rome uprising, power was taken over by an executive committee made up of cardinals. The Pope did not return until 1850 and restored the old conditions.
The Whitsun uprising in Prague in June 1848 was accompanied by a Slavic Congress that took place in Prague from June 2nd to 12th and in which the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin was the only Russian to take part alongside the Poznan Poles and Slavic Austrians . At the congress, the conversion of the Danube monarchy into a union of peoples with equal rights was called for. Czech revolutionaries then began the Pentecostal uprising against Austrian rule. The uprising was put down on June 16, 1848 by Austrian troops under Alfred Fürst von Windischgrätz .
Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania and Serbia
On March 15, the news of the revolution in Paris and Vienna finally led to the revolution - starting from Pest - also spreading to Hungary. Some educated citizens and intellectuals called for the lifting of censorship, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and freedom of religion. In addition, the abolition of noble privileges, the abolition of serfdom and land distribution to the peasants were demanded. The existing assembly of estates based in Pressburg was to be converted into a modern parliamentary representation and an independent government to be set up in Hungary. Ferdinand was to remain king. These reform approaches were confirmed by Ferdinand as March and April laws of April 11, 1848.
After revolts by the common people, the Magyars waged wars against the non-Magyars in their kingdom; against the Serbs (since June 1848), then also against the Croats , Romanians , Slovaks , Russians , Transylvanian Saxons and against imperial troops, which led to the emperor dissolving the Hungarian parliament at the end of September and declaring a state of war in Hungary. An imperial army led by Josip Jelačić was marched towards Pest at the end of September 1848.
On September 12, 1848, Lajos Kossuth , until then Minister of Finance and Chairman of the Defense Committee, replaced the liberal Prime Minister Lajos Batthyány . As a result of the revolutionary events in Austria, the Austrian Emperor Ferdinand I was denied recognition as King of Hungary .
At the end of 1848 imperial troops launched an attack against Hungary via Upper Hungary (today's Slovakia ) and occupied Pest on January 5, 1849. On March 7th, the Austrian Emperor dissolved the liberal Austrian Reichstag and issued a new constitution, the so-called October Constitution . In the Kingdom of Hungary , the Hungarian constitution was abolished and Croatia-Slavonia , Transylvania , the military border , the voivodeship of Serbia and the Temesian Banat were separated from Hungary. The various minorities living in Hungary were not assigned their own administrative units.
The enforcement of an imperial constitution eventually led to the independence uprising. The imperial army under Alfred Fürst zu Windischgrätz had to withdraw on April 10, 1849 from the revolutionary army reinforced with Polish legions .
Among other things, these created a largely autonomous Magyar nation-state in which many (but not all) peasants were liberated (abolition of bondage ) and Hungarian was the only official language. Since no one was satisfied with the "unfinished" liberalization, Vienna was outraged by the Hungarians' aspirations for independence and the concerns of the non-Magyars were ignored, a civil war was inevitable.
On April 14, 1849, the Hungarian Diet declared its independence from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen and proclaimed the Republic . Kossuth was then declared the Hungarian imperial administrator . As such, he had dictatorial powers.
Since Hungarian independence was not recognized internationally, Russian and Croatian troops assisted the Austrian army at the request of the Austrian emperor . A major Austro-Russian offensive against the Magyars began from the north and west in mid-June. The Croatian Joseph Jelačić and the Russian Paskewitsch acted as important generals at that time . On August 13th the Magyars surrendered after the battle of Segesvár ( Schäßburg ). The revolution in the Hungarian part of the monarchy was practically over. On October 3, 1849 , the last Hungarian units surrendered in the Komárom fortress . In the days and weeks that followed, over a hundred leaders of the Hungarian uprising were executed in Arad (see also Martyrs of Arad ). On October 6, 1849, the first anniversary of the October Uprising in Vienna, the former Prime Minister Batthyány was also executed in Pest.
Lajos Kossuth, the politically most important representative of the Hungarian freedom movement , was able to go into exile in August 1849 . Until his death in Turin in 1894 , he campaigned for the independence of Hungary.
The revolution of 1848/1849 brought the peasants' liberation in Hungary, a formal equality of all citizens before the law and the economic implementation of capitalism in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Slovak uprising from September 1848 to November 1849 is the name of three Slovak armed campaigns against the Magyars as part of the 1848 revolution.
In Austria itself, most of the achievements of the March Revolution were lost and the country entered the phase of neo-absolutism . In various drafts of the constitution, beginning with the Pillersdorf constitution of 1848 , which existed for only three weeks, and the October constitution of 1849, which was repealed by the New Year's Eve patent of 1851 and partially re-confirmed by the October diploma of 1860, the formal equality of all citizens was established before Law recorded.
Texts on the revolution
Contemporary portrayals allow the spirit of the revolution to resurrect particularly easily and offer an insight into the motivations and processes during this time of upheaval.
Robert Blum (letters)
On October 17th, when he arrived in Vienna, Blum wrote to his wife:
- Vienna is splendid, wonderful, the loveliest city I have ever seen; revolutionary in flesh and blood. The people are driving the revolution leisurely but thoroughly. The defense institutions are terrible, the desire to fight boundless. Everything competes in sacrifice, effort and heroism. If Vienna does not win, the mood will only leave a heap of rubble and corpses, under which I would be buried with joyful pride.
Even after his arrest, he remains calm and composed and writes:
- ... I am being held back here involuntarily. Do not think anything terrible, however, we are treated very well. The large number of those arrested alone can probably postpone the decision a little. ...
After his conviction, he wrote her a last letter on November 9, 1848:
- My dear, good, dear wife, farewell, well for the time that is called eternal, but which it will not be. Educate our - now your children - to be noble people, then they will never disgrace their father. Sell our small fortune with the help of our friends. God and good people will help you. Everything I feel runs away in tears, so again: goodbye, dear woman!
- Regard our children as a dear legacy to grow with, and honor your faithful husband. Goodbye, goodbye! A thousand, a thousand, the last kisses from your Robert. In the morning 5 o'clock, at 6 o'clock I finished. I've forgotten the rings, I'll put the last kiss on your wedding ring. My signet ring is for Hans, the watch for Richard, the diamond button for Ida, the necklace for Alfred as a souvenir. You distribute all other souvenirs at your discretion. One comes! Goodbye, goodbye!
Meanwhile, there was confusion and perplexity in Vienna. After the victory, the bourgeoisie fell back on its old distrust of the “anarchic” working class. The workers, who had just as little forgotten the treatment they had received from the armed shopkeepers six weeks earlier and the unsteady, wavering politics of the bourgeoisie in general, did not want to entrust the defense of the city to them and demanded weapons and their own military organization. The Academic Legion, eager to fight imperial despotism, was utterly incapable of understanding the deeper meaning of the alienation between the two classes or otherwise understanding the needs of the situation. Confusion reigned in the minds of the people, confusion in the ruling circles. The rest of the Reichstag - German deputies and a few Slavs who, with the exception of a few revolutionary Polish MPs, were doing informal services for their friends in Olomouc - met permanently; but instead of taking a firm stance, they wasted all their time in useless debates about the possibility of resistance to the imperial army without going beyond the limits of constitutional forms. The security committee, made up of representatives from almost all organizations of the people of Vienna, was determined to resist, but was under the rule of a majority of stake citizens and petty shopkeepers, who never let it come to resolute, active action. The Academic Legion Committee made heroic decisions but was utterly unable to take the lead. The workers, viewed with suspicion, without weapons, without organization, barely escaped the mental servitude of the old regime, only just awakening, not to consciousness, but to the purely instinctive grasp of their social situation and the resulting political attitude, could only make themselves out loud Making demonstrations heard; they could not be expected to master the difficulties of the moment. But they were ready - as everywhere in Germany during the revolution - to fight to the utmost as soon as they were given arms.
That was how things were in Vienna. Outside the reorganized Austrian army, intoxicated by Radetzky's victories in Italy, sixty to seventy thousand men, well armed, well organized, and if the leadership wasn't good, it was at least provided with leaders. Inside confusion, class division, disorganization; a national guard, part of which was determined not to fight at all, while another part had not come to a decision and only the smallest part was ready to act; a proletarian mass, large in number but without a leader, without any political training, as easily inclined to panic as to almost unfounded outbursts of anger, the prey of every false rumor that was spread, quite ready to fight, but without weapons, at least at the beginning and even later, when they were finally led to battle, only incompletely armed and hardly organized at all; a helpless Reichstag that was still discussing theoretical hair-splitting when the roof was almost on fire; a governing committee with no inner drive or energy. Everything had changed since the days of March and May, when the counterrevolutionary camp was in complete confusion and there was only one organized power: that created by the revolution. There could be little doubt as to the outcome of such a struggle, and if there was, it was resolved by the events of October 30th and 31st and November 1st.
Selection of personalities of the revolution
Last names in alphabetical order
Michail Bakunin , Friedrich Daniel Bassermann , Alfred Julius Becher , Louis Blanc , Robert Blum , Hermann Theodor Breithaupt , Lorenz Brentano , Karl Friedrich Christian Ludwig Freiherr Drais von Sauerbronn , Friedrich Engels , Heinrich von Gagern , Giuseppe Garibaldi , Georg Gottfried Gervinus , Friedrich Hassaurek , Friedrich Hecker , Georg Herwegh and Emma Herwegh , Gottfried Kinkel and Johanna Kinkel , Lajos Kossuth , Hans Kudlich , Ferdinand Lassalle , Wilhelm Liebknecht , Giuseppe Mazzini , Ludwik Mieroslawski , Carl Mittermaier , Karoline von Perin , Ludwig Pfau , Franz Raveaux , Carl Schurz , Franz Sigel , Eduard Simson , Valentin Streuber , Gustav Struve and Amalie Struve
In 1929 and 1930, numerous streets in Vienna- Penzing were named after those who died in the revolution in Vienna. They are:
- Donhartgasse, after Lorenz Donhart (1815–1848), day laborer
- Drewitzweg, after Josef Drewitz (1816–1848)
- Erbacherweg, after Ferdinand Erbacher (1829–1848), bricklayer
- Etschnerweg, after Josef Etschner (1821–1848), carpenter
- Gusterergasse, after Josef Gusterer (1819–1848), day laborer
- Herschmannweg, after Bernhard Herschmann (1823–1848), Weber
- Kiesgasse, after Jakob Kies (1821–1848), journeyman brewer
- Kohlesgasse, after Johann Kohles (1814–1848)
- Koniczekweg, after Karl Koniczek (1830–1848), student
- Köppelweg, after Alois Köppel (1818–1848), assistant wood turner
- Labersteig, after Ignaz Laber (1821–1848), day laborer
- Lebingergasse, after Michael Lebinger (1832–1848), carpenter
- Öppingerweg, after Josef Öppinger (1806–1848), shoemaker
- Paraselgasse, after Jakob Parasel (1812–1848), journeyman bricklayer
- Reiningerweg, after Franz Reininger (1829–1848), journeyman binder
- Sambeckgasse, after Franz Sambeck (1809–1848), carpenter
- Schamborgasse, after Margarete Schambor (1818–1848), laundress, and Rosina Schambor (1822–1848), maid
- Scherfweg, after Josef Scherf (1810–1848), carpenter
- Schmalerweg, after Josef Schmaler (1800–1848)
- Staargasse, after Franz Staar (1821–1848), carpenter
- Stauffergasse, after Alois Stauffer (1812–1848), caretaker
- Striagasse, after Matthias Stria (1818–1848)
- Underreingasse, after Ignaz Underrein (1805–1848), carpenter
- Wawragasse, after Vinzenz Wawra (1834–1848), weaving apprentice
- Wittmannweg, after Johann Wittmann (1814–1848), shoemaker
- Zettelweg, after Wolfgang Zettel (1824–1848), journeyman butcher
In general we recall the March Revolution and its victims:
- March Street
- Forty-eight square
In Vienna- Landstrasse :
- Messenhausergasse, after Caesar Wenzel Messenhauser (1813–1848)
March Revolution in the narrower sense:
- Baden Revolution , Charte Waldeck , May uprising in Dresden , February Revolution in 1848 , forty-eighters , Hecker Uprising , emperor deputation , Neue Rheinische Zeitung , Paulskirchenverfassung , Palatine Uprising , Rump , Pre-Parliament ,
March Revolution in the broader sense and other contexts:
- History of Germany (with a summary of the March Revolution), Industrial Revolution , Liberalism , Restoration (history) , Congress of Vienna
- Fire! , Austrian television film by Reinhard Schwabenitzky (1979)
- Dieter Dowe , Heinz-Gerhard Haupt , Dieter Langewiesche (eds.): Europe 1848. Revolution and Reform , Verlag JHW Dietz successor, Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-8012-4086-X
- Robert Endres: Revolution in Austria 1848 , Danubia-Verlag, Vienna, 1947
- Friedrich Engels : Revolution and counterrevolution in Germany , first publication: New York Daily Tribune, 1851/52; Reprint: Dietz Verlag, Berlin, 1988 in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Works , Volume 8, unabridged on the Internet at 
- Peter Enne: A document of the fear of death - Latour's offer of resignation from October 6, 1848 , in: Viribus Unitis , Annual Report 2010 of the Army History Museum. Vienna 2011, pp. 92–99, ISBN 978-3-902551-19-1
- Ernst Fischer , Austria 1848 , Stern Verlag, Vienna, 1946
- Sabine Freitag (Ed.): The 48-er. Pictures of life from the German revolution 1848/49 , Verlag CH Beck, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-42770-7
- Alfred Georg Frey, Kurt Hochstuhl: Pioneers of Democracy. The Baden Revolution 1848/49. The dream of freedom , G. Braun Verlag, Karlsruhe 1997
- Rüdiger Hachtmann : Berlin 1848. A political and social history of the revolution , Verlag JHW Dietz successor, Bonn 1997, ISBN 3-8012-4083-5
- Klaus Herdepe : The Prussian Constitutional Question 1848 , (= Deutsche Universitätsedition Vol. 22) ars et unitas: Neuried 2003, 454 p., ISBN 3-936117-22-5
- Wolfgang von Hippel : Revolution in the German Southwest. The Grand Duchy of Baden 1848/49 , (= writings on political regional studies of Baden-Württemberg, Vol. 26), Verlag Kohlhammer: Stuttgart 1998 (can also be obtained free of charge from the State Center for Political Education Baden-Württemberg), ISBN 3-17-014039-6
- Hans Jessen (Ed.): The German Revolution 1848/49 in eyewitness reports , Karl Rauch Verlag, Düsseldorf 1968
- Günter Mick : The Paulskirche. Arguing for Law and Justice , Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997
- Wolfgang J. Mommsen : 1848 - The unwanted revolution ; Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt / Main 2000, 334 pages, ISBN 3-596-13899-X
- Thomas Nipperdey: German History 1800–1866. Citizens' world and strong state , Verlag CH Beck, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-406-09354-X
- Adolf Pichler : From the March and October days in Vienna 1848. Innsbruck 1850, online - Internet Archive
- Otto Rühle : 1848 - Revolution in Germany ISBN 3-928300-85-7
- Wolfram Siemann : The German Revolution of 1848/49 , (= Neue Historische Bibliothek Bd. 266), Suhrkamp Verlag: Frankfurt am Main 1985, ISBN 3-518-11266-X
- Ulrich Speck: 1848. Chronicle of a German Revolution , Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig 1998, ISBN 3-458-33914-0
- Veit Valentin : History of the German Revolution 1848–1849 , 2 volumes, Beltz Quadriga Verlag, Weinheim and Berlin 1998 (reprint), ISBN 3-88679-301-X
- Heinz Rieder: The peoples are ringing storm - The European Revolution 1848/49 , Casimir Catz Verlag, Gernsbach 1997, ISBN 3-925825-45-2
- 1848: revolution. Extract from: turning points and continuities. Caesuras in the democratic development in Austrian history. Published by the Forum Political Education, Innsbruck, Vienna, 1998. Special volume of information on political education. (PDF file; 1.1 MB)
- Revolution of 1848. Information on political education , issue 265, 2010.
- Entry on the revolution of 1848/1849 in the Austrian Empire in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- List of literature and sources on the March Revolution and additional links from Heidelberg University
- Friedrich Engels : Revolution and counterrevolution in Germany. Part XI: The October Uprising in Vienna.
- Moritz Smets: The year 1848. History of the Viennese Revolution . tape 2 . R. v. Waldheim, Vienna 1872, p. 19th f .
- Robert Blum - Lied (Volksweise 1848, eLibrary Austria, eLib full text)
- Friedrich Gerhard at DNB
- not to be confused with the Slovak National Uprising in 1944